THIS PICTURE IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT SHOWS A FAMILY WHOSE LIVED THROUGH THIS AWFUL TIME. WE WILL BE LOOKING AT A BOOK CALLED THE SOAPMAKER WHICH TELLS THE STORY OF A YOUNG POLISH BOY'S LIFE THROUGHOUT THE WAR. AFTER ALL THAT HORRIFIC EVIDENCE OF WHAT HAPPENED THERE SHOULD ONLY BE ONE QUESTION ON YOUR MINDS. A QUESTION WHICH WE WILL TRY TO ANSWER OVER THE NEXT FEW LESSONS.... (MOUSE CLICK) WHY.
Most Nazi propaganda was directed at Jews. This early image appeared in the Nazi magazine Der Stürmer in 1930, before the Nazis came into power. It states “The year has ended, the struggle continues”. In such propaganda, Germans are shown as a strong, handsome and superior race. Jews are shown as ugly, weak, deceitful and conniving.
No criticism Nazi propaganda was used to make Germans feel proud of themselves but also superior to others, as a country and also as a race. No criticism was allowed, so all “un-German” books, art, and culture were banned. The Jews are described everywhere as a threat to Germany and the German way of life that had to be dealt with quickly and harshly. They were even compared to rats and cockroaches. Other groups such as Gypsies, Socialists and Blacks were also described in the media as a danger to Germany. Lies and myths The Nazi’s established a special ministry of Propaganda, called the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. With only one source of information, the German people come to believe many of the lies and myths that the government broadcasts day after day. After years of economic hardship and a sense of loss, it is hard to resist the wave of pride that was promoted by the Nazis.
This slow process increased in tempo in 1935. Following a gigantic rally of the Nazi Party in Nuremberg, laws were passed which removed the right of Jews to be citizens of Germany. They had effectively become non-people.
In 1938 further laws were introduced which removed citizenship from any Jews who was from Polish descent. Several thousand Jews were taken to the Polish border but were refused entry into Poland . Herschl Grynszpan, a Jewish émigré in Paris, as a protest at the treatment of German Jews shot and killed a Nazi diplomat in Paris. This was the excuse that the Nazis had been waiting for. Shortly after the assassination, a night of violence was launched across Germany - synagogues and Jewish shops were attacked, destroyed and burnt down and Jews were beaten and murdered. Ninety Jews were killed and thousands put into concentration camps. Also the Jews were made to pay for the damagae which had been caused to their houses and shops. The night, November 9/10 November 1938, became known as Kristallnacht - the night of the shattered glass. Look at the two sources below: - As Hitler's speech preceded the Evian Conference, why do you think that the delegates from around the world did not pay serious attention to the threats of Hitler? - Why did these countries not want to take in additional Jewish refugees? - What do the comments of the Australian delegate say about atitudes towards Jews around the world?
Major ghettos in occupied Europe During World War II, the Germans established ghettos mainly in eastern Europe (between 1939 and 1942) and also in Hungary (in 1944). These ghettos were enclosed districts of a city in which the Germans forced the Jewish population to live under miserable conditions. The Germans regarded the establishment of Jewish ghettos as a provisional measure to control, isolate, and segregate Jews. Beginning in 1942, after the decision had been made to kill the Jews, the Germans systematically destroyed the ghettos, deporting the Jews to extermination camps where they were killed.
How did they manage to get together all these Jews to kills them? How did they kill them when they had them? To begin with there were concentration camps.
There were concentration camps and death camps. If you went to a death camp the chances of coming out alive were virtually nil. Even at concentration camps though you were likely to die from the appalling conditions. Or, if you were very young, old, or incapable of hard labour, it was likely you would be transferred to a death camp too. Anne Frank died at Belsen from Typhoid. Leonard Leher's mother and sisters were sent to Sobibor. YOU MAY ASK &quot;WHO WERE THESE PEOPLE WHO WERE SENT TO PLACES LIKE THIS?&quot; THEY WERE CHILDREN JUST LIKE YOU. THE ONLY DIFFERENCE WAS THEIR RACE AND THE RELIGION THEY FOLLOWED.
