9th of november a historical date


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Historical events connected in German History to the 9th of November, the history that connects them and the history of my family that connects me with those.

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9th of november a historical date

  1. 1. 9th of November A date a German will not and others should not forget 70 years of German History A personal perspective Cornelio Hopmann 9th of November 2000 Disclaimer: I’ve never done this before, less in foreign language. Hence apologies for orthographic, grammatical and idiomatic errors. History is just not my field of expertise.
  2. 2. Historic events – a 9th of November 1918 - Republic 1923 – Hitler Putsch 1939 – Bomb fails Hitler 1938 – Night of Broken Crystals
  3. 3. My Grand Family My Grandparents Prof. Dr. Josef & Dr. Maria Hopmann – 1975, 1898 - 1980 Catholic, with family trees documented back to 1694 Rhineland Astronomer, classical philology (Greek, Latin) Great Grandfathers: Dr. jur. Hopmann, Dr. jur. Horster 1890 Bishop Johannes & Lic. Charlotte Beermann – 1958, 1888 – 1956 Lutheran, with family trees documented back to 1742 Estonia MStheol, Graduated in Pedagogy Great Grandfathers: G. Beermann (Architect), H. Scheel (Merchant) 1878
  4. 4. My Great Great Granduncles Joseph Hopmann, City Lawyer & Emma Satorius ~ 1850 Emma a descendant of a French - most probably Jewish - family
  5. 5. My Great Grandfather
  6. 6. Another German – Heinrich Himmler 1900 – 1945 Conservative, Academic Catholic Parents High school-Principal G. Himmler Godfather Heinrich Prince of BavArya Candidate for Officer 1918 MSC Agriculture 1922 Excellent Administrator and Organizer
  7. 7. Another German - 1942 It is absolutely wrong to project our own harmless soul with its deep feelings, our kindheartedness, our idealism, upon alien peoples. This is true, beginning with Herder, who must have been drunk when he wrote the Voices Of The Peoples, thereby bringing such immeasurable suffering and misery upon us who came after him. This is true, beginning with the Czechs and Slovenes, to whom we brought their sense of nationhood. They themselves were incapable of it, but we invented it for them.
  8. 8. Another German – 1942 One principle must be absolute for the SS man: we must be honest, decent, loyal and friendly to members of our blood and to no one else. What happens to the Russians, what happens to the Czechs, is a matter of utter indifference to me. Such good blood of our own kind as there may be among the nations we shall acquire for ourselves, if necessary by taking away the children and bringing them up among us.
  9. 9. Another German - 1942 Whether the other races live in comfort or perish of hunger interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our culture; apart from that it does not interest me. Whether or not 10,000 Russian women collapse from exhaustion while digging a tank ditch interests me only in so far as the tank ditch is completed for Germany.
  10. 10. Another German - 1942 We shall never be rough or heartless where it is not necessary; that is clear. We Germans, who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude to animals, will also adopt a decent attitude to these human animals, but it is a crime against our own blood to worry about them and to bring them ideals.
  11. 11. Another German - 1942 I shall speak to you here with all frankness of a very serious subject. We shall now discuss it absolutely openly among ourselves, nevertheless we shall never speak of it in public. I mean the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish race.
  12. 12. Another German - 1942 Most of you know what it means to see a hundred corpses lying together, five hundred, or a thousand. To have gone through this and yet - apart from a few exceptions, examples of human weakness to have remained decent fellows, this is what has made us hard. This is a glorious page in our history that has never been written and shall never be written.
