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Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software

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Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software

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Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software

  1. 1. http://www.di.univaq.it/diruscio/ davide.diruscio@univaq.it @ddiruscio Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze Università degli Studi dell’Aquila dell’Informazione e Matematica MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software Davide Di Ruscio
  2. 2. 2 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software Outline
  3. 3. 3 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software Outline
  4. 4. 4 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/analysis
  5. 5. 5 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal http://www.dictionary.com/browse/analytics
  6. 6. 6 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Understanding complex problems
  7. 7. 7 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Understanding complex problems
  8. 8. 8 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Software Analytics "Software analytics aims to obtain insightful and actionable information from software artifacts that help practitioners accomplish tasks related to software development, systems, and users." D. Zhang, S. han, Y. Dan, J.-G. Lou, H Zhang: Software Analytics in Practice. IEEE Software, Sept./Oct. 2013, pp. 30-35.
  9. 9. 9 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Software Analytics "Software analytics (SA) represents a branch of big data analytics. SA is concerned with the analysis of all software artifacts, not only source code. [...] These tiers vary from the higher level of the management board and setting the enterprise vision and portfolio management, going through project management planning and implementation by software developers." T. M. Abdellatif, L. F. Capretz, D. Ho. Software Analytics to Software Practice: A Systematic Literature Review. 1. Int'l Workshop on Big Data Engineering, 2015, pp. 30-36.
  10. 10. 10 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Software Analytics "Software analytics is analytics on software data for managers and software engineers with the aim of empowering software development individuals and teams to gain and share insight form their data to make better decisions." R. Buse, T. Zimmermann. Information Needs for Software Development Analytics. Proc. Int'l Conf. Software Engineering (ICSE), IEEE CS, 2012
  11. 11. 11 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software Outline
  12. 12. 12 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Open Source Software “The term open source refers to something people can modify and share because its design is publicly accessible.” “Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.” Main benefits: - Control - Training - Security - Stability https://opensource.com/resources/what-open-source https://opensource.org/
  13. 13. 13 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Mining Software Repositories field The Mining Software Repositories (MSR) field analyzes the rich data available in software repositories to uncover interesting and actionable information about software systems and projects. http://www.msrconf.org/ Q&A systems Bug Reports API Documentation
  14. 14. 14 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Mining Software Repositories field Source code Q&A systems Bug Reports API Documentation Tutorials Configuration Management Systems
  15. 15. 15 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software Outline
  16. 16. 16 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Model-Driven Engineering A software discipline that shifts the focus of software development from coding to modeling Models – are abstractions representing knowledge and activities that govern a particular application domain – use domain concepts rather than computing concepts, ie they can be defined/used by non computer scientists – have first-class status
  17. 17. 17 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Model-Driven Engineering Over the last decades many MDE technologies have been conceived to support a wide range of modeling and model management activities
  18. 18. Model-Driven Engineering = Abstraction + Automation + Analysis
  19. 19. 19 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software - Upgrade simulation - Fault detection - Open source project comparison - Development of new software systems by relying on existing open source components - Unmanned classification of available artifacts
  20. 20. 20 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software - Upgrade simulation - Fault detection - Open source project comparison - Development of new software systems by relying on existing open source components - Unmanned classification of available artifacts
  21. 21. 21 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software - Upgrade simulation - Fault detection - Open source project comparison - Development of new software systems by relying on existing open source components - Unmanned classification of available artifacts
  22. 22. 22 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Free and Open Source Software – More than 29,000 interdependent packages → Linux distributions are among the most complex software ecosystems
  23. 23. 23 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Before distributions In the beginning it was the tarball Before the advent of distributions, the peculiar way to install free software on client machine was: user installations server side client side proj 1 proj 2 proj n bazaar
  24. 24. 24 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal GNU/Linux distributions To answer these problems, GNU/Linux distributions have born as intermediaries between FOSS projects and their users user installations server side client side proj 1 proj 2 proj n FOSS bazaar package repository meta- installer distribution editors package management
  25. 25. 25 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal GNU/Linux distributions Central notion in distributions (to abstract over the complex underlying infrastructure): – package, together with package management software package repository distribution editors package management
  26. 26. 26 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal GNU/Linux distributions Central notion in distributions (to abstract over the complex underlying infrastructure): – package, together with package management software package repository distribution editors package management And yet, doing things right can be extremely difficult!
