FM2 – BRITISH & AMERICAN FILM
SECTION A – PRODUCERS &
AUDIENCES
Week 9

Early Film & the Hollywood Studio System
This section will…
Encourage you to see films as products of
a global industry dominated by Hollywood
 Outline stages tha...
History of Early Film
1888 - 1930
Who invented motion pictures?
Moving image…the theory










The movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type
of photographic camera which...
“Father of Cinematography”






Louis Le Prince was an inventor who
shot the first moving pictures on
paper film using...
Louis le Prince








This short film was recorded at 12
frames per second and runs for 2.11
seconds. It is the olde...
Thomas Edison - master inventor






In 1894 he invented the Kinetoscope is
an early motion picture exhibition
device....
Lumière Brothers - early
filmmakers






1895 - Lumiere Brothers (French) invent the
Cinématographe, this was a signif...
Innovators


George Melies was a French illusionist and
filmmaker creates the first special effects film
called ‘The Conj...
Further developments





1897 - George Melies opens the first studio.
Pathe Brothers begin to discuss making
animated ...
Trip to the Moon, 1902




One of the first narrative films and most
famous of all Miele’s productions
Melies was also t...
Watching film






1905 - By this year there were
over 1,000 nickelodeons in
America (They were called
penny gaffs in ...
Early film production





Up until 1907, three major companies
dominated.
Edison, Biograph and Vitagraph
They operated...
Central producer stytem




1915-1930 - ‘Central producer’ system in
place. This was a fully hierarchical system with
a ...
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  • This is the first film that the Lumiere Brothers showed to an audience back in 1895.  People had no idea what to expect.  The story goes that most in the audience thought that the train was actually coming into the viewing area, and began to run away and scream in terror.
  • History of film the early days

    1. 1. FM2 – BRITISH & AMERICAN FILM SECTION A – PRODUCERS & AUDIENCES Week 9 Early Film & the Hollywood Studio System
    2. 2. This section will… Encourage you to see films as products of a global industry dominated by Hollywood  Outline stages that make up film production, or the actual making of the film  Outline the stages in the commercial process that come after the film has been made - distribution, marketing and exhibition 
    3. 3. History of Early Film 1888 - 1930
    4. 4. Who invented motion pictures?
    5. 5. Moving image…the theory      The movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images; each image constitutes a "frame" The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the frame rate (number of frames per second) While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion Now many films are created digitally and also over half
    6. 6. “Father of Cinematography”    Louis Le Prince was an inventor who shot the first moving pictures on paper film using a single lens camera A Frenchman who also worked in the United Kingdom and the United States, Le Prince conducted his ground-breaking work in 1888 in Leeds, England In October 1888, Le Prince filmed moving picture sequence Ro und ha y G a rd e n Sc e ne
    7. 7. Louis le Prince     This short film was recorded at 12 frames per second and runs for 2.11 seconds. It is the oldest surviving film in existence This was several years before the work of competing inventors such as Auguste and Louis Lumière and Thomas Edison He was never able to perform in a public demonstration in the US because he vanished in1890 Le Prince's disappearance allowed Thomas Edison to take the credit for the invention of motion pictures by taking on the patent for his single lens camera
    8. 8. Thomas Edison - master inventor    In 1894 he invented the Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. It was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device. In 1894, a public Kinetoscope parlour was opened in New York City - the first commercial motion picture house. The venue had ten machines, set up in parallel rows of five, each showing a different movie. For 25 cents an individual could view the moving images of a boxing match, dancing, a cat falling off a fence.
    9. 9. Lumière Brothers - early filmmakers    1895 - Lumiere Brothers (French) invent the Cinématographe, this was a significant development in the history of film This was a three-in-one device that could record, develop, and project motion pictures One of their early short ‘films’ L'Arrivée d'un Train à la Ciotat, 1895
    10. 10. Innovators  George Melies was a French illusionist and filmmaker creates the first special effects film called ‘The Conjuring of a Woman at the House of Robert Houdini’ or the ‘Vanishing Woman’
    11. 11. Further developments    1897 - George Melies opens the first studio. Pathe Brothers begin to discuss making animated films. Edison wins legal battle and has sole control of US film industry. Lumiere Bros. and Melies films are banned from being imported into the US.
    12. 12. Trip to the Moon, 1902   One of the first narrative films and most famous of all Miele’s productions Melies was also the first to use techniques such as the fade-in, the fade-out, and the dissolve to create the first real narrative films.
    13. 13. Watching film    1905 - By this year there were over 1,000 nickelodeons in America (They were called penny gaffs in UK). The name meant that it cost only a nickel (5 cents) to see a film. This was incredibly cheap and made film accessible to a working class audience. By 1908 there were 6,000.
    14. 14. Early film production    Up until 1907, three major companies dominated. Edison, Biograph and Vitagraph They operated under the ‘cameraman’ system This meant that this one person was responsible for planning, writing, filming and editing.
    15. 15. Central producer stytem   1915-1930 - ‘Central producer’ system in place. This was a fully hierarchical system with a strict division of labour. This began the era that became known as The Studio System or Production Line Filmmaking.

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