  13. 13. Heinrich Himmler - Organizer Joins Hitler 1923 Organizes SS 1927 Gestapo 1933 KZ 1934 RSHA 1939 Taskforces 1941 Endlösung 1942
  14. 14. Administrator Himmler
  15. 15. Structure of the presentation Before Holocaust German „Revolution‟ The golden twenties Nazi & Holocaust After Holocaust The Nuremberg Trials The long silence The Auschwitz Trial When I got older
  16. 16. 11/09/1918 German „Revolution‟ Wilson 14 points for a Cease Fire (01/08) German HQ declares internally war lost (08/14) Germany asks for Cease Fire (10/04) Revolt of Marines in Kiel (10/29) Worker & Soldier Committees take over local powers (10/29-11/08 Phillip Scheidemann declares Germany Republic (11/09) Cease Fire, accepting the Wilson Conditions (11/11) German troops still outside, no foreign troops in Germany Birth of the November-Treason legend
  17. 17. Lost territories
  18. 18. My grandparents at that time J. Beerman Returns from Petersburg, where he worked at private noble high schools, earning personal nobility Tries as „undercover‟ to rescue a German princess, married to a cousin of the Czar J. Hopmann  Returns as Colonel from WW I  Finishes his tenure - thesis in astronomy M. Horster Earns as first German women ever a doctorate classical philology
  19. 19. 11/09/1923 Hitler Putsch Munich In the beginning 20 Versailles treaty quits parts of Germany Very high War compensation Coal & Iron Zone Ruhr occupied by French Situations near to civil war in many parts of Germany (origins on left and right) Luddendorf On (Ex-Chief of Staff Army) & Hitler occasion to recall the November-treason they try to install a right populist government in Munich. Attempt put down the next days Hitler sentenced to 5 years Serving 8 month he writes Mein Kampf
  20. 20. My grandparents at that time J. Hopmann marries M. Horster Tenure in astronomy at Bonn Elected secretary general of the German/Austrian Astronomical Society Proposes an observation based alternative to Einstein‟s Math based „Jewish‟ General Relativity Nobel Franck put „German‟ Matrix-QM against „Jewish‟ Wave-QM Honored 1924 as an Asteroid is named Hopmann – Birth of my father
  21. 21. My grandparents at that time J. Beerman marries Ch. Scheel His Father invented the current Estonia Flag Organizes German Schools Organizes German Chamber of Business Is elected top representative and government member for the German minority in Estonia – Birth of my mother 1930 the family moves to East Prussia 1923
  22. 22. Hitler and his party grow Hitlers NSDAP obtains the greatest share in a series of national elections National Socialist German Workers Party Against (Jewish) Plutocrats (Jewish) Communists (Jewish) Foreign Intervention For a great, strong and unified Germany
  23. 23. 01/30/1933 Machtergreifung President Hindenburg appoints Hitler Chancellor of the Reich 8 conservatives & liberals „we control & use Hitler‟ Only 3 Nazi-Members Nazi control Police
  24. 24. 03/23/1933 Empowerment Act 02/27/33 Reichstag burns down 02/28/33 State of exception declared 03/23/33 Empowerment Act Suspension of legislation for 6 years Legislative power to the Reichskanzler Most members of parliament agree Conservatives, Catholic Party, Liberals Except Communist Party (in prison or underground) Social Democrat Party (some in prison) 3 others (left liberal)
  25. 25. My parents & grandparents My parents start their primary that year J. Hopmann Appointed Director Observatory Leipzig Elected Dean of Sci-Math Faculty Leipzig J. Beermann Elected Lutheran Bishop of Danzig Free City (independent state) by Versailles Borders with German East Prussia (West Prussia Polish) No land connection to Germany German Majority Principal port of Poland Activist They for integration with Germany vote (probably): Zentrum, NSDAP
  26. 26. Achievements Cut down of unemployment National Work Service Autobahn Construction Financial Support to Agriculture Arms relevant industry Ignores Versailles Treaty Stop to compensation payments Reestablishment of Navy, Air Force Buildup of Army „strong and respected Germany‟
  27. 27. Terror Autodafé Books 40% of Contemporary Literature General Relativity Einstein Campaign leaded by students and faculty Don‟t buy at Jews Jewish public servants are removed (including universities) About 35% of the intellectuals Jewish or other nonconforming – leave Germany
  28. 28. Laws to protect the „Aryan‟ race 09/15/35 Nuremberg Rasse Gesetze Jews are no longer citizens No marriage between Jews & Aryans Nor extra-martial relations Female Aryan employees of Jews have to be older than 45 Jews From not permitted in „German‟ education Kinder to Universities Jews not permitted as lawyers & physicians Special Passport for Jews (Big J) Partially on request by GB, Switzerland, USA Most countries deny entry to Jewish refugees
