Film History


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I merged two presentations about photography and film history and added some links to videos or images.

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Film History

  1. 1. Film History The Beginnings
  2. 2. Three Ways to Look at Film History Technology Art Business
  3. 3. Inventors <ul><li>Early film is a result of inventors, not artists. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Persistence of Vision <ul><li>The ability of the brain to retain an image a split second longer than the eye actually sees it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Phi Phenomena <ul><li>If we see individual images in rapid succession the brain connects them to make a fluid sequence of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul>
  6. 6. Toy Makers <ul><li>Toy makers used this theory to create hand held machines that were the basis of film development. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Zoetrope <ul><li>Circular drum with slits. </li></ul><ul><li>allows moments of darkness. </li></ul><ul><li>creates illusion of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>1834 by William Horner. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Experimentation <ul><li>Was going on in many countries at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>France, Germany, England, and the U.S. all claim to have invented the movies. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Photography Had to have photography before motion pictures
  10. 10. Photography <ul><li>The word photography came from two Greek words that mean &quot;writing with light.&quot; The first time the word &quot;photography&quot; was used was in 1839, the year the invention of the photographic process was made public, by Sir John Herschel. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Important Dates <ul><li>1816 - Nicephore Niepce made first photographic images. </li></ul><ul><li>1839 - Louis Daguerre created clear, sharp images on silver copperplate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required 15 minutes exposure time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1841 - Only 3 minutes needed for exposure. </li></ul>Daguerre Self-portrait
  12. 12.   &quot;View from the Window at Le Gras, France“ The birth of photography happened in 1826 when a French scientist, Joseph Nicephore Niepce, put a plate coated with bitumen (an asphalt used in ancient times as a cement or mortar) in a camera obscura.   He put the camera obscura   facing his house for eight hours and made   a photograph. It is the earliest camera photograph that we still have today.  
  13. 13. This is a picture of one of the first commercially made daguerreotype cameras that was made in 1839. It was designed   by Mr. Daguerre, the inventor of the daguerreotype.
  14. 14. Birth of “motion” pictures Leland Stanford unwittingly started a chain of events that contributed to the development of motion pictures. To settle a wager regarding the position of a trotting horse's legs, he sent for Eadweard Muybridge, a British photographer who had recently been acclaimed for his photographs of Yosemite.
  15. 15. Eadweard Muybridge <ul><li>1872 - Set up 12 cameras along a track, tied strings to the shutters which were tripped as the horse ran down the track. </li></ul><ul><li>Created movement with photography. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Etienne-Jules Marey <ul><li>1882 </li></ul><ul><li>Invents “photographic gun.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lens in the muzzle, paper in the chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Pull trigger and have 12 rapid exposures. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually 100 exposures. </li></ul>
  17. 17. George Eastman <ul><li>1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed celluloid film. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally created for the still camera, it made motion pictures possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible and allows light to pass through. </li></ul>Eastman and Edison make movies
  18. 18. <ul><li>1889 </li></ul><ul><li>William Dickson (working for Thomas Edison) begins using celluloid film. </li></ul><ul><li>First film in America. </li></ul>Fred Ott’s Sneeze
  19. 19. Motion Picture Photography Solved! Filmmakers now had to find a way to show their images.
  20. 20. Kinetoscope <ul><li>October 1889 Dickson shows Edison projection with sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Edison opts for silent, individual showings of films. </li></ul><ul><li>Invents Kinetoscope. </li></ul>Kinetoscope Open
  21. 21. Kinetoscope <ul><li>Kinetoscopes were set up in parlors . </li></ul><ul><li>You would see dancing, juggling, clowning, wonders of the world, a few re-enactments. </li></ul><ul><li>No stories yet. </li></ul>Kinetoscope Closed
  22. 22. Thomas Edison <ul><li>Despite Edison’s shortsightedness in mass projection he did leave his mark on motion pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>He contributed sprocket holes on film. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Maria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First movie studio. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Black Maria <ul><li>Camera could only move forward and backward. </li></ul><ul><li>Roof opened to allow sunlight in. </li></ul><ul><li>Building rotated to catch sun’s rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera used electricity. </li></ul>
  24. 24. These are a few of the contributions from America. The history now goes back to Europe.
  25. 25. Projection Projection was a difficult problem to solve. Its roots go back as far as 1646.
  26. 26. Magic Lantern <ul><li>1646 </li></ul><ul><li>Father Athanasius Kircher made drawings of a box that could reproduce an image through a lens. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor of present day slide projector. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 18th Century <ul><li>Showmen travel across Europe showing magic lantern shows. </li></ul><ul><li>Used drawn images in the beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually used photographs. </li></ul>Phantasmagoria
  28. 28. 19th Century <ul><li>Photo plays drew viewers to a story just as film does today. </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of magic lantern shows, live actors, and photography. </li></ul><ul><li>Some lasted up to 2 hours and told melodramatic stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Proved the potential of projected film. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Projection Problems <ul><li>Projector needs a powerful light source to make images clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Film has to run smoothly past this light source without tearing. </li></ul>Vitascope Projector
  30. 30. Late 19th Century <ul><li>Discovered intermittent movement was needed (similar to Zoetrope slits). </li></ul><ul><li>Each frame stops briefly in front of the light source. </li></ul><ul><li>Ended problem of the light source and tearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Created problem of burning film. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented cooling system (similar to today’s). </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Lumiere Brothers <ul><li>1894 </li></ul><ul><li>Tinker with Edison’s Kinetoscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed their own machine within a year. </li></ul>Auguste and Louis
  32. 32. Cinematographe <ul><li>Machine shot the pictures, printed them, and projected them. </li></ul><ul><li>The camera was portable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hand crank provided the power. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. December 28, 1895 <ul><li>First theater opens to the paying public. </li></ul><ul><li>Basement of a Paris café. </li></ul><ul><li>Lumieres’ show: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers leaving the Lumiere Factory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrival at Lyon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Baby’s Meal. </li></ul></ul>