Surgical Procedures


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3 Common Surgical Procedures for Cardiovascular System

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Surgical Procedures

  1. 1. Surgical Procedures<br />Adam Rowe<br />Medical Terminology<br />Bios 120<br />17 February 2010<br />
  2. 2. Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures<br />Earliest open heart surgery performed in 19th century<br />Robot-assisted heart surgery becoming more common<br />Major complications are neurological<br />
  3. 3. Heart Transplantation<br />Surgery to remove damaged or diseased heart and replace it with a healthy donor heart<br />Heart is removed in patient and blood is circulated through heart-lung bypass machine<br />Keeps blood oxygen rich during procedure<br />Donor heart is stitched in place<br />Tubes are inserted to remove air, fluid and blood out of chest for several days<br />
  4. 4. Heart Transplantation<br />Recommended for:<br />Coronary artery disease<br />Severe heart failure<br />Heart defects present at birth<br />Only when medication won’t work<br />Not recommended for patients with:<br />Recent cancer<br />Insulin-dependent diabetes<br />Kidney, lung, nerve or liver disease<br />Smoking addiction<br />
  5. 5. Heart Transplantation<br />Risks<br />Deep venous thrombosis<br />Damage to organs from anti-rejection medication<br />Heart attack or stroke<br />Facts<br />About 3,500 performed each year<br />First one performed in 1968<br />
  6. 6. Heart Transplant<br />Outlook<br />First 24-48 hours are spent in ICU<br />Typical hospital stay is 4-21 days<br />Recovery time is about 6 months<br />Main concern is rejection<br />80% success rate for first 2 years<br />Post operation survival rate is 15 years<br />
  7. 7. Embolectomy<br />Emergency surgical removal of an emboli which is blocking blood circulation<br />Catheter Embolectomy<br />Inserting a catheter with an inflatable balloon attached to tip<br />Passing catheter beyond tip of clot<br />Inflating the balloon and pulling out the clot<br />Surgical Embolectomy<br />Simple surgical removal of clot by incision into the vessel<br />
  8. 8. Embolectomy<br />Indication<br />Surgical and catheter embolectomy is preferred for patients with pulmonary embolism<br />Acute limb ischemia<br />Removal of blood clot <br />Stroke<br />
  9. 9. Embolectomy<br />Risk and outcome<br />recover<br />80% success rate<br />Vessel wall damage, heart attack<br />Good outcome, unless necrosis before the procedure was extensive<br />Relatively quick<br />Leave from work may be necessary<br />No heavy lifting<br />
  10. 10. Valve Replacement<br />One or more heart valves are replaced with a healthy valve<br />Mechanical Valves<br /> - Man made valve<br /> - Lifetime anticoagulant is<br /> needed<br />Biological Valves<br /> - Taken from cow, pig or human<br /> donors<br /> - Don’t last as long as<br /> mechanical valves<br />
  11. 11. Valve Replacement<br />Procedure<br />Multiple incisions made in chest<br />Heart is stopped and passed through heart-lung machine to keep blood oxygenated<br />Incision is made in heart or aorta to reach valve<br />Correct size valve is selected and stitched into place<br />
  12. 12. Valve Replacement<br />Risks<br />Mortality rate of 1-5%<br />Infection, bleeding, stroke, heart attack<br />Recovery<br />ICU for 12-36 hours immediately following surgery<br />Typical stay is 4-10 days<br />Full recovery is 1-3 months, depending on health<br />No heavy lifting for 3-6 months<br />
  13. 13. Valve Replacement<br />Facts<br />About 225,000 performed each year<br />Mechanical valves often make a faint clicking noise as they open and close<br />Aortic Stenosis is the most common reason for valve replacement<br />