  29. 29. German Law: Who is a Jew ? 1.Who once in his life professed Jewish religion 2.Whose parents were/are Jews 3.½ Jew = one parent is/was Jew or two grandparents 4.¼ Jew = one grandparent 5.1/8 Jew = one great grandparent 6.Persecution applies from ½ Jew onward 7.Professional inhibitions apply from ¼ Jew onward 8.Jews have to add Sara or Israel to their names Notes: This is not a racial definition About 30% of Germans were at least 1/8 Jew
  30. 30. Diagrams to the law
  31. 31. School Scene
  32. 32. Public Scenes
  33. 33. An announcement - elsewhere Washington Holocaust Museum Olympics - 36 During the 1930s prejudice toward Jews was widespread in American culture and everyday social life. Universities limited the admission of Jewish students through informal quotas, and certain neighborhoods and social clubs excluded Jews
  34. 34. Forced Jewish Migration in Europe
  35. 35. Olympics – Berlin 1936 Despite ….. 49 nations participate in the Olympics All use the German Greeting Germany appears wealthier, stronger and more respected than ever
  36. 36. Munich Treaty –1938 03/13 Austria annexed Versailles 09/29 prohibited union Munich Treaty Czechoslovakia divided Sudeten annexed Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany sign Czechoslovakia– not invited
  37. 37. 11/09/1938 Reichskristallnacht 11/07 Shooting of German delegate in Paris 11/09 Celebration of November Putsch Hitler calls for vengeance 11/09 – 11/10 Synagogues vandalized and burned Thousands of Jewish Business destroyed Thousands put into custody (Police, KZ)
  38. 38. Reichskristallnacht – a map
  39. 39. Reichskristallnacht The Jewish community has •To pay 1 Billion Marks as compensation (250 Million US$) •Assurances confiscated •To sell out their businesses to Germans at lowest prices •Were no longer allowed to use public transportation
  40. 40. Pogroms – frequent in 1800
  41. 41. Emigration to the US - impossible
  42. 42. 09/01/39 World War II begins Westerplatte - Danzig Germany attacks Poland SU advances west according Hitler/Stalin Pact France & GB declare war but nothing happens Poland surrenders after 20 days of war War in west starts with Hitler attacking 05/10/1940 Warschau – German Parade
  43. 43. Danzig 1939
  44. 44. Consequences – Germany wins Czechoslovakia divided ½ Satellite state with pro Nazi Government 1/3 annexed (mainly Germans) Remainder as Protectorate under SS control The above German-Austrian until 1919 Poland 1/3 - divided annexed and germanized (Prussian until 1919) Non German inhabitants driven out Germans from Estonia, Lithuania, Latonia occupy their houses etc ½ annexed to SU (border according Versailles) Remainder as territory for the expelled under SS control Generalgouvernement Warschau
  45. 45. Territory recovered
  46. 46. My parents & grandparents J. Hopmann joins the army reactivated as member of a division command (Artillery commander) J. Beermann Celebrates with a thanksgiving service at St. Mary Cathedral the integration of Danzig to the Reich Includes recovered West-Prussia to his bishop domain Assumes control over former Polish catholic churches, assigning Lutheran pastors for the resettled Germans from the Baltic Beate Helps Sabine Beermann (my mother, 16 years) as BDM president & „volunteer‟ to resettle Germans, receiving them in Danzig Harbor BDM Nazi Youth Organization for girls
  47. 47. My Grandparents & my mother
  48. 48. 11/09/1939 Carpenter against Hitler Georg Elser During 6 months preparation and installation of the bomb Completely alone “To avoid more bloodshed” Every 8 of November Hitler gives an „Eve of 9 of November‟ speech Bomb explodes at 21:24 Hitler had left at 21:05 Afterwards caught by border officer 11/10/39 Send to KZ Sachsenhausen without trial or publicity
  49. 49. 06/21/41 – Attack on USSR Germany Most opens war without declaration Germans, including clergy, agree .. It‟s against satanic (Jewish) Bolshevism German allies & satellites participate Many in the territories occupied before by force by the soviets initially collaborate (Baltic, Byelorussia, Ukraine) Einsatzgruppen 7 (Task Forces) cleanup Million civilians including 2 million Jews killed 5 Million Prisoners of War killed 2 Million partisan fighters or suspects killed
  50. 50. 01/20/1942 Wannsee Meeting Meeting of top officials Office of Chancellor (Head of Government) Interior, Exterior, Economy, Justice Police, Reichs-Security, Occupation-Forces Topic: Final solution to the Jewish Problem in Europe 537.000 Jews forced to emigration until 10/31/41 How to eliminate the remaining more than 11.000.000 Most efficiently and effectively Involving local governments & allies & satellites Respecting the needs and limits of war Without affecting economy & war production