  27. 27. Problem: upgrade failures
  28. 28. 28 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal An upgrade problem example – each phase can fail – it actually happens quite often! – efforts should be made to identify errors as early as possible, if not predict
  29. 29. 29 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario > apt-get install libapache-mod-ssl Configuration 1 Configuration 2 Installing package libapache-mod-ssl +
  30. 30. 30 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario
  31. 31. 31 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario
  32. 32. 32 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario
  33. 33. 33 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario once mod_ssl is installed, it is enabled in apache
  34. 34. 34 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario > apt-get remove libapache-mod-ssl Configuration n+1 Configuration n removing package libapache-mod-ssl -
  35. 35. 35 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario
  36. 36. 36 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario It disables mod_ssl in apache. What happens if the maintainer does not write this statement ?
  37. 37. 37 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Sample Scenario An “inconsistent” configuration is reached and it is detected only at run-time: the package dependency metadata are not enough !
  38. 38. 38 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Problem: Upgrade failures Current tools are able to predict a limited set of upgrade failures before deployment When trying to predict upgrade failures, existing tools only consider static package metadata and the behaviour of the maintainer scripts is completely ignored – This leaves a wide range of failures unpredicted
  39. 39. Dealing with upgrade failures: Abstracting and analyzing the system
  40. 40. 40 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Idea Extracting relevant information from a linux box («snapshot») at a given moment of time Analysis and upgrade simulation on the «snapshot» injectors Linux box «snapshot»
  41. 41. 41 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Ingredients 1/3 Modeling languages for describing the several aspects of a linux distribution – Packages • including maintainer scripts – System Configuration • Installed packages • Configuration files • MIME-type handlers • Alternatives • etc Injectors for harvesting the system and building the models – collection of injectors
  42. 42. 42 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Ingredients 2/3 Modeling language for the maintainer scripts – scripts are written in POSIX languages whose semantics is far from being simple, although – maintainer scripts does not harness the full expressivity of such languages (template-based “macro-language”) Maintainer scripts as models – which semantics ?
  43. 43. 43 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Ingredients 3/3 Transformational semantics for simulating the behavior of the maintainer scripts on the system «snapshot» – M2M transformations obtained by «compiling» the maintainer scripts into ATL (ATLAS Transformation Language) Fault detector, a general mechanism for performing queries over the «snapshot» for digging the model and search for inconsistencies
  44. 44. 44 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Configuration 1 «snapshot» 1 Configuration 2 ? «snapshot» 2 system injection package injection M2M transformationM2M transformation Enhancing meta-installer through MDE
  45. 45. 45 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Overall architecture – the simulator is used to predict the effect of maintainer script executions (deploy-time failures) – the fault detector is used to deal with undetected failures R. Di Cosmo, D. Di Ruscio, P. Pelliccione, A. Pierantonio, S. Zacchiroli. Supporting Software Evolution in Component-Based FOSS Systems (2011), in Science of Computer Programming 76:12(1144-1160) Davide Di Ruscio and Patrizio Pelliccione, Simulating upgrades of complex systems: the case of Free and Open Source Software (2014), in: Information and Software Technology, 56:4(438- 462) DEMO
  46. 46. 46 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Fault detector architecture -Libraries (.jar files) and OCL queries -Catalogue of faults -Catalogue of solutions Web Portal FD-Server EVOSS Server User machine FD-Client User Davide Di Ruscio and Patrizio Pelliccione, A model-driven approach to detect faults in FOSS systems (2015), in: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 27:4(294-318) DEMO
  47. 47. 47 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software - Upgrade simulation - Fault detection - Open source project comparison - Development of new software systems by relying on existing open source components - Unmanned classification of available artifacts
  48. 48. 48 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Context Related activities - Searching for candidate components - Evaluating a set of retrieved candidate components to find the most suitable one - Understanding how to use the selected components - Monitoring the selected components Development of new software systems by reusing existing open source components
  49. 49. 49 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Context Related activities - Searching for candidate components - Evaluating a set of retrieved candidate components to find the most suitable one - Understanding how to use the selected components - Monitoring the selected components Development of new software systems by reusing existing open source components