THIS IS THE GAS THAT WAS INTRODUCED IN 1942. JEWS WERE SENT INTO SEALED SHOWER UNITS ON THE PRETENCE THAT THEY WERE GOING TO BE SHOWERED. PELLETS WERE THEN PLACED INTO THE SHOWER HEADS AND GAS CAME FROM THE SHOWERS INSTEAD OF WATER. 15 MINUTES LATER THE SHOWER ROOM WOULD BE EMPTIED, BODIES WERE ALWAYS IN A PYRAMID SHAPE, PEOPLE TRIED TO CLIMB ON TOP OF ONE ANOTHER TO ESCAPE THE GAS. BEFORE THIS TYPE OF KILLING METHOD WAS INTRODUCED THOUGH A MORE PRIMITIVE GASSING METHOD WAS USED.... I DON'T KNOW HOW, OR EVEN WHY THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN, BUT IT SHOWS SOME MEN AWAITING DEATH ON THEIR WAY TO THEIR BURIAL PLACE. DID THEY ALWAYS BURY THE DEAD?
NO. MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, ESPECIALLY WHEN THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE MURDERED GREW ESPECIALLY HIGH, NAZIS BURNED THE BODIES. SO WHAT OTHER METHODS WERE USED TO SYSTEMATICALLY MURDER THESE PEOPLE?
OBVIOUSLY TOWARDS THE END OF THE WAR THEY TRIED TO COVER THEIR TRACKS. IT WAS NOT GUILT THOUGH AND THEY DID NOT DO THE WORK THEMSELVES. THEY MADE JEWS AND OTHER PRISONERS OF WAR DIG UP THE BODIES AND BURN THEM INSTEAD.
HOW DID THEY KILL THESE INNOCENT CHILDREN, ALONG WITH THEIR PARENTS, GRANDPARENTS, FRIENDS ETC.. YOU WILL ALL HAVE PROBABLY HEARD OF THE WAY NAZiS GASSED THE JEWS.
MASS EXECUTION USING A FIRING SQUAD WAS COMMON. THESE WOMEN HAVE BEEN ORDERED TO REMOVE EVERYTHING, CLOTHES, JEWELLERY, EVEN WEDDING RINGS AND ARE BEING FORCED TO LINE UP AND WAIT FOR THEIR TURN TO BE KILLED. SOME TIME LATER...
THEY HAVE BEEN ORDERED TO LIE, FACE DOWN ON THE GROUND AND HAVE BEEN SHOT. THE GERMAN POLICEMAN IS SHOOTING INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE ESCAPED DEATH FROM THE INITIAL ROUND OF BULLETS. THIS IS HORRIFIC BUT WE CANNOT SEE THE INDIVIDUAL FACES OF THOSE KILLED, WE DON'T REALLY KNOW WHO THEY ARE OR WHAT THEY REALLY LOOKED LIKE. SO TAKE A LOOK AT THIS NEXT PICTURE...
THIS PICTURE TELLS US A LOT. HER PARENTS ARE OBVIOUSLY WEALTHY ENOUGH TO HAVE HAD A PORTRAIT DONE, SO IT SHOWS US THAT THE STATUS OF THE JEWS DID NOT MATTER TO THE NAZIS. IT WAS NOT JUST THE POOR WHICH WERE KILLED. THEY WERE KILLED REGARDLESS OF WEALTH OR STATUS, THEIR DEATH WAS DETERMINED BY RELIGION AND RACE.
GIVES SOME IDEA OF THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE. BUT WHY DID THE NAZI WANT THEM TO REMOVE THEIR CLOTHES? WHAT DID THEY WANT WITH THEIR JEWELLERY, CLOTHES, EVEN HAIR?
THESE PICTURES SHOW WHAT THEY WANTED. WERE THE NAZI'S NOT WORRIED ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR ACTIONS? DID THEY NOT THINK ABOUT WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN IF ALLIED COUNTRIES DISCOVERED WHAT WAS HAPPENING?
The Holocaust In 1933 nine million Jews lived in the 21countries of Europe that would be occupied by Nazi Germany during World War 2. By 1945two out of every three European Jews had been killed.
Anti -Semitism This is the term given to political, social andeconomic agitation against Jews. In simple terms it means ‘Hatred of Jews’. Aryan Race This was the name of what Hitler believed was the perfect race. These were people with full German blood, blonde hair and blue eyes.
