Software Testing 4/5


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Software Testing 4/5

  1. 1. Damian Gordon
  2. 2.  Static Testing is the testing of a component or system at a specification or implementation level without execution of the software. Dynamic Testing is the testing of software by executing the software of either a component or system. Static Testing and Dynamic Testing are complementary methods and tend to find different types of defects effectively and efficiently.
  3. 3.  Static Testing detects defects such as deviations from standards, missing requirements, design defects, non- maintainable code and inconsistent interface specifications. Dynamic Testing detects defects such as checking if outputs from the expected values.
  4. 4.  One key approach in Static Testing is the Review Process. Reviews can find defects, are informational, communicational, and educational. Participants in the review learn the content of the software systems, the role of their own work, help planning for future stages of the work. Reviews often represent milestones, and support the establishments of a baseline for the software product.
  5. 5.  The type and quantity of defects found during the review stage can help focus the testing process. In some cases customers or users attend the review process and provide feedback to the developers and document authors. Studies have shown the reviews significantly increase productivity and product quality.
  6. 6.  They can be either informal or formal. The formality of the review process is related to factors such as the maturity of the development process, any legal or regulatory requirements or the need for an audit trail. In practice most reviews are informal. A two-person team can conduct an informal review, as the developer/author can get a colleague to review the code and documentation.
  7. 7.  Phases of a Formal Review 1. Planning 2. Kick-Off 3. Preparation 4. Review Meeting 5. Rework 6. Follow-up
  8. 8.  1. Planning The authors/developers request a review. A moderator is assigned – this is the leader of the review process. The project planning needs to incorporate time to undertake the review. The planning must start with deciding an entry criteria to ensure that document is ready for review.
  9. 9.  1. Planning Entry Criteria The set of generic and specific conditions for permitting a process to go forward with a defined task, e.g. Test phase. The purpose of entry criteria is to prevent a task from starting which would entail more (wasted) effort compared to the effort needed to remove the failed entry criteria.
  10. 10.  1. Planning Minimum set of criteria for performing entry check: ◦ A short check of a product sample by the moderator does not reveal a large number of defects, e.g. After 30 minutes of checking, no more than 3 major defects are found in a single page or fewer than 10 major defects in total in a set of 5 pages. ◦ The document to be reviewed is available with line numbers. ◦ The document has been cleaned up by running any automated checks that apply. ◦ References needed for the inspection are stable and available. ◦ The document author is prepared to join the review team and feels confident with the quality of the document.
  11. 11.  1. Planning The review will focus on a few different things: ◦ Focus on higher-level documents, e.g. Does the design comply to the requirements ◦ Focus on standards, e.g. Internal consistency, clarity, naming conventions, templates ◦ Focus on related documents at the same level, e.g. Interfaces between software functions ◦ Focus on usage, e.g. For testability and maintainablity
  12. 12.  2. Kick-Off The review starts with a kick-off meeting, to make sure everyone is on the same wavelength regarding the document under review. The meeting consists of a short introduction to the objectives of the review and the documents. Role assignments, checking rate, the pages to be checked, process changes and possible other questions are discussed at this meeting.
  13. 13.  3. Preparation Participants identify defects, questions, and comments, according to their understanding of the document and their role. A checking rate is decided, which is the number of pages checked per hour, usually about 5 to 10 pages per hour, depending on complexity.
  14. 14.  4. Review Meeting Usually made up of the following phases: ◦ Logging phase ◦ Discussion phase ◦ Decision phase
  15. 15.  4. Review Meeting Logging Phase: The issues that have been identified in the Preparation stage are logged. To ensure progress and efficiency, no real discussion is allowed during the logging phase. Each defect is logged with a severity: ◦ Critical: defects will cause downstream damage. ◦ Major: defects could cause downstream damage. ◦ Minor: defects are not likely to cause downstream damage.
  16. 16.  4. Review Meeting Discussion Phase: Each of the defects that require discussion are discussed, with a chairman preventing discussions from getting too personal.
  17. 17.  4. Review Meeting Decision Phase: At the end of the discussion phase, a decision is taken about the document under review. If the number of defects found per page exceeds a certain level, the document may need to be reworked, and reviewed again.
  18. 18.  5. Rework Based on the defects detects, the author will improve the document under review, step- by-step.
  19. 19.  Always, every, all, none, never, … (absolutely sure?) Certainly, therefore, clearly, obviously, customarily, most, … (persuasion lingo) Some, sometimes, often, usually, ordinarily, customarily, most, … (vague) etc., and so forth, and so on, such as, … (not testable) Good, fast, cheap, efficient, small, stable, … (unquantifiable) Handled, processed, rejected, skipped, eliminated… If … then … (missing else)
  20. 20.  Roles and Responsibilities The moderator The author The scribe The reviewers The manager
  21. 21.  Roles and Responsibilities The moderator serves as the review leader, they determine the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check, and the follow-up on the rework. The moderator also schedules meetings, disseminates documents, leads discussions and stores relevant data.
  22. 22.  Roles and Responsibilities The author writes the original document and seeks to improve the quality of the document by working with others.
  23. 23.  Roles and Responsibilities The scribe records all of the defects during the logging meetings.
  24. 24.  Roles and Responsibilities The reviewers (also called checkers and inspectors) check the documents for defects. Reviewers are chosen to represent different perspectives in the review.
  25. 25.  Roles and Responsibilities The manager decides on the execution of reviews and determines whether review process objectives have been met.
  26. 26.  Types of Reviews Walkthrough Technical Review Inspection
  27. 27.  Types of Reviews Walkthrough The author guides the review team through the document, to achieve a common understanding and gather feedback. This means the author does a range of preparation, and the review team don’t need to do a detailed study before the meeting. A walkthrough is especially useful for higher-level documents, like requirements specifications and architectural documents.
  28. 28.  Types of Reviews Technical Review This approach focuses on developing a consensus about the technical content of the document. Defects are found by technical experts, who focus on the content of the document (as opposed to considering any relevant legislation and standards, referenced documents, and intended readership).
  29. 29.  Types of Reviews Inspection This approach is the most formal review type. The document is inspected thoroughly be the reviews before the meeting, comparing the work product with its sources and other referenced documents, and using rules and checklists. The defects found are logged and any discussion is postponed until the discussion phase. This makes the inspection meeting a very efficient meeting.
  30. 30.  Let’s do one.