Regulation of Landfill in Ireland


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Summary of Ireland\’s compliance with the landfill Directive

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  • WFD: The 1975 Waste Framework Directive introduced a licensing system for any establishment which carried out a waste disposal operation such as a landfill and was applicable from 15 July 1977 S22 of the WMA: A waste management plan shall…include information on   The identification of sites at which waste disposal or recovery activities have been carried on, The assessment of any risk of environmental pollution The identification of measures proposed to be taken to achieve remediation However the S22 did not give a deadline for this work. Ministerial Direction May 2005: LA’s were directed to ensure that the S22 requirement is met in the review of their Waste Management Plans. CoP : ERA for Unregulated Waste Disposal Sites. S76 of the EPA act.
  • 220 out of 344.
  • Trail Pits Geophysics Probes Sheel and auger drilling Percussion broing Gas monitoring Leachate sampling Soil sampling Ecological surveys Odour surveys
  • Regulation of Landfill in Ireland

    1. 1. Focus on Landfill Report 2010 Engineers Ireland, Local Government Division Mr. Dara Lynott BE, MSc, PE, Ceng, FIEI Deputy Director General Environmental Protection Agency September 30 th , 2010 All or part of this publication may be reproduced without further permission, provided the source is acknowledged.
    2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Then and now </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on landfill report </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion from landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Historic Landfills </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance priorities </li></ul>
    3. 3. Numbers of open landfills 1985-2009
    4. 4. Standards at MSW landfills 1995-1997 <ul><ul><li>Few Regulatory Controls & Little Strategic Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Design and Operational Standards for Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal Expenditure & Low Technology to Conserve Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 90% of BMW to Landfill </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Standards at MSW landfills 1995-1997
    6. 6. Standards at MSW landfills 1995-1997
    7. 7. Landfills in Ireland
    8. 8. Current situation <ul><ul><li>EU average for MSW to landfill is 42% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28 operational MSW landfills - 23 LA & 5 private </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 private landfills accept about 1/3 of the waste tonnage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining capacity estimated at 23.10 6 tonnes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At current landfill rate, approx 10 years capacity remaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller number of larger landfills, more private sector involvement in MSW sector, major improvement in standards </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Focus on Landfill report 2010 <ul><li>Why report now </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of the report </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of future regulation </li></ul>
    10. 10. Compliance
    11. 11. Capping Total area of open MSW landfills in 2008 was 255Ha
    12. 12. Leachate Management <ul><li>Approximately 1 million cubic meters from open MSW landfills in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 0.4 million cubic meters from closed MSW landfills </li></ul><ul><li>99% tankered or via sewer to 46 UWWTPs </li></ul><ul><li>1% to 2 private facilities or treated on-site and discharged </li></ul><ul><li>Very little on-site treatment - mainly air stripping of methane </li></ul><ul><li>Most Inert and IPPC landfills do not collect leachate </li></ul>
    13. 13. Lining <ul><ul><li>All landfilling of MSW being carried out in lined cells; Kinsale Rd. closed as of July 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx. 150Ha of lining installed at MSW landfills </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Landfill Gas Utilisation <ul><ul><li>Currently 9 landfills have 20 engines with 30MW capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All MSW landfills with >1 million tonnes generating electricity in 2009; No landfills <1 million tonnes generating electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000tonnes = EA indicative benchmark for viability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 MSW landfills > 200,000 tonnes & another 15 > 500,000 tonnes – not generating electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of waste; CH 4 content of gas; grid access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEI estimates 80MW to be accessible in 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underutilisation of landfill gas as energy source? </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Gas management
    16. 16. Complaints 2004 - 2008
    17. 17. Odours– EPA Response <ul><li>2004-2009 - 9 prosecutions for LFG management & 4 for odour </li></ul><ul><li>Odour assessment procedure & use of site agents </li></ul><ul><li>Auditing/inspection of LFG systems including surface VOC emissions monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>New conditions in landfill template: e.g. odour management plans; condensate management; field balancing; timing of cover & capping; surface VOC monitoring/limits & odour management plan </li></ul>
    18. 18. Phase 1 VOC Plot
    19. 19. Phase 3 VOC Plot
    20. 20. Main Findings in 2009 surveys <ul><li>Most common source of high surface emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flanked Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leachate side slope risers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas abstraction problems – density of wells; inadequate sealing around wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover material application (type and depth) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10 sites improved from last year; 6 more or less the same </li></ul><ul><li>Still a deficit, although not as bad, at sites in knowledge of how maintenance of the gas management system is to be carried out </li></ul>
    21. 21. Greenhouse gas emissions
    22. 22. Where our waste goes MSW - 3.4 Mtonnes in 2007 ~ 36.5% to Recovery ~ 63.5% to Landfill
    23. 23. The Obligations - EU Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) <ul><li>The EU Landfill Directive requires pre-treatment of all waste before landfilling (Article 6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This obligation is binding from July 2001 for all new landfills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This obligation is binding from July 2009 for all sites . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article 5 of the Directive sets specific Biodegradable waste diversionary targets starting in 2006 . Ireland obtained a 4 year derogation as follows: </li></ul>1,289,911t landfilled in 1995 * *
    24. 24. Diversion of waste
    25. 25. Biodegradable Municipal Waste - Forecasts & Targets Based on EPA-ESRI ISUS projections
