New forms of self-                                              employment in Russia:                                     ...
Self-Employment in the New Economy• Service sector• Knowledge-intensive and Creative industries• Remote work or Telework (...
E-lance economy“The fundamental unit of such an economy is not the corporationbut the individual. Tasks aren’t assigned an...
Online Marketplaces for Freelancers                           Year of     Working   Registered       Name                 ...
New phenomenon for Russia• Self-employment in the USSR was illegal• Information and Communication  Technology (ICT) lag   ...
Self-employment in Russia             Type           Russia   EU   Own account workers                             5.8    ...
Online Marketplaces for Freelancers          Name                  Russia             UK      USAInternet penetration rate...
Free-lance.Ru: Registered Users Growth                                    1000                                     900Amou...
Data Overview1. Second Russian Freelance Survey (2011, March), N = 10,943    •   Future freelancers (2,925)    •   Active ...
Questionnaire: about 50 questions  •   Demographic and professional profile  •   Work values and motivation  •   Employmen...
Gender%   70               60                                    59    60                                                 ...
Age    45                                                                               42%    40    35                   ...
Education%    70                                                                   64                                     ...
Employment Status                    Employees                Students                     (41%)                    (14%) ...
Skills                             Websites                                       29              Computer programming    ...
Work Values       Which aspects do you personally think are important in a job?                                           ...
Working Hours                     0%        20%   40%       60%        80%          100%                                  ...
Earnings (average monthly post-tax personal income in USD)                     0%          20%         40%        60%     ...
Satisfaction   All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?                       0%  ...
Conclusion: Electronic Freelancers in Russia •   Young individuals with a higher enterprising spirit and human     capital...
BE FREE !    Contact us: strebkov@hse.ru shevchuk@hse.ru                   21
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English (hse conf) fin

  1. 1. New forms of self- employment in Russia: Remote work patterns and E-markets XIII April international Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development (April 5, 2012)This study was carried out within “The National Research University Higher School of Economics’ Academic Fund Program in 2010-2012, research grant No. 10-01-0129.
  2. 2. Self-Employment in the New Economy• Service sector• Knowledge-intensive and Creative industries• Remote work or Telework (using ICT)• Global E-markets 2
  3. 3. E-lance economy“The fundamental unit of such an economy is not the corporationbut the individual. Tasks aren’t assigned and controlled througha stable chain of management but rather are carried outautonomously by independent contractors.These electronically connected freelancers – e-lancers –join together into fluid and temporary networks to produceand sell goods and services. When the job is done – after a day,a month, a year – the network dissolves, and its members becomeindependent agents again, circulating through theeconomy, seeking the next assignment”.Thomas W. Malone and Robert J. LaubacherThe Dawn of the E-Lance Economy (1998) 3
  4. 4. Online Marketplaces for Freelancers Year of Working Registered Name foundation language users Freelancer.com 2004 Eng. 3,000,000 oDesk.com 2003 Eng. 2,000,000 Elance.com 1999 Eng. 1,300,000 Guru.com 2000 Eng. 1,000,000 Free-lance.ru 2005 Rus. 1,000,000 vWorker.com 2001 Eng. 500,000 4
  5. 5. New phenomenon for Russia• Self-employment in the USSR was illegal• Information and Communication Technology (ICT) lag 5
  6. 6. Self-employment in Russia Type Russia EU Own account workers 5.8 10.5 (without employees) All self-employed (including employers 7.3 16.9 and contributing family workers) Source: ILO 6
  7. 7. Online Marketplaces for Freelancers Name Russia UK USAInternet penetration rate 43 % 84 % 78 % (% of population) Use the Internet for their work 23 % 77 % 62 % (% of the labor force)Source: FOM, RLMS-HSE, E-skills.com, Pew Research Center 7
  8. 8. Free-lance.Ru: Registered Users Growth 1000 900Amount of users (in thousands) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 01.01.05 01.01.06 01.01.07 01.01.08 01.01.09 01.01.10 01.01.11 01.01.12 8
  9. 9. Data Overview1. Second Russian Freelance Survey (2011, March), N = 10,943 • Future freelancers (2,925) • Active freelancers (7,179) (from Russia – 4,474) • Former freelancers (839)2. Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – HSE (2010, Oct), N = 21,343 • Russian working population (10,145) 47.5% of general population • Russian employees using the Internet for their work (2,017) 9.5% of general population 19.9% of Russian working population 9
  10. 10. Questionnaire: about 50 questions • Demographic and professional profile • Work values and motivation • Employment strategies • Relationships with clients • Satisfaction • Income and well-being • Self-management • Work-life balance 10
  11. 11. Gender% 70 60 59 60 53 50 47 41 40 40 30 20 10 0 Male Female Freelancers Employees using the Internet Working population
  12. 12. Age 45 42% 40 35 28 30 30 28 26 25 22 19 19 20 17 15 12 13 12 11 10 9 10 5 0 18-22 23-26 27-30 31-40 41 years + Freelancers Employees using the Internet Working populationMean: 28.5 35.0 38.3 years old
  13. 13. Education% 70 64 60 60 56 50 40 30 29 30 21 20 15 10 10 3 2 3 3 2 2 1 0 School (8-9 years) School (10-11 University, no University (5-6 PhD years) degree (3-4 years) years) Freelancers Employees using the Internet Working population
  14. 14. Employment Status Employees Students (41%) (14%) GENUINE FREELANCERS (29%) Entre- House- preneurs wives (8%) (7%)
  15. 15. Skills Websites 29 Computer programming 20 Graphic design, Creative arts 38 Engineering and Manufacturing 9 Photography 5 Audio / Video 10 Writing, Editing 28 Translating 12Advertising / Marketing / Consulting 5 Other 3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 %
  16. 16. Work Values Which aspects do you personally think are important in a job? 16 %
  17. 17. Working Hours 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Mean: Freelancers 12 18 15 26 29 51 Employees using 2 8 71 17 3 42 the InternetWorking population 3 9 56 25 8 45 hours Up to 20 h 21-35 h 36-45 h 46-60 h More than 60 h17
  18. 18. Earnings (average monthly post-tax personal income in USD) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Mean: Freelancers 17 35 29 20 1,090 Employees using 25 53 19 3 665 the InternetWorking population 47 43 10 1 480 USD Less than $325 $326 to $825 $826 to $1650 More than $1650 18
  19. 19. Satisfaction All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Freelancers 11 47 29 11 3Employees using the 9 51 24 13 2 InternetWorking population 9 41 24 20 6 Very satisfied Satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied 19
  20. 20. Conclusion: Electronic Freelancers in Russia • Young individuals with a higher enterprising spirit and human capital, offering creative and knowledge-intensive services. • Work longer hours than regular employees and often operate under pressure, but have a higher income, enjoy autonomy at work and are satisfied with their lives. • “New middle class” and the vanguard of the workforce in terms of the nature of work, ICT-competence and motivation. • Play an important role in the development of the Internet, e- business, and innovative entrepreneurship. • But still very narrow and highly specific category of the workforce. 20
  21. 21. BE FREE ! Contact us: strebkov@hse.ru shevchuk@hse.ru 21

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