  50. 50. 50 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Selecting and Using OSS components Challenging tasks - assessing quality, maturity, activity of development and user support is not a straightforward process Different and heterogeneous source of information - e.g., code repositories, communication channels, bug tracking systems Source code Q&A systems Bug Reports API Documentation Tutorials Configuration Management Systems
  51. 51. 51 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Analysis of OSS projects in OSSMETER OSS Project Communication channel (Newsgroup/forum/ mailing list) Source Code Repository Bug Tracking System OSS Forge Metadata
  52. 52. 52 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Analysis of OSS projects in OSSMETER Dealing with heterogeneous sources
  53. 53. 53 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal
  54. 54. 54 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Analysis of OSS projects in OSSMETER
  55. 55. 55 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Presentation Wealth of data to present – Needs to be user-friendly / digestible Presentation driven by the quality model
  56. 56. 56 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal The default OSSMETER quality model
  57. 57. 57 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal The OSSMETER quality metamodel Francesco Basciani, Juri Di Rocco, Davide Di Ruscio, Ludovico Iovino and Alfonso Pierantonio, A Customizable Approach for the Automated Quality Assessment of Modelling Artefacts, in: 10th International Conference on the Quality of Information and Communications Technology (QUATIC 2016), Lisbon, Portugal, IEEE CPS, 2016
  58. 58. 58 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal
  59. 59. 59 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal
  60. 60. CROSSMINER aims at doing more
  61. 61. 61 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Context Related activities - Searching for candidate components - Evaluating a set of retrieved candidate components to find the most suitable one - Understanding how to use the selected components - Monitoring the selected components Development of new software systems by reusing existing open source components
  62. 62. 62 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Source code Q&A systems Bug Reports API Documentation Tutorials Configuration Management Systems
  63. 63. 63 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal CROSSMINER: high-level view Data Preprocessing Capturing Context Producing Recommendations Presenting Recommendations
  64. 64. 64 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Mining and Analysis Tools CROSSMINER: high-level view Data Preprocessing Capturing Context Producing Recommendations Presenting Recommendations Knowledge Base Source Code Miner NLP Miner Configuration Miner Cross project Analysis OSS forges Source Code Natural language channels Configuration Scripts lookup/store mine
  65. 65. 65 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal CROSSMINER: high-level view Data Preprocessing Capturing Context Producing Recommendations Presenting Recommendations Developer IDE Knowledge Base query recommendations Data Storage Real-time recommendations that serve productivity and quality increase
  66. 66. 66 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal CROSSMINER: high-level view Use of machine learning algorithms to produce recommendations during development Example of recommendations: - Similar projects - API documentations - Q&A posts that can help developer to use selected libraries - Additional libraries that should be included - …
  67. 67. 67 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Example: recommending similar projects 1. Represent project dependencies on graphs 2. Calculate graph similarity, which helps consider also indirect connections 3. Similarity can be computed for different artifacts
  68. 68. 68 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE for analysing open source software - Upgrade simulation - Fault detection - Open source project comparison - Development of new software systems by relying on existing open source components - Unmanned classification of available artifacts - Assessing the quality of modelling artefacts
  69. 69. 69 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Model repositories in MDE The benefits related to the adoption of model repositories have been acknowledged in the MDE community • In the past decade several model repositories have been introduced
  70. 70. 70 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Model repositories classification Flat repositories - No categorization - Searching and browsing not available - Manual inspection Manually classified repositories without searching and browsing functionalities - Attributes include short description - List of domains Manually classified repositories with searching and browsing functionalities - Manually classified (predefined set of labels) - Searching and browsing available
  71. 71. 71 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Model repositories classification Flat repositories - No categorization - Searching and browsing not available - Manual inspection Manually classified repositories without searching and browsing functionalities - Attributes include short description - List of domains Manually classified repositories with searching and browsing functionalities - Manually classified (predefined set of labels) - Searching and browsing available