For hundreds of years Christian Europe had regarded the Jews as theChrist -killers. At one time or another Jews had been driven out ofalmost every European country. The way they were treated inEngland in the thirteenth century is a typical example. ATIn 1275 they were made to wear a yellow badge. GO SC APEIn 1287 269 Jews were hanged in the Tower of London. wer eaThis deep prejudice against Jews was still strong in the twentieth Jewscentury, especially in Germany, Poland and Eastern Europe, wherethe Jewish population was very large.After the First World War hundreds of Jews were blamed for thedefeat in the War. Prejudice against the Jews grew during theeconomic depression which followed. Many Germans were poorand unemployed and wanted someone to blame. They turned on theJews, many of whom were rich and successful in business.
“Until September 14, 1939 my life was typical of a young Jewish boy in that part of the world in that period of time. I lived in a Jewish community surrounded by gentiles. Aside from my immediate family, I hadWHY? many relatives and knew all the town people, both Jews and gentiles. Almost two weeks after the outbreak of the war and shortly after my Bar Mitzvah, my world exploded. In the course of the next five and a half years I lost my entire family and almost everyone I ever knew. Death, violence and brutality became a daily occurrence in my life while I was still a young teenager.” Leonard Lerer, 1991
19• Hitler comes to Power 33• New legislation set to exclude Jews from the life of Germany. – Laws were passed banning Jews from working in professional capacities; schools were established exclusively for Jewish children and quotas limited their entry into Universities. – They could neither join the army nor participate in the artistic life of the country.
• This Nazi propaganda poster from 1932 links Jews with the development of capitalism, communism, & socialism.
NUREMBERG LAW FOR THE PROTECTION OF GERMAN BLOOD AND GERMAN HONOUR, SEPTEMBER 15, 1935• Moved by the understanding that purity of the German Blood is the essential condition for the continued existence of the German people, and inspired by the inflexible determination to ensure the existence of the German Nation for all times, the Reichstag has unanimously adopted the following Law, which is promulgated herewith: – §1 1. Marriages between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if conducted abroad to circumvent this law. 2. Annulment proceedings can be initiated only by the State Prosecutor. – §2 1. Extramarital intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood is forbidden. – §3 1. Jews may not employ in their households female subjects of the state of German or related blood who are under 45 years old.
– §4 1. Jews are forbidden to fly the Reich or National flag or to display the Reich colours. 2. They are, on the other hand, permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.– §5 1. Any person who violates the prohibition under § 1 will be punished by a prison sentence with hard labour. 2. A male who violates the prohibition under § 2 will be punished with a prison sentence with or without hard labour. 3. Any person violating the provisions under § § 3 or 4 will be punished with a prison sentence of up to one year and a fine, or with one or the other of these penalties.– §6 1. The Reich Minister of the Interior, in co-ordination with the Deputy of the Führer and the Reich Minister of Justice, will issue the Legal and Administrative regulations required to implement and complete this Law.– § 7 The Law takes effect on the day following promulgation except for § 3, which goes into force on January 1, 1936.
Why was this allowed?• "Since we have no racial problem, we are not desirous of importing one." – Australian delegate, Evian Conference.• "I can only hope and expect that the other world, which has such deep sympathy for these criminals, will at least be generous enough to convert this sympathy into practical aid. We, on our part, are ready to put all these criminals at the disposal of these countries, for all I care, even on luxury ships" – Adolph Hitler March 1938 From 1938 onwards, it was obvious to Jews that they should leave Germany as soon as possible. The stage of expulsion had started. Although half of the Jews left Germany before 1941, over half a million remained, at the mercy of Hitler and the Nazis.
• Germans invaded Poland 19• The millions of Jews who had fled to Poland to 39 escape the Nazis now suddenly came under Germanys control.• Over three million Jews lived in Poland• The Nazis first act was to round up all Jews and send them into ghettos. – These were small areas of towns which were sealed off and allocated to the Jews. – Life within the ghetto was intolerable • overcrowding, hunger and disease Despite this, many Jews survived, thinking and hoping that their suffering must one day cease.
Between 1939 and 1945six million Jews weremurdered, along withhundreds of thousands ofothers, such as Gypsies,Jehovah’s Witnesses,disabled and thementally ill.
Percentage of Jews killed in each country 0Jews ,000 ,00 o ta l of 6AT
A MAP OF THE CONCENTRATION CAMPS AND DEATH CAMPS USED BY THE NAZIS.
ch auD a• KZ Dachau was the first concentration camp established in Nazi Germany - the camp was opened on March 22, 1933. • First inmates were primarily: Political prisoners Habitual Criminals Social Democrats Homosexuals Communists Jehovah’s Witnesses Trade unionists Beggars • "On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 persons. All Communists and—where necessary —Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organise as soon as they are released.”
