Facilitating cultural learning in education abroad | Spring EAIE Academy 2013


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Study abroad is the ideal way to develop intercultural skills, however the mere contact with a foreign culture does not guarantee competence development. Intercultural learning must be facilitated to be effective. During this EAIE Academy course the whole ‘learning circle’ of cultural learning is traced by presenting pre-departure and re-entry training activities as well as online facilitation for students while they are abroad. Input on training design, Kolb's learning cycle and content issues enables you to plan and carry out a cultural learning activity yourself. www.eaie.org/training

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Facilitating cultural learning in education abroad | Spring EAIE Academy 2013

  1. 1. Spring EAIE Academy, Birmingham, April 2013Facilitating Cultural Learning inEducation AbroadR. Michael Paige, PhD, Professor of International and Intercultural Education,University of Minnesota, USADr. Ingrid Gehrke, M.A., Head of International Relations, FH JOANEUM Universityof Applied Sciences, Austria
  2. 2. Program Overview• How mobility programs can have the largest impact on participants‘ intercultural development, one of the primary objectives of the mobility experience.• Key intercultural concepts and theories, relevant research on student learning abroad, and practical applications in program design through the entire mobility cycle: pre- departure, in-country, and reentry/return home.
  3. 3. Program Content• Participant needs analysis• Key intercultural concepts and theories• Learning styles and cultural dimensions• General issues of programme design• Research on culture learning abroad• Programming ideas for pre-departure, in-country, and re- entry
  4. 4. Program Methodology• Presentation• Discussion• Group work (create your own “product”)• Individual work• Participation in experiential learning activities• Common rules: Ask, value, share, listen…
  5. 5. Cultural Learning Theories• Learning styles• Cultural dimensions• Culture learning• Cultural mentoring: challenge and support
  6. 6. Kolb’s Learning Styles• Concrete experience (feeling) learning by intuition and interaction with others• Reflective observation (watching) learning by perception and observation• Abstract conceptualization (thinking) learning by thinking• Active experimentation (doing) learning by doing
  7. 7. “Teaching around the Wheel” Concrete Reflective experience observation Active Abstract Experimentation Conceptualization
  8. 8. Program DesignAnalysis of a Group of Learners• What do you know about your participants’ learning styles• How can you adapt your training to different learning styles?• How can you help learners expand their learning styles?
  9. 9. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions• High versus low power distance• Individualism versus collectivism• High versus low uncertainty avoidance
  10. 10. Program DesignAnalysis of a Group of Learners• What do our participants know about these cultural dimensions?• What do our participants know about their own culture?• What can we do to support cultural self awareness and other culture awareness?
  11. 11. Dimensions of Intercultural Learning(Paige, 2006)1) Learning about the Self as a Cultural Being2) Learning about the Elements of Culture3) Culture-Specific Learning4) Culture-General Learning5) Learning About LearningThese dimensions provide a template for an interculturalcurriculum
  12. 12. Cultural Mentoring(Paige & Goode, 2009)Cultural mentoring means providing:1) Ongoing support for learning2) Concepts and ideas to anchor learning3) Strategies for learning4) Opportunitites to put learning into practice5) Opportunities to reflect on experience6) Opportunities to connect what was learned to the future (employment, education, life)
  13. 13. Cultural Mentoring: Research FindingsNature of the Intervention Average IDI GainNo interventionGeorgetown Consortium Study (60 progs.) +1.32With a limited on-line interventionUniversity of Minnesota +4.47With an instructor-facilitated on-line interventionBellarmine University and Willamette University +8.19With an on-site course and instructorCouncil in International Education and Exchange +9.00With an PDOT, on-site course, and intensivecultural mentoringAmerican University Center of Provence +12.47With pre-departure and re-entry courses and anInternationalized academic program (2-3 years)University of the Pacific +17.46
  14. 14. Program DesignAnalysis of a Group of Learners• What can we do to support our participants’ intercultural learning skills?• In what ways can we provide cultural mentoring for our students? In person? Online?
  15. 15. Master Intercultural Topics for MobilityPrograms• Culture• Cultural adjustment• Perception• Nonverbal communication• Communication styles• Values• Gender issues• Intercultural adaptation
  16. 16. Culture Learning: Pre-Departure• Connect to pre-departure in terms of content• Have re-entry in mind• Self-reflective or interactive?• All your students need to have access to your technology• What and how much should we do „online“?
  17. 17. Culture Learning: In Country• Blogs, diaries, journals• Structured reports (on line or on paper)• Example: Global Identity course (University of Minnesota)• Example: SKILL2E (EU and internship)• Example: LMU online project
  18. 18. Culture Learning: Re-entry• Treat the students as a resource for the institution• Create opportunities to value the experience - buddies for incoming students - study abroad fair -“culture experts“• Data management and distribution? Who knows theywere abroad and who should know
  19. 19. Key Intercultural DevelopmentConceptsR. Michael Paige, Ph.D.University of Minnesota
  20. 20. Intercultural Intensity Factors(Paige, 1993)1) Differences in cultural values, beliefs, practices2) Ethnocentrism3) Language issues4) Cultural immersion5) Cultural isolation6) Prior intercultural experience7) Expectations8) Visibility/invisibility9) Status10)Power and control
  21. 21. The Developmental Model of InterculturalSensitivity (Bennett, 1993)1) Ethnocentric worldview orientations - Denial of Difference - Defense against Difference - Minimization of Difference2) Ethnorelative worldview orientations - Acceptance of Difference - Cognitive and Behavioral Adaptation to Difference - Integration of Difference
  22. 22. References• Bennett, M. J. (1993). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige (Ed.) Education for the intercultural experience (pp. 21-71). Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press.• Bennett, M. J. (2004). From ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism. In J. S. Wurzel (Ed.), Toward multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education (pp. 62-78). Newton, MA: Intercultural Resource Corporation.• Paige, R.M., Jacobs-Cassuto, M., Yershova, Y. A. & DeJaeghere, J. (2003). Assessing intercultural sensitivity: A psychometric analysis of the Hammer and Bennett Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 467-486.
  23. 23. References• Vande Berg, M., & Paige, R. M. (2009). Applying theory and research: The evolution of intercultural competence in U.S. study abroad. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence, (pp. 404-418). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing.• Paige, R. M., & Goode. M. L. (2009). Cultural mentoring: International education professionals and the development of intercultural competence. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence, (pp. 333-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing.
  24. 24. The EAIE Academy is a one-week trainingprogramme for international higher educationprofessionals.www.eaie.org/training | #EAIEAcademy | @TheEAIE