  72. 72. 72 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Models in GitHub
  73. 73. 73 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Model repositories classification Flat repositories - No categorization - Searching and browsing not available - Manual inspection Manually classified repositories without searching and browsing functionalities - Attributes include short description - List of domains Manually classified repositories with searching and browsing functionalities - Manually classified (predefined set of labels) - Searching and browsing available
  74. 74. 74 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal EMF Zoo
  75. 75. 75 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Model repositories classification Flat repositories - No categorization - Searching and browsing not available - Manual inspection Manually classified repositories without searching and browsing functionalities - Attributes include short description - List of domains Manually classified repositories with searching and browsing functionalities - Manually classified (predefined set of labels) - Searching and browsing available
  76. 76. 76 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal ReMoDD
  77. 77. 77 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal MDEForge • Community-based repository of modeling artifacts • It enables the adoption of model management tools as software as a service • It is modular and extensible • It supports advanced mechanisms to query the repository and find the required modeling artifacts http://www.mdeforge.org/ Juri Di Rocco, Davide Di Ruscio, Ludovico Iovino and Alfonso Pierantonio, Collaborative Repositories in Model-Driven Engineering (2015), in: IEEE Software, 32:3(28-34)
  78. 78. 78 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal MDEForge architecture Core Repository WEB Access REST API ModelTransformation Metamodel Extensions Metrics Calculator Transformation chain Users Clustering Visualizer Proximity Calculator Clustering Creator …
  79. 79. 79 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal MDEForge collected artifacts We imported hundreds of metamodels from various sources How can we group and classify the collected artifacts?
  80. 80. 80 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Overview of Clustering Techniques • Process of organizing objects into groups of similar objects • Unsupervised classification • Serveral clustering methods: • Hierarchical clustering • Partitional clustering • …
  81. 81. 81 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Hierarchical clustering It produces nested set of groups based on a criterion for merging or splitting clusters based on similarity • Calculated on proximity distance • Represented by dendrograms • Hierarchical cluster methods: agglomerative, divisive, etc
  82. 82. 82 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Clusterization of metamodels • Proximity calculator • Clustering creator • Clustering visualizer Core Repository WEB Access REST API ModelTransformation Metamodel Extensions Metrics Calculator Transformation chain Users Clustering Visualizer Proximity Calculator Clustering Creator …
  83. 83. 83 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Visualization of the identified clusters Francesco Basciani, Juri Di Rocco, Davide Di Ruscio, Ludovico Iovino and Alfonso Pierantonio, Automated Clustering of Metamodel Repositories, in: 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE'16), 2016
  84. 84. 84 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software - Upgrade simulation - Fault detection - Open source project comparison - Development of new software systems by relying on existing open source components - Unmanned classification of available artifacts
  85. 85. 85 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Concluding remarks It is possible to use models and model management operations to deal with the problem of analysing open source software Identifying the right abstraction layer to work on is one of the most critical task - both in MANCOOSI and OSSMETER such a task took about 6 months - it is an iterative process, which has to involve also domain experts - E.g., in MANCOOSI the elements to be represented in models depend on the kind of faults to be detected Maintenance of the developed artifacts (metamodels, transformations, etc) can be an issue: interdependencies, ripple effects, … Heterogeneity and scalability are relevant issues to be solved
  86. 86. 86 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Take away message MDE experts have the forma mentis to approach the problem of analysing open source software in terms of abstractions It’s an interdisciplinary problem that bring together several fields including statistical data analysis, machine learning, information retrieval, etc.
  87. 87. 87 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Use of MDE to Analyse Open Source Software - Upgrade simulation - Fault detection - Open source project comparison - Development of new software systems by relying on existing open source components - Unmanned classification of available artifacts
  88. 88. 88 Model Management And Analytics - MOMA3N 2018 - January 23, 2018, Madeira, Portugal Additional links http://www.mancoosi.org http://evoss.di.univaq.it http://www.ossmeter.org http://www.crossminer.org http://www.mdeforge.org

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