The Cardiovascular System

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The Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. Procedures To Treat and Diagnose Diseases of the Cardiovascular System<br />Cheryl A. Kirby<br />Biology 120<br />Chapter 5<br />
  2. 2. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)<br />CVD – broad term used to describe many diseases of the heart and blood vessels<br />
  3. 3. 3 Procedures Used to Diagnose or Treat CVD<br />Stress Testing <br />PercutaneousTransluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)<br />Stripping and Ligation<br />
  4. 4. Stress Testing<br />Used to diagnose CVD<br />Some heart problems easier to diagnose when heart is working hard<br />Risks usually minimal, same as with any strenuous exercise<br />Tests last about 1 hour<br />
  5. 5. Stress Testing Procedure<br />Patient will walk or run on a treadmill<br />Electrodes placed on chest, shoulders, and hips and connected to EKG machine for monitoring<br />Treadmill started slowly with speed and incline increased periodically<br />
  6. 6. Stress Testing Procedure Continued<br />Doctor monitors heart rate, blood pressure, EKG pattern changes, irregular heart rhythms, patient’s appearance and symptoms<br />Test ends when patient reaches 85% of maximum heart rate for his/her age<br />May be stopped sooner if needed<br />
  7. 7. PercutaneousTransluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)<br />Used for treatment of atherosclerosis<br />Blood vessels become blocked with plaque<br />May cause heart attack or heart muscle damage if left untreated<br />Some risks<br />PTCA is performed to open up blood vessels for sufficient blood flow<br />Patient usually stays 1-2 days in hospital<br />
  8. 8. PTCA Procedure<br />Patient is given general anesthesia and blood thinners, dye is injected so doctor can follow catheter on x-ray screen<br />Small incision is made, usually in groin area<br />Catheter, balloon-tipped tube, is inserted and threaded to blockage<br />Balloon is inflated pushing plaque to wall of artery<br />Stent may be left in place so artery stays open<br />
  9. 9. PTCA Procedure Continued<br />
  10. 10. Ligation and Stripping<br />Treatment of varicose veins <br />Valves in veins leak, causing blood to flow backward and pool inside vein<br />Causes pain, swelling, cramping<br />Can lead to leg ulcers<br />Generally very safe procedure, very little pain, very few risks<br />Procedure takes 2-3 hours, outpatient basis<br />
  11. 11. Ligation and Stripping Procedure<br />Patient is given sedative and regional and/or general anesthesia<br />Incision is made at site<br />Flexible instrument is threaded up vein<br />Dilated vein is either removed or tied off<br />Afterwards, a compression stocking or bandage is worn<br />
  12. 12. Conclusion<br />Many types of CVD can be prevented and treated with lifestyle and diet changes<br />Eat a heart-healthy diet<br />Don’t smoke<br />Avoid or reduce stress<br />Exercise regularly<br />Limit alcohol consumption<br />

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