  51. 51. Jewish Population 1939
  52. 52. The Enterprise “Final solution” Gathering Ghettos of Jews by country (walled city – districts) Construction of special camps Transport to special camps Selection Unqualified for labor Immediate evacuation Qualified for labor Forced labor appropriate final treatment for survivors
  53. 53. Top Executives “Final solution” Heinrich Himmler Reichsführer SS Supreme Executive Suicide 1945 Reinhardt Heydrich Chief RSHA Organizer until 1942 (killed in assault) Adolf Eichmann Chief Jewish Section RSHA Organizer since 1942 Hanged (1961! Israel)
  54. 54. Concentration Camps
  55. 55. The Railroads of Holocaust
  56. 56. The only non-collaborating country In all countries local police & volunteers help to identify and gather Jews, transport & railway -officials & -workers help in transportation In Denmark King & ordinary citizens wear in public the Star of David Local authorities and civilians hide Jews Together they organize rescue in fisher boats
  57. 57. Plan of Auschwitz/Birkenau
  58. 58. Extermination Camp Operation Mass Grave Undressing Room Gas Chamber Mortuary Crematory Ramp Selection Registration Recycling Personal Values Slave Labor Death by Exhaustion, Disease Beaten, Hanged or Shot ‘Medical’ Experiments Gas Chamber
  59. 59. Central Feature Within those crematories, all stations of the extermination process were geographically centralized and mechanized. Each station had undress rooms, gas chambers and ovens to incinerate the bodies.
  60. 60. Core Installations Bunker I Two gas chamber for 800 people, undress rooms, mass graves Since 1941 Bunker II Four gas chambers for 1.200 people, undress rooms 1942; reconstructed spring 1944 and used as reserve during daytime Crematorium Subterranean II gas chamber for up to 3.000 people, surface five ovens for daily 1.440 bodies March 1943 till November 1944
  61. 61. Core Installations Crematorium III Subterranean gas chamber for up to 3.000 people, surface five ovens for daily 1.440 bodies June 1943 till November 1944 Crematorium IV 4 gas chambers surface for some 3.000 people, two ovens for 768 bodies daily since March 1943, destroyed by inmates on Oct. 7, 1944 Crematorium 4 V gas chambers surface for some 3.000 people, two ovens for 768 bodies daily April 1943 till November 1944
  62. 62. Capacity According to technical calculations, 4.756 bodies could be burnt in the crematories. But this was just a theoretical factor, which included the time for maintenance and purge of the fire-places. Practically, up to 5.000 bodies were burnt in the crematories II and III every day, 3.000 in crematorium IV and V.
  63. 63. Capacity The capacities of the funeral piles at the bunkers was unlimited. In summer of 1944, during the deportation of Hungarian Jews, the SS put bunker II into operation again. At this time, up to 24.000 people could be killed and burnt. The ashes of the dead were used as fertilizer on the surrounding fields, to dry swamps or they were just scattered out into rivers and lakes around the camp.
  64. 64. Camp Executives Rudolf Höß Commander Auschwitz Hanged Auschwitz 1946 {Bach Lover} Dr. Josef Mengele Chief physician Selections Chief ‘Medical Experiments’ (Twins) Died in late 70’s in Argentina
  65. 65. Identification Star of David obligatory since 1941 everywhere
  66. 66. Gathering
  67. 67. End of Warszawa Ghetto
  68. 68. Transport
  69. 69. Arrival & Ramp
  70. 70. Selection To Death
  71. 71. Last Walk
  72. 72. Gas-chamber Patented
  73. 73. Corps burning & Crematory
  74. 74. Recycled values
  75. 75. Registration
  76. 76. Slave Labor
  77. 77. Survived
  78. 78. My parents at that time My Mother (18 – 21) 1941 mother finished High school 1942 Enrolled for Medicine – Marburg 1943 Assigned as DRK medical „fieldpractise‟ during 2 summer month to KZ-Buchenwald (SS Guards-Hospital ) Dec 1944 Assigned as DRK support to German „Last-Call‟ Troops (under 16/over 65) in Poland Feb 1945 Evacuation with the remainders of KZ-Stutthof to Lower Saxiona DRK – German Red Cross
  79. 79. High School Bachelors - 1942 Unofficial and illegal Photo, the official was in BDM Uniform
  80. 80. My parents at that time My father (18 – 22) 1942 Finished High school 1942 Enters Military Academy Dresden 1943 Assigned as Radio specialist to fieldtroops in Ukraine 1944 Participates in ending of Warszawa uprising with later complete destruction of the center (Operation Carthago) 1945 stays with German troops in Czechoslovakia
