Part 1 Water safety plans explained: What they are and how you can get involved

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WASH 2011 training program: World Health Organisation

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  • Why external team members? - issues beyond the control of the water suppliers (environment, industry, planning, water resources) - communication with local stakeholders (health, education) - need for tariff structures and increases become clear (local government)
  • Step 3 seeks to: Describe what could go wrong and where – proactive Identify risks and differentiate between significant and less significant to prioritize interventions
  • Hazardous events weather, geology and hydrogeology, land use (agriculture, industry, transport), competing water uses, power supply, asset condition, treatment capacity and condition of plant and components, chemical manufacturers, sanitation, poor hygiene damage to transmission, storage, distribution lack of communication Hazards - Physical - overall source water quality Chemical - naturally occurring such as arsenic or flouride introduced such as pesticides, nitrates, organic chemicals, disinfection by-products Microbial - slurry, dead bodies, algal blooms and toxins
  • Part 1 Water safety plans explained: What they are and how you can get involved

    1. 1. Water Safety Plans – what are they and how can I get involved?
    2. 2. Training Objectives Common understanding of the steps and minimum requirements of WSPs Understanding of how WSPs incorporate water, sanitation and hygiene issues Identification of ways in which different organizations can support WSPs Two perspectives today – your own organization and as a supplier
    3. 3. What are Water Safety Plans? <ul><li>WSPs represent “Step-by-step risk management for drinking-water suppliers aiming to consistently ensure safe and acceptable drinking water quality” </li></ul><ul><li>approach </li></ul><ul><li>process (continuous) </li></ul><ul><li>document(s) </li></ul>
    4. 4. For which water supplies? YES Major city water supply system?
    5. 5. For which water supplies? YES Rural piped water supply system?
    6. 6. For which water supplies? Single well? YES!
    7. 7. Main features of WSPs?
    8. 8. What does a WSP involve?
    9. 9. Why Water Safety Plans? <ul><li>Drinking Water Quality Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>MDGs for safe water </li></ul><ul><li>A very good idea – water quality/health priority, good practice, improved asset management and sustainability </li></ul>Landfill including waste from septic tanks Abstraction for town water supply
    10. 10. Who is involved? Governments – policy, implementation, finance, regulation Donors/IFIs – advocacy, finance, technical assistance NGOs – advocacy, implementation, evidence Academia – technical assistance, tools, training, impact assessment Cranfield creates 'toolbox' to aid water safety
    11. 11. Session 1 – Modules 1 to 5
    12. 12. Water Safety Plans Preparation: Step 1 – Assemble the WSP team
    13. 13. WSP Team Purpose <ul><li>Team will plan, develop, verify and implement the WSP </li></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>Core team </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist team (e.g. treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>External team members/reviewers – may include government agencies and experts </li></ul>
    14. 14. WSP Team Actions <ul><li>Engage senior management and secure financial and resource support </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the required expertise and appropriate size of the team </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint a team leader </li></ul><ul><li>Define and record roles and responsibilities of the team members </li></ul><ul><li>Define the time frame to develop the WSP </li></ul>
    15. 15. Questions Why external team members and representing which organizations? What would be the key similarities/differences between WSP Teams for community managed and utility managed water supplies?
    16. 16. Water Safety Plans System Assessment: Step 2 – Describe the water supply system
    17. 17. Describe the Water Supply System <ul><li>To provide sufficient information to identify where the system is vulnerable to hazardous events and various types of hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Description should result in : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow diagram to conceptually understand the water supply system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of water quality issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of users and uses </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Water Safety Plans System Assessment: Step 3 – Identify hazards, hazardous events & assess risks
    19. 19. Hazard Assessment To provide sufficient information to identify where the system is vulnerable to hazardous events and various types of hazards Usually carried out at the same time as Step 4 (control measures) Hazards – physical, biological, chemical, radiological Hazardous events – events that introduce hazards or fails to remove
    20. 20. Risk Assessment The purpose is to identify risks at each point in the water system (as described in the flow diagram) Usually semi-quantitative or qualitative based on expert judgment and/or team decision Needs to be reviewed on a regular basis and certainly after control measures and events
    21. 21. Questions In what ways do urban and rural water supply systems differ, in terms of system components, hazards and hazardous events? Can all hazards and hazardous events be controlled or managed by the water supplier? If not, with whom, and how, can water suppliers best engage to reduce the risks associated with supplying water? Do they include sanitation and hygiene? If so, how?
    22. 22. Water Safety Plans System Assessment: Step 4 – Determine and validate control measures and reassess risks
    23. 23. Determine Control Measures Also known as barriers or mitigation - triggers Planning – catchment management, planning controls (farming and effluent codes) land ownership Physical – moving stock, engineering at intake, fencing, treatment back up and security, monitoring and inspecting Communication – within suppliers, advisories
    24. 24. Validate Control Measures Show how the control measures work and reassess risk with measures in place
    25. 25. Questions The WSP manual illustrates many examples of control measures for urban utility managed systems. What would be the main control measures in rural community managed systems and how would you validate their impact?
    26. 26. Water Safety Plans System Assessment: Step 5 – Develop, implement & maintain an improvement/ upgrade plan
    27. 27. Improvement / upgrade plan <ul><li>Short, medium and long term </li></ul><ul><li>Manage what you can and plan for the rest. Key features may include: </li></ul><ul><li>Options for mitigating risks </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities for improvement assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Capital works and financing </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced operational procedures (SOPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Community consultation programmes </li></ul><ul><li>R&D, incident protocols, communication and reporting </li></ul>
    28. 29. Development of Indonesian Water Safety Plan The Big Picture.... K1 : Quality; K2 : Quantity; K3 : Continuity; K4 : Affordability Conventional sources (surface water, groundwater, mata air). Alternative sources (rain water, recycled water) Cat c hment area & sources environmental sanitation forestry, industrial pollution, etc Treatable raw water quality and quantity (K1, K2, K3) Operation of water treatment units Drinking water distribution K1, K2, K3, K4 Water Tre a tment Enterprises Safe drinking water Healthy Habbits Program Consumer Community water enterprises Individual water enterprises Community and Individual Sanitation Community based and I n dividual Water Body K1, K2, K3, K4
    29. 30. Review of Questions Why external WSP team members and representing which organizations? What would be the key similarities/differences between WSP Teams for community and utility managed water supplies? In what ways do urban and rural water supply systems differ, in terms of system components, hazards and hazardous events? - DAWA Can all hazards and hazardous events be managed by the water supplier? If not, with whom, and how, can water suppliers best engage to reduce the risks associated with supplying water? Do they include sanitation and hygiene? How? – ML & Lito What would be the main control measures in rural community managed systems and how would you validate their impact? Kamal & David

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