Cardio eval

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Cardio eval

  1. 1. ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery: Executive Summary L.A. Fleisher, et al. , Circulation. Sept 27, 2007. Paulene C. Azucena, MD
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To know the latest ACC/AHA guidelines in the perioperative cardiovascular evaluation of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the general approach to perioperative cardiac assessment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose of These Guidelines <ul><li>Provide a framework for considering cardiac risk of noncardiac surgery in a variety of patient and surgical situations </li></ul><ul><li>Not to give medical clearance but rather to provide informed clinical judgement in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the patient’s current medical status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommendations regarding the management and risk of cardiac problems during the perioperative period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the patient’s clinical profile, to assist with treatment decisions that may affect short- or long-term cardiac outcomes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ‘ Order tests only when results may change management’ <ul><li>In general, a test to further define cardiac risk is valid only when its results could change the planned management and lead to a specific intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delaying the operation because of unstable symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary revascularization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempting medical optimization before surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving additional specialists or providers in the patient’s perioperative care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of intra-op monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of post-op monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of the surgical location, particularly when the procedure is scheduled for an ambulatory surgical center </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. General Approach to the Patient <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify serious cardiac conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine prior history of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or a history of orthostatic intolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify risk factors associated with increased perioperative cardiovascular risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the patient’s functional capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Examination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of vital signs, carotid pulse contour and bruits, jugular venous pressure and pulsations, auscultation of the lungs, precordial palpation and auscultation, abdominal palpation, examination of the extremities for edema & vascular integrity </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Active Cardiac Conditions for which the Patient should Undergo Evaluation and Treatment before Noncardiac Surgery Examples Condition Severe aortic stenosis Symptomatic mitral stenosis Severe valvular disease High-grade AV Block Mobitz II AV Block 3 ° AV Block Symptomatic Ventricular Arrhythmias Supraventricular arrhythmias Symptomatic bradycardia Newly recognized ventricular tachycardia Significant arrhythmias Decompensated HF (NYHA FC IV; worsening or new-onset HF) Unstable or Severe Angina Recent MI (> 7days but ≤ 30days) Unstable Coronary Syndromes
  7. 7. General Approach to the Patient <ul><li>Lab Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic tests: CBC, FBS, serum potassium, creatinine, ECG, CXR-PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other tests: Platelet count, PT, PTT, Urinalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional tests: 2D-echo, ABG, Total Bilirubin, Albumin, SGOT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical role of the consultant is to determine the stability of the patient’s CV status and whether the patient is in optimal medical condition within the context of the surgical illness </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cardiac Risk Stratification: patient-specific factors and procedure-specific risk
  9. 9. Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee et al ) <ul><li>Ischemic Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History of MI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History of positive treadmill test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of nitroglycerin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current complaints of chestpain 2’ to ischemia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECG w/ abnormal Q waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Congestive Heart Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History of heart failure - Bilateral rales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary edema - S3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripeheral edema </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebral Vascular Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History of TIA or stroke </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee et al ) <ul><li>High-Risk Surgery </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal aortic aneurysm or other vascular, thoracic, abdominal, or orthopedic surgery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Preoperative Insulin Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperative Creatinine > 2mg/dL </li></ul>
  11. 11. Procedure-Specific Risk <ul><li>Endoscopic & superficial procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Cataract surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Breast surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Ambulatory Surgery </li></ul>< 1% Low-Risk <ul><li>Intraperitoneal & intrathoracic procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid endarterectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Head & neck surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopedic Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate Surgery </li></ul>1 - 5% Intermediate-Risk <ul><li>Aortic & other major vascular surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral vascular surgery </li></ul>> 5% Vascular (highest risk) Examples Morbidity Rates Category
  12. 12. Minor predictors not proven to increase perioperative risk <ul><li>Advanced age ( > 70 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal ECG (LVH, LBBB, ST-T abnormalities) </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm other than sinus </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled systemic hypertension </li></ul>
  13. 14. Recommendations
  14. 15. Recommendations for Preoperative Resting 12-Lead ECG <ul><li>Preoperative resting 12-Lead ECG is recommended for patients </li></ul><ul><li>with at least 1 clinical risk factor who are undergoing vascular surgical procedures </li></ul><ul><li>with known CAD, PAD, or CVD who are undergoing intermediate-risk procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperative resting 12-Lead ECG is reasonable for patients </li></ul><ul><li>with no clinical risk factors who are undergoing vascular surgeries </li></ul><ul><li>with at least 1 clinical risk factor who are undergoing intermediate-risk surgeries </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperative & postoperative resting 12-Lead ECG is not indicated in asymptomatic persons undergoing low-risk surgical procedures. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Recommendations for Beta-Blocker Medical Therapy <ul><li>Beta blockers should be continued in patients undergoing surgery who are receiving beta blockers to treat angina, symptomatic arrhythmias, and hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Beta blockers should be given to patients undergoing vascular surgery who are at high cardiac risk owing to the finding of ischemia on preoperative testing. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Recommendations for Statin Therapy <ul><li>For patients currently taking statins and scheduled for noncardiac surgery, statins should be continued. </li></ul><ul><li>For patients undergoing vascular surgery w/ or w/o clinical risk factors, statin use is reasonable. </li></ul><ul><li>For patients w/ at least 1 clinical risk factor who are undergoing intermediate-risk procedures, statins may be considered. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Recommendations for Alpha-2 Agonists <ul><li>Alpha-2 agonists for perioperative control of hypertension may be considered for patients w/ known CAD or at least 1 clinical risk factor who are undergoing surgery. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Recommendations for Perioperative Control of Blood Glucose Concentration <ul><li>It is reasonable that blood glucose concentration be controlled during the perioperative period in patients w/ DM or acute hyperglycemia who are at high risk for myocardial ischemia who are undergoing vascular and major noncardiac surgical procedures with planned ICU admission. </li></ul><ul><li>The usefulness of the strict control of blood glucose concentration during the perioperative period is uncertain in patients w/ DM or acute hyperglycemia who are undergoing noncardiac surgical procedures w/out planned ICU admission. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Recommendations for Surveillance for Perioperative MI <ul><li>Postoperative troponin measurement is recommended in patients w/ ECG changes or chest pain typical of ACS. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of postoperative troponin measurement is not well established in patients who are clinically stable and have undergone vascular and intermediate-risk surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-operative troponin measurement is not recommended in asymptomatic stable patients who have undergone low-risk surgery. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Limited Role for Coronary Revascularization No randomized trials had assessed the benefit of prophylactic coronary revasularization to reduce the perioperative risk of noncardiac surgery.
  21. 22. Patients with Coronary Stents
  22. 24. Conclusions
  23. 25. In general, indications for further cardiac testing and treatments are the same as in non-operative setting, but their timing is dependent on several factors, including the urgency of noncardiac surgery, patient-specific risk factors, and surgery-specific considerations.
  24. 26. For many patients, noncardiac surgery represents their first opportunity to receive an appropriate assessment of both short- and long-term cardiac risk. Thus, the consultant best serves the patient by recommendations aimed at lowering the immediate perioperative cardiac risk, as well as assessing the need for subsequent postoperative risk stratification and interventions directed at modifying coronary risk factors.

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