  81. 81. 08/05/1945 German Surrender 04/15/45 Soviet troops circle Berlin 04/21/45 Hitler commits suicide 05/08/45 Unconditional surrender of Germany Most Germans think that Germany suffered more but enough Many Germans and some US – GN. Patton – express that it had been the wrong war: together they should have fought against Bolshevism
  82. 82. Danzig - 1945
  83. 83. Germany 1945 – Dresden Destroyed by British and US Bombers 02/13/45 35,000 - 135,000 Dead
  84. 84. 11/21/1945 The Nuremberg Trials International Court to „state an example‟ British, French & Soviet preferred summary justice, US prevail with their point Crimes of war and against peace Den Haag Conventions Crimes No against humanity applicable positive law or treaty Judges from all 4 nations German and other lawyers as defense The majority – not all – sentenced to death After first trial against Top – Nazi only US judges continue trials against Industrials, Scientists & Physicians, Judges & Lawyers
  85. 85. The long silence 1947 - 1965 Cold War supersedes Holocaust Most sentenced in Nuremberg freed 1952 1952 London agreements inhibit individual judicial actions New Bundeswehr with old officers (1955), Gehlen (BND) OSS special commands against SU with SS-volunteers Cases Belarus, Hungary, Lithuania, Rumania „Racism‟ Most anywhere (Blacks, Goks, Indians, Japs, Jews … ) West-German Society leaders continue Judges & Higher public servants (no Judge lost office) Globke, chief advisor of Adenauer, first West-German head of government, wrote the official explanations of the Rasse Gesetze Industrial Leaders (Abs, Krupp, Thyssen, Siemens …) Technical specialists continue in the US and SU Rocket & Space Programs (v. Braun – NASA) University Faculty & School Teachers
  86. 86. My parents at that time – Released from custody 1947 – both start to study in Gotinga (Göttingen) 1949 – Married 03/13/1950 – my birth date 1946 From a text (1994) of my father about that time Most of us – returned from war and sitting in university classrooms hungry and freezing – were only interested in starting a new civil live, away from what ever type of politics They in graduate 1954 (MSc – Parts of 1st German Electronic Computer) 1956 (Dr. med, Child disorders caused by mistreatment) At that time I had already 2 brothers & 1 sister
  87. 87. Wedding Day
  88. 88. My Grandparents at that time J. Beermann & his wife Charlotte 01/21/45 Leave Danzig, refugees in Gotinga 1946 Formal Retirement 1956 Death of my Grandmother 1958 Death of my Grandfather I was too young then for serious conversation But he left some 80 pages of memories
  89. 89. My Grandparents and I Hopmann Beermann
  90. 90. My grandparents at that time J. Hopmann & his wife Maria 1946 Reach Göttingen as refugees from Leipzig 1952 Appointed Director of Observatory – Wien Recovers his “damaged” reputation rapidly Specializing on Double Star Systems & Moon Observation 1965 Retired and returned to Bonn 1975 Dies of Cancer 1980 Lunar Crater is named Hopmann As Austrian Astronomer 1985 – Death of My Grandmother (1)They lost their eldest son, missing in Action, 03/45 (2)The youngest son, affected by Encephalitis, had to be protected against the Nazi Euthanasia Program had talks with him about 19 – 45 only during his last weeks, when he knew that he was dying. He began himself, accepted the criminal, but still insisted that Germany was forced into that situation. (3)I
  91. 91. The memory image
  92. 92. The Auschwitz Trial 1962-1965 Until 1959 (west-) allies regulations do not permit that German Law-system investigates and judges NaziCrimes. Most Germans agree with that regulation. 1962 First Trial at a German Court 20 SS lower officials & service-men from Auschwitz 1965 6 The Sentences life-term sentences for personally committed and by witness testimony documented first degree murder in individual cases 11 sentences with 3 to 14 years for second degree murder in an undefined number of cases but „under military obedience‟ All sentences based on German Criminal Code as of 1941
  93. 93. At home at that time When the trial started I was 12, when it ended 15 At home My mother collected all press information related to Auschwitz asked us (me and my brother) to read and to ask questions My parents started talking about their experiences without getting specific why it could happen why it can happen again about those „above‟ and others not on trial
  94. 94. At school at that time – 49 Not a topic before 1965 in education at all Not a topic now for you 1933 we‟re talking about Egypt, Athens, Sparta, Rom ..... When it got a topic in 1965 it is about the equally bad red and brown totalitarians where the really bad nazi-leaders are already dead And Germany is now a good democracy are good friends with all good ones – even Israel And we fight –even if not military- all bad ones Together with our strong and good ally, the United States We