    26. 26. Actions Taken <ul><li>EPA reviewed Licenses and place conditions requiring specific biowaste pre-treatment </li></ul><ul><li>EPA established standards for stabilised bio-waste </li></ul><ul><li>EPA to issue circular to all existing landfill operators to reinforce the general waste pre-treatment obligation falling due on 16-7-2009 for these operators. </li></ul><ul><li>EPA will publish new BAT note for Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>EPA published municipal waste characterisation methodology (essential for the measurement of biowaste content) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Historic landfills - Legislative background <ul><li>Waste Framework Directive 1975 - The incomplete transposition of the Waste Framework Directive meant that municipal landfills operated between July 1977 and 1997 were not subject to a licensing system, with its associated safeguards for the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Section 22 of the Waste Management Act 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Ministerial Direction May 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>EPA Code of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>SI 524 of 2008 - Waste Management (Certification of Historic Unlicenced Waste Disposal and Recovery Activity) Regulations 2008 </li></ul>
    28. 28. Waste Management (Certification of Historic Unlicenced Waste Disposal and Recovery Activity) Regulations 2008 <ul><ul><li>“ closed landfill” - a landfill site operated by a local authority for the recovery or disposal of waste without a waste licence on any date between 15 July 1977 and 27 March 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify and register closed landfills by 30th June 2009. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carry out an environmental risk assessment having regard to the EPA’s Code of Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to the Agency for a certificate of authorisation. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Regulation of historic landfills <ul><li>344 sites across the country </li></ul><ul><li>23% high risk, 34% moderate and 43% low risk </li></ul><ul><li>Site investigations to be completed and remediation plans put in place </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot project underway </li></ul><ul><li>Sites to be authorised by the Agency </li></ul>
    30. 30. EPA have provided an on line register.
    31. 31. Tier 1 Risk Assessments <ul><li>Conceptual Site Model </li></ul><ul><li>Desk Based study informed by a site walk over. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Classification: high, medium or low. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively cheap. </li></ul><ul><li>To date over 241 (74%) Tier 1’s are completed: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>22% are High Risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>34% are Medium Risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>44% are Low Risk </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Tier 2 Risk Assessments <ul><li>Site Investigations and testing. </li></ul><ul><li>The COP defines the required works </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive part of the RA. </li></ul><ul><li>DOE has funded a pilot study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The EPA have developed decision matrices to compliment the COP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These matrices will be issued following testing by the pilot study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop after completion of pilot. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Tier 3 <ul><li>Refinement of CSM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site investigation information to be used to refine CSM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Screening to be re-applied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required for High and Moderate Risk Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Guideline Acceptance Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If site concentrations are < Guideline acceptance criteria risk is deemed to be acceptable and no further action required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If site concentrations are > Guideline acceptance criteria risk is deemed to be unacceptable and remedial measures required </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Available on envision
    35. 35. Authorisation by the EPA <ul><li>: </li></ul><ul><li>On completion of the Risk Assessment the Local Authority shall apply to the Agency for Cert. of Authorisation Reg. 7 (1). </li></ul><ul><li>As a minimum should contain the information in Reg. 7 (2). </li></ul><ul><li>The Risk Assessment shall form the basis for the Certificate of Authorisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Agency may request further information under Reg. 7 (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-technical summary required </li></ul><ul><li>€ 5,000 fee </li></ul>
    36. 36. Compliance Priorities <ul><li>Biodegradable waste </li></ul><ul><li>Landfilling of BMW results in high emissions of methane which is a greenhouse gas and a potential source of odour nuisance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland faces daily fines for non-compliance with Landfill Directive targets for diversion of BMW from landfill. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 1.2 million tonnes of BMW were landfilled in 2008; just 0.916 million tonnes can be landfilled in 2010, reducing to 0.610 million tonnes in 2013 and 0.427 million tonnes in 2016. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Compliance Priorities <ul><li>  Landfill gas </li></ul><ul><li>The landfilling of waste produces landfill gas which poses an environmental risk if not managed properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill gas must either be collected and used to produce energy, or flared according to EPA guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill gas is odorous and accounted for 71% of all complaints in relation to licensed facilities in 2009. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Compliance Priorities <ul><li>Environmental Liabilities and Financial provision </li></ul><ul><li>Landfills continue to pose an environmental risk after closure and require proper closure, restoration and aftercare to minimise environmental impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant financial provision is required to fund closure, restoration and aftercare costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill gate fees have declined by one third between 2004 and 2008 which raises concerns in relation to funding of closure, restoration and aftercare costs in particular. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Compliance Priorities <ul><li>Legacy Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>There are over 300 landfills that were operated by local authorities between 1977 and 1997 without specific authorisation and which must now be regularised under the Historic Unlicensed Waste Disposal and Recovery Activity Regulations. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Further Reading <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>