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  1. 1. Bio 120 Nicole Quinones C ardiovascular D iagnostic P rocedures
  2. 2. Introduction <ul>In this day and age there are many procedures that are used to monitor your cardiovascular health. These are just three of the procedures I have focused on, enjoy. </ul>
  3. 3. <ul>Cardiac Catheterization </ul>
  4. 4. <ul>In Medical Terminology, A Living Language, It is defined as a passage of a thin tube catheter through a blood vessel leading to the heart. Done to detect abnormalities, to collect cardiac blood samples, and to determine the blood pressure within the heart. </ul>
  5. 5. Why Would You Need One? Evaluate or confirm the presence of heart disease (such as coronary artery disease, heart valve disease , or disease of the aorta). Evaluate heart muscle function. Determine the need for further treatment (such as an interventional procedure or bypass surgery). At many hospitals, several interventional, or therapeutic, procedures to open blocked arteries are performed after the diagnostic part of the cardiac catheterization is complete. Interventional procedures include balloon angioplasty, brachytherapy , atherectomy, rotoblation, cutting balloon, and stent placements.
  6. 6. What Are The Risks? Bleeding around the point of puncture Abnormal heart rhythms Blood clots Infection Allergic reaction to the dye Stroke Heart attack Perforation of a blood vessel Air embolism (introduction of air into a blood vessel, which can be life-threatening)
  7. 8. Electrocardiography (EKG)
  8. 9. <ul>In Medical Terminology, A Living Language, It is defines as a process of recording the electrical activity of the heart. Useful in the diagnosis of abnormal cardiac rhythm and heart muscle (myocardium) damage. </ul>
  9. 10. Why Would I Need an EKG? Simply put, an EKG is a simple and non-invasive test that can be used as a test to identify heart ailments. If you have been having chest pain, shortness of breath, or other symptoms that may be related to an abnormal heart, your doctor may order an EKG. Surgeons will often order an EKG to make sure you have a healthy heart prior to surgery. While most heart ailments require other, more invasive studies to be diagnosed, the EKG is a quick, simple way to start the diagnostic process.
  10. 11. What Happens During An EKG? You will lie on a bed or table. Areas on your arms, legs, and chest where small metal discs (electrodes) will be placed are cleaned and may be shaved to provide a clean, smooth surface to attach the electrode discs. A special EKG paste or small pads soaked in alcohol may be placed between the electrodes and your skin to improve conduction of the electrical impulses, but in many cases disposable electrodes are used that do not require paste or alcohol. Several electrodes are attached to the skin on each arm and leg and on your chest. These are hooked to a machine that traces your heart activity onto a paper. If an older machine is used, the electrodes may be moved at different times during the test to measure your heart's electrical activity from different locations on your chest. After the procedure, the electrode paste is wiped off. You will be asked to lie very still and breathe normally during the test. Sometimes you may be asked to hold your breath. You should not talk during the test.
  11. 13. Stress Test
  12. 14. <ul>In Medical Terminology, A Living Language, is defined as a method for evaluating cardiovascular fitness. The patient is placed on a treadmill or a bicycle and then subjected to steadily increasing levels of work. An EKG and oxygen levels are taken while the patient exercises. The test is stopped if abnormalities occur on the EKG </ul>
  13. 15. Determine if there is adequate blood flow to your heart during increasing levels of activity. Evaluate the effectiveness of your heart medications to control angina and ischemia. Determine the likelihood of having coronary heart disease and the need for further evaluation. Check the effectiveness of procedures done to improve blood flow within the heart vessels in people with coronary heart disease. Identify abnormal heart rhythms . Help you develop a safe exercise program. Why Do I Need a Stress Test?
  14. 16. What Happens During the Exercise Stress Test? First, during a stress test, a technician will gently clean 10 small areas on your chest and place electrodes (small, flat, sticky patches) on these areas. The electrodes are attached to an electrocardiograph monitor (ECG or EKG) that charts your heart's electrical activity during the test. Before you start exercising, the technician will perform an ECG, to measure your heart rate at rest and will take your blood pressure. You will begin to exercise by walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bicycle. The rate of exercise or degree of difficulty will gradually increase. You will be asked to exercise until you feel exhausted. At regular intervals, the lab personnel will ask how you are feeling. Please tell them if you feel chest, arm, or jaw pain or discomfort, short of breath, dizzy, lightheaded, or any other unusual symptoms. It is normal for your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and perspiration to increase during the test. The lab personnel will watch for any symptoms or changes on the ECG monitor that suggest the test should be stopped.