  95. 95. 1968 – my turning year The wrong history told Universities started expulsing Jews before Hitler Not a single reference to Jews in cities and public places Nazi White Collar Criminals living among us without a problem – the „good‟ allies helped some to escape Can it happen again ? Rights Movement: Martin Luther King – shot German Student leader – nearly killed after Press-Campaign East-German troops help to end Political Spring of Prague War in Vietnam: Each evening in TV – Napalm, Agent Orange, Mylai ... Civil It will happen again unless we stand up now ! I was elected part of SG of Georgia Augusta – University Göttingen 1969 students interest & in humanity interest – politics to Campus now ! Together with the today German Chancellor Schröder In
  96. 96. High school - 1968 That’s me
  97. 97. Rediscovery of my history Not Hitler, a few leading Nazi & some criminals + betrayed majority, but overwhelming support of most Germans until 1942 No resistance, public declaration or private action of official Churches (Catholic & Protestant) against Holocaust itself. Almost all German Industry, Banks & Assurance Corporations earned Billions by Holocaust Before Jews were the most important part of our cultural and scientific wealth
  98. 98. From 1969 to 1989 1969 Brandt Chancellor During campaign attacked as Traitor Was as German part of the Norwegian resistance against German Occupation Establishment of new relations with eastern Europe Recognizing the past Without compromising the present But accepting the new borders and states Communication instead of Confrontation init that – quitting fear – eventually led to 11/09/89 An Brandt – Ghetto Memorial Warschau
  99. 99. 11/09/2000 –News from Germany BERLIN, Germany (CNN) -- Tens of thousands of Germans, headed by political and religious leaders, have staged a rally in Berlin to condemn neoNazi violence. Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder and leaders of all the other major political parties joined trade unionists, bishops and Jewish leaders in a march against intolerance through the center of the capital. Chancellor Schroeder called the rally against the rising number of racial attacks in his country as a "revolt of the decent." Celebrities joined politicians in the march, including tennis greats Steffi Graf and Boris Becker, as well as Nobel prize winning writer Guenter Grass. Thousands marched from one of Berlin's most historic synagogues in the former eastern half of the city, to the rally at the Brandenburg Gate. CNN's Chris Burns described the rally as "a demonstration of collective anger at the rising number of racist and anti-Semitic attacks this year." .
  100. 100. 2000 – Why now and again Almost all active politicians & leaders They are not even involved in the operation „silence‟ are born after Significant exception Pope John Paul II Civil & Human Rights movement Revisionists & New Right Reunified Germany and collapsed USSR No „friend – enemy‟ pressure & No „good – evil‟ bias Personal claims possible (since 1990) Mass killings & Ethnic cleansing Cambodia, Uganda, Yugoslavia UNO admits to have failed in prevention International Courts for humanity crimes Nuremberg rulings as model and example (50 years later!) Torture, Unjustified killing by public power, Genocide Treaty not signed by some states (US) arguing national sovereignty
  101. 101. What I learnt as person I learnt To say „No‟ Arms aren‟t toys and killing is no game Never, even as joke, equal a person to an animal We‟re not called to be Lords of Life Deciding is a gift and an obligation Silence may imply approval Objectives never justify means Personal responsibility can not be assumed by someone else, nor delegated nor taken away that‟s what I try to transmit to next generations
  102. 102. One next generation
  103. 103. A Sidebar on Nicaragua – The German Club Managua still had a Jewish Vicepresident 1941 – Somoza G. declares war on Germany 1936 Most „Germans‟ & male descendants up to the 3rd generation put in custody and transferred to the US. „German‟ property confiscated (most end up as Somoza) Jewish Germans not affected Today Both communities disappeared as cultural-religious communities
  104. 104. What I learnt as political person The German constitution (1949, Art. 1) Human dignity is untouchable, her protection is the first obligation of all public power. The Declaration of Independence (1776) We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Take these basic principles literally, always, anywhere !
  105. 105. My „Men of the XX century‟ Responsibility for consequences Non Violence Civil Rights