Citrius family


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Citrius family

  2. 2. CITRUS FRUITS • They are rich in vitamin C and and potassium, have an acid flavour to varing degrees. • citrus fruits are much used in cooking, they are at their best when served fresh, with the exception of lemon and lime which are too acid • vitamin c is stii essential to health because it prevents scurvy and eating citrus fruits or drinking their juice is the most pleasant way of ensuring that the body has vitamin.
  3. 3. Types of citrus fruits • citrus family includes: pomelo,tangerine,lemon,lime,citron ,kumquat,clementine,mandarin,orange,grap e fruits
  4. 4. Uses in cooking • Citrus fruits are used in soups, savoury stews and salads souffles and mousses. In valuable as decoration, their vivid colours complement almost all foods. • Oranges are widely used in desserts, patisserie,and confectionery, for fruit salads, dessert creams,jams and marmalades • the candied peel is also used in numerous desserts and cakes ,either as an ingredient or as a decoration.
  5. 5. Pigment In citrus fruits • The pigment of citrus fruits is carotenoids the colour of which commence to show through during ripening when the chorophyll green begins to disappear out that the reddish to purplish colourations found in blood oranges are due to presence of anthocyanins.
  6. 6. Lime and lemon? • lime:A small fruit, similar to lemon but rounder,and with green-yellow thin skin and tart yellow may be substitued for lemon in is much used in curry dishes but is more expensive than lemons. • Lemon:The fruits are large or small with smooth thin or thick knobbly skin. generally,plump lemons,heavy for yheir size and with smootyh oily skins, have less peel and more juise than large,knobbly skinned lemons.
  7. 7. Compositions of citrus fruits • Citrus fruits are covered in a thick rind, mainly white pith called the albedo, which has a thin colourful outer layer of zest or rind,where citrus oil and most of the vitamins are concentrated.tropical yellow and orange citrus varieties usually remains green even when ripe.
  8. 8. Oranges: • Navel oranges: they characterized by a navel- like depression enclosing a small internal embryonic fruit. They are seedless and appear from the end of October. • THOMSONS, with a very fine smooth shiny skin, have highly coloured fibrous pulp, not very sour and moderately juicy but with a good flavour
  9. 9. Oranges: • WASHINGTONS, with a firm rough skin, are juicy and slightly sour. Navel oranges are mainly grown in Italy and have a particularly rich flavour, reminiscent of berries. Another variety, the aromatic pineapple orange, is full of pips and is commercially used for juice. • Blood Oranges have a dark red pulp and the skin may be veined with dark red. They are available from December to April.
  10. 10. . The Maltese orange, with seeds, is sour, very juicy, and has an exceptionally good flavour. Moro oranges, with a rough skin, are very juicy Late oranges have pale flesh, few seeds, and come mainly from Spain and the southern hemisphere. Valencia oranges, with or without seeds, have smooth firm skins and are very sharp and juicy. Oranges are widely used in desserts, patisserie, and confectionery, for fruit salads, mousses, dessert creams, jams and marmalades, frosted fruit, ices and sorbets, fritters, soufflés, filled sponges(orangine), and biscuits(cookies). The candied peel is also used in numerous desserts and cakes, either as an ingredient or as a decoration. Oranges form the basis of an equally large range of drinks: syrups, sodas, juice, orangeade, punches, liqueurs and fruit wines.
  11. 11. Mandarins: • Mandarins are small, slightly flat, loose skinned oranges with a sweet taste. Perhaps the best known mandarin is the tangerine. The Japanese satsuma is a clementine(a bitter orange and tangerine cross) is bright orange red with a pebbled skin and tangy sweet flavour
  12. 12. Grapefruits: • Grapefruit are either white- fleshed with a yellow rind or pink fleshed with a pinkish blush to the rind. The two differ little in taste, which depends more on the presence of pips than on colour. Fruits with many pips have a pronounced flavour and are grown for canning, while the milder, pipless varieties are usually eaten fresh or in salads.
  13. 13. . Grapefruit juice can be added to fruit jellies and sorbets, and the flesh suits bitter greens, avocado and fresh cheese. The ugli fruit resembles a squqshed grapefruit with a mottled greenish skin but its flesh is surprisingly sweet and juicy, despite its discouraging name. Usually eaten raw, in the Caribbean it is baked in its skin then eaten hot with sugar. The grapefruit tree probably originated in the West Indies but a large percentage of the world's crop is grown in the southern United States. It is usually served as an hors d'oeuvre, cut in two, each segment being detached from the skin with a special saw knife with a curved point. the fruit is also used to make marmalade and the juice is widely consumed as a fruit drink.
  14. 14. Shaddock: • The shaddock( also called pummelo or pomelo) is the largest citrus, resembling a large grapefruit with coarse, bittersweet dry flesh with a greenish, yellow or pinkish skin. It was brought from southeast Asia to the new world by a Captain shaddock in 1696.
  15. 15. kumquat – The smallest citrus is the tiny, orange oval kumquat, which originated in the east but is now grown mainly in Brazil. The fruit has distinctive sweet sour flavour, the sweetness is especially evident in the rind and kumquats are usually eaten unpeeled. They are deliciously fresh, but may also be candied.
  16. 16. Tangelo • Tangelo. This specialty fruit is a cross between a tangerine and a grapefruit. (The namecomes from pomelo, the European term for grapefruit.) The fruit is fairly large, with aneasy-peeling rind and few seeds. The deep orange flesh is best when peeled and eatenout of hand for lunch or snacks, but it also can be used for juicing