Types of Camps• Hostage camps (or death camps) – Hostages were held and killed as reprisals.• Labor camps – Had to do hard physical labor under inhumane conditions and cruel treatment.• POW camps: – Prisoners of war were held after capture – Endured torture and liquidation on a large scale.• Camps for rehabilitation and re-education of Poles: – Intelligentsia of the ethnic Poles were held, and "re-educated" according to Nazi values as slaves.• Transit and collection camps: – camps where inmates were collected and routed to main camps, or temporarily held (Durchgangslager or Dulag).• Externmination Camps
Road to Death Camps• In the late 1930s the Nazis killed thousands of handicapped Germans by lethal injection and poisonous gas. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, mobile killing units following in the wake of the German Army began shooting massive numbers of Jews and Gypsies in open fields and ravines on the outskirts of conquered cities and towns.• Eventually the Nazis created a more secluded and organized method of killing. Extermination centers were established in occupied Poland with special apparatus especially designed for mass murder. Giant death machines.
Part of a stockpile of Zyklon-B poison gas pellets found at Majdanek death camp.Before poison gas was used ,Jews were gassed in mobile gasvans. Carbon monoxide gasfrom the engine’s exhaust wasfed into the sealed rearcompartment. Victims weredead by the time they reachedthe burial site.
Auschwitz• Largest numbers of European Jews were killed.• By mid 1942, mass gassing of Jews using Zyklon-B began – where extermination was conducted on an industrial scale with some estimates running as high as three million persons eventually killed through gassing, starvation, disease, shooting, and burning. – 9 out of 10 were Jews. – Gypsies, Soviet POWs, and prisoners of all nationalities died in the gas chambers.• Private diaries of Goebbels and Himmler (developers of Auschwitz) unearthed from the secret Soviet archives show that Hitler personally ordered the mass extermination of the Jews - as Goebbels wrote "With regards to the Jewish question, the Fuhrer decided to make a clean sweep ..."
In 1943, when the number of murdered Jews exceeded 1 million. Nazisordered the bodies of those buried to be dug up and burned to destroy alltraces.Soviet POWs at forced labor in 1943 exhuming bodies in the ravine atBabi Yar, where the Nazis had murdered over 33,000 Jews in Septemberof 1941.
Children• The number of children killed during the Holocaust is not fathomable and full statistics for the tragic fate of children who died will never be known. Estimates range as high as 1.5 million murdered children. This figure includes more than 1.2 million Jewish children, tens of thousands of Gypsy children and thousands of institutionalized handicapped children.• Plucked from their homes and stripped of their childhoods, the children had witnessed the murder of parents, siblings, and relatives. They faced starvation, illness and brutal labor, until they were consigned to the gas chambers.
16 of the 44 children taken from a French children’s home, sent to Auschwitz and killed immediately upon arrival. ONLY 1 SURVIVED*The Jewish Children Of Izieu A group of children at a concentrationcamp in Poland.
Jewish women, some holding infants, are forced to wait in a linebefore their execution by Germans and Ukrainian collaborators.
A German policeman shoots individual Jewish women who remain alivein the ravine after the mass execution.
Portrait of two-year-oldMania Halef, a Jewishchild who was among the33,771 persons shot bythe SS during the massexecutions at Babi Yar,September, 1941.
Nazis sift through a huge pile of clothes left by victims ofthe massacre.
Bales of hair shaven from women at Auschwitz, used to make felt-yarn. After liberation, an Allied soldier displays a stash of gold wedding rings takenfrom victims at Buchenwald.
Aftermath• American army units were the first to discover the camps, when on 4 April 1945 they liberated the recently-abandoned slave labor camp at Ohrdruf, in Thuringia, Germany.• Then, on 11 April, American forces liberated the camps at Buchenwald, near Weimar, and the V2 rocket slave-labour camp at Nordhausen in the Harz Mountains.
Problems with Liberation• The first task for the liberators was to tackle this medical nightmare.• Limited: Roughly 50,000 inmates still living, 20,000 were seriously or critically ill.• With those prisoners who seemed to stand some chance of living, the medical teams first washed and deloused them, before disinfecting them with DDT powder. I• nmates were then admitted to a makeshift hospital established in the camp.• Here, the doctors attempted to rehydrate and feed them, while treating their illnesses. Even so, many were just too ill to be saved. – ... 13,000 Belsen inmates died after liberation.• Some inmates had been starved for so long that they had lost the ability to digest the rations that well-meaning British soldiers offered them; within minutes of taking a biscuit, some inmates just passed away.
