2012 Lecture Series - "An Introduction to Korean Buddhist Temples"


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2012 Lecture Series - Lecture 1
Originally presented on 2/19/12

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2012 Lecture Series - "An Introduction to Korean Buddhist Temples"

  1. 1. Introduction toKorean Buddhist Temples 2012 Lecture Series - Lecture 1
  2. 2. OutlineArchitecture and Worldview Location, Design, Layout Passing Through the Gates Primary Halls Secondary Halls Other Buildings Pagodas Inside the Halls Art and Symbolism Noteworthy Temples
  3. 3. Architecture and Worldview• Expression of worldview from culture• Temples (Complexes) about more than just buildings or visual experience• Create atmosphere conducive to meditation• Cannot use Western perspective
  4. 4. Location and Design of Temple Sites• Site is based on principles of geomancy• Nearly all temples built on auspicious sites• Ideal site is mountain basin near water• Buildings are arranged so they are approached in order
  5. 5. Temple Layout• Use of wood constrained building size• Complex of multiple smaller buildings• Layout is critical consideration• Architectural significance according to layout, rather than specific building
  6. 6. Approaching the Temple• Budo• Iljumun• Cheonwangmun• Burimun
  7. 7. Budo - Memorial Stupa• First structure in temple complex• Stone structure• Enshrines ‘sariras’ (relics) of eminent monks• Place to pay homage and arouse faith
  8. 8. Passing Through the Gates• Series of gates leading up to main Buddha Hall• Iljumun, Cheonwangmun, Burimun• Provide spiritual preparation
  9. 9. Iljumun• “One Pillar”• Front gate• Inscription names temple and mountain• Symbolic of beginning journey towards one mind, first steps into Pure Land
  10. 10. Cheonwangmun• “Four Guardians’ Gate”• 2nd gate• 2 guardians on each side• Ferocious faces scare away evil spirits• Guardians defend temple from all four directions
  11. 11. Burimun• “Gate of Non-Duality”• 3rd gate at larger temples• Larger than Iljumun• Symbolizes the notion that Pure Land and Saha World are one
  12. 12. Primary Buddha Halls• Daeung-jeon• Daejeokgwang-jeon• Muryangsu-jeon
  13. 13. Daeung-jeon• “Great Hero”• Main Buddha Hall• Holds Shakyamuni Statue• 3 Platforms - Main Platform - Guardian Platform - Memorial Platform• Courtyard/Pagoda
  14. 14. Daejeokgwang-jeon• Hall of “Silence and Light”• Enshrines Vairocana Buddha (Dharma Body)• Triad includes Sakyamuni and Rocana Buddha• Represents Lotus Treasury World
  15. 15. Muryangsu-jeon• “Hall of Paradise”• Dedicated to Amitabha• 2nd to Daeungjeon• Triad includes Gwaneum- bosal and Daeseji-bosal• Images face east so worshippers can bow towards Western Paradise
  16. 16. Secondary Halls• Gwaneum-jeon• Myeongbu-jeon• Mireuk-jeon• Yaksa-jeon• Nahan-jeon• Palsang-jeon
  17. 17. Gwaneum-jeon• Devoted to Avalokitesvara• Also called Wontong-jeon if entire temple is dedicated to worship
  18. 18. Myeongbu-jeon• “Dark Place”• Judgement Hall• Enshrines Jijang- bosal• Faces Main Hall from right side
  19. 19. Mireuk-jeon• Devoted to Maitreya - the future Buddha of Loving Kindness
  20. 20. Yaksa-jeon• Enshrines Bhaisajyaguru• Medicine Buddha• Believers visit when sick• Customarily placed in east
  21. 21. Nahan-jeon• Dedicated to the disciples of Buddha• Shakyamuni sits on altar• Surrounded by 500 disciples• Large guardian in entranceway
  22. 22. Palsang-jeon• “Eight Scenes from the Life of the Buddha”• Also known as Yeongsan-jeon
  23. 23. Other Buildings• Yosachae• Gangdang• Seungdang• Josadang• Samseonggak• Jonggak and Goru
  24. 24. Yosachae• Monks’ living quarters• Space for sleeping, eating, and other activities• Usually includes meditation space• Often flank front courtyard• Residential architecture
  25. 25. Gangdang• Lecture Hall• Only found in larger temples• Located near Main Buddha Hall• Also used for ceremonies and services
  26. 26. Seungdang• “Monks’ Hall”• Meditation and Practice• Also called Seonbang or Seonwon
  27. 27. Josadang• Hall of Predecessors• Portraits of founder and deceased senior monks• Combination of Korea’s indigenous ancestral worship and Seon Buddhism
  28. 28. Samseonggak• Shrine of the 3 Deities• Not a part of Buddhism• Small Buildings• Dedicated to Indigenous Shamanistic figures
  29. 29. Jonggak and Goru• Jonggak (Bell Tower) - Dharma Drum - Wooden Fish - Cloud-Shaped Gong - Brahma Bell• Goru - pavilion that houses drum - faces Jonggak
  30. 30. Pagodas• Protect and keep safe Sarira• Usually divided into 3 sections• Body usually has odd number of stories• Made of stone
  31. 31. Inside the Halls• Art and Symbols• Images of Buddha• Dancheong
  32. 32. Art and Symbols• Buldan/Sumidan• Main Halls symbolizes Lotus Sutra Dharma Assembly on Vulture Peak• Raining Flowers• Datjip “Separate House”
  33. 33. Images of Buddha• Categorized according to mudra, attributes, and shape of crown• Seated posture differs according to identity• Distinguish images by hand gesture• Light of Truth
  34. 34. Dancheong• “Red and Blue”• Dates back to 4th century• Elaborated in Joseon• Use increased during rebuilds• Lotus Flowers & Fish
  35. 35. Noteworthy Temples • Bulguk-sa• As of 2000 • Haein-sa 892 traditional temples • Bongjeong-sa• Jogye Order = 731 • Seonam-sa• Taego Order = 97 • Unju-sa • Yongju-sa
  36. 36. Learn More!Gyun, Heo. Korean Temple Motifs, Kim, Sung-woo. Buddhist Architecture of Korea,Dolbegae Publishers, 2005. Hollym, 2007.
  37. 37. June 2012 State and Sangha: Buddhist Culture andPolitical Thought in Korea