What to do with the bodies?• Another task was to dispose of the 20,000 diseased bodies, in order to contain the spread of typhus.• The British forces made the surrendered German and Hungarian SS camp guards carry the corpses into mass graves that had been dug by British bulldozer teams. – As punishment for their crimes, the camp guards were prevented from using protective gloves, and consequently some of them contracted typhus and died.• This method of burial soon proved too slow, and subsequently the bulldozers simply shoveled the corpses into the graves.• As the weeks went by the British steadily relocated the recovering inmates to local housing commandeered from German civilians. – As this process unfolded, the local populace were forced to inspect the camp, to see for themselves the evils committed in their name.
Survivors• Feared to return to their former homes because of the anti-semitism they had suffered before. – Some who returned home feared for their lives. – In postwar Poland, for example, there were a number of violent anti-Jewish riots.• With few possibilities for emigration, tens of thousands of homeless Holocaust survivors migrated westward to other European territories liberated by the western Allies.• There they were housed in hundreds of refugee centers and displaced persons (DP) camps such as Bergen- Belsen in Germany. – The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and the occupying armies of the United States, Great Britain, and France administered these camps.
Problems• Opportunities for legal immigration to the United States above the existing quota restrictions were still limited.• The British restricted immigration to Palestine.• Many borders in Europe were also closed to these homeless people.
M ov• With the establishment of the State of Israel in May 1948, Jewish displaced persons and refugees began streaming into the new sovereign ing state. – Possibly as many as 170,000 Jewish displaced persons and refugees had immigrated to Israel by 1953.• December 1945, President Truman issued a directive that loosened quota restrictions on immigration to the U.S. of persons displaced by the Nazi regime. – Under this directive, more than 41,000 displaced persons immigrated to the United States; approximately 28,000 were Jews. – In 1948, the U.S. Congress passed the Displaced Persons Act, which provided approximately 400,000 U.S. immigration visas for displaced persons between January 1, 1949, and December 31, 1952. – Of the 400,000 displaced persons who entered the U.S. under the DP Act, approximately 68,000 were Jews.• Other Jewish refugees in Europe emigrated as displaced persons or refugees to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, western Europe, Mexico, South America, and South Africa.
Age ofName From Death CampJudith Schwed Hungary 12 AuschwitzHerta Scheer-Krygier German 21 AuschwitzPeter Winternitz Czechoslovakia 21 AuschwitzHenoch Kornfeld Poland 3½ BelzecHenny Schermann Germany 30 Ravensbrueck & BernburgThomas Elek Hungary 20 POW in ParisEva Heyman Romania 13 AuschwitzErzsebet Markovics Katz Hungary 40 Bergen-BelsenEsther Morgansztern Poland 15 TreblinkaSmiljka Ljoljic Visnjevac Yugoslavia 30 Banjinca
NAME From Date of Birth Life during WarJeannine Burk Belgium 9/15/1939 Hidden ChildShep Zitler Lithuania 5/27/1917 Polish Soldier and Prisoner of WarEva Galler Poland 1/1/1924 Escaped a Death TrainSolomon Radasky Poland 5/17/1910 Warsaw Ghetto and AuschwitzIsak Borenstein Poland 5/5/1918 Prisoner of WarJoseph Sher Poland 7/27/1917 Labor CampsEsther Raab Poland 1922 SobiborJoseph Bau Poland 18 June 1920 PlaszowRivka Yosselevka Belarus Unknown Zagrodski Ghetto
NAME From Date of Birth Life during WarErnest Domby Czechoslovakia March 9, 1925 Theresienstadt ghetto, Auschwitz, Gross-Franz Wohlfahrt Austria January 18, 1920 Rosen Rodgau RollwaldRuth (Huppert) Czechoslovakia October 6, 1922 TheresienstadtElias ghetto, AuschwitzSaul Ingber Romania April 16, 1921 DachauArthur Karl Heinz Germany January 13, 1921 TheresienstadtOertelt and FlossenbürgThomas Czechoslovakia May 11, 1934 AuschwitzBuergenthalWolfgang Munzer Germany February 26, 1920 AuschwitzWolf Himmelfarb Poland June 19, 1927 TheresienstadtSzlamach Poland May 17, 1912 AuschwitzRadoszynski
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