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COST OF CAPITAL
Dr. S. BELLARMIN DIANA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
BON SECOURS COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, THANJAVUR
COST OF CAPITAL
Cost of capital is an integral part of investment decision as it is used to measure the worth
of investment proposal provided by the business concern. It is used as a discount rate in
determining the present value of future cash flows associated with capital projects. Cost of capital
is also called as cut-off rate, target rate, hurdle rate and required rate of return. When the firms are
using different sources of finance, the finance manager must take careful decision with regard to
the cost of capital; because it is closely associated with the value of the firm and the earning
capacity of the firm.
Meaning of Cost of Capital
Cost of capital is the rate of return that a firm must earn on its project investments to maintain its
market value and attract funds. Cost of capital is the required rate of return on its investments
which belongs to equity, debt and retained earnings. If a firm fails to earn return at the expected
rate, the market value of the shares will fall and it will result in the reduction of overall wealth of
the shareholders.
Definitions
The following important definitions are commonly used to understand the meaning and concept
of the cost of capital.
• According to the definition of John J. Hampton “Cost of capital is the rate of return the
firm required from investment in order to increase the value of the firm in the market
place”.
• According to the definition of Solomon Ezra, “Cost of capital is the minimum required
rate of earnings or the cut-off rate of capital expenditure”.
• According to the definition of James C. Van Horne, Cost of capital is “A cut-off rate for the
allocation of capital to investment of projects. It is the rate of return on a project that will leave
unchanged the market price of the stock”.
• According to the definition of William and Donaldson, “Cost of capital may be defined as the rate
that must be earned on the net proceeds to provide the cost elements of the burden at the time they
are due”.
Assumption of Cost of Capital
Cost of capital is based on certain assumptions which are closely associated while calculating and
measuring the cost of capital. It is to be considered that there are three basic concepts:
1. It is not a cost as such. It is merely a hurdle rate.
2. It is the minimum rate of return.
3. It consists of three important risks such as zero risk level, business risk and financial risk.
Cost of capital can be measured with the help of the following equation.
K = rj + b + f.
Where,
K = Cost of capital.
rj = The riskless cost of the particular type of finance.
b = The business risk premium.
f = The financial risk premium.
CLASSIFICATION OF COST OF CAPITAL
Cost of capital may be classified into the following types on the basis of nature and usage:
• Explicit and Implicit Cost.
• Average and Marginal Cost.
• Historical and Future Cost.
• Specific and Combined Cost.
Explicit and Implicit Cost
The cost of capital may be explicit or implicit cost on the basis of the computation of cost of
capital. Explicit cost is the rate that the firm pays to procure financing. Implicit cost is the rate of
return associated with the best investment opportunity for the firm and its shareholders that will
be forgone if the projects presently under consideration by the firm were accepted.
Average and Marginal Cost
Average cost of capital is the weighted average cost of each component of capital employed by
the company. It considers weighted average cost of all kinds of financing such as equity, debt,
retained earnings etc.
Marginal cost is the weighted average cost of new finance raised by the company. It is the
additional cost of capital when the company goes for further raising of finance.
Historical and Future Cost
Historical cost is the cost which as already been incurred for financing a particular project. It is
based on the actual cost incurred in the previous project.
Future cost is the expected cost of financing in the proposed project. Expected cost is calculated
on the basis of previous experience.
Specific and Combine Cost
The cost of each sources of capital such as equity, debt, retained earnings and loans is called as
specific cost of capital. It is very useful to determine the each and every specific source of capital.
The composite or combined cost of capital is the combination of all sources of capital.
It is also called as overall cost of capital. It is used to understand the total cost associated with the
total finance of the firm.
IMPORTANCE OF COST OF CAPITAL
Computation of cost of capital is a very important part of the financial management to decide the
capital structure of the business concern.
Importance to Capital Budgeting Decision
Capital budget decision largely depends on the cost of capital of each source. According to net
present value method, present value of cash inflow must be more than the present value of cash
outflow. Hence, cost of capital is used to capital budgeting decision.
Importance to Structure Decision
Capital structure is the mix or proportion of the different kinds of long term securities. A firm uses
particular type of sources if the cost of capital is suitable. Hence, cost of capital helps to take
decision regarding structure.
Importance to Evolution of Financial Performance
Cost of capital is one of the important determine which affects the capital budgeting, capital
structure and value of the firm. Hence, it helps to evaluate the financial performance of the firm.
Importance to Other Financial Decisions
Apart from the above points, cost of capital is also used in some other areas such as, market value
of share, earning capacity of securities etc. hence, it plays a major part in the financial management.
COMPUTATION OF COST OF CAPITAL
Computation of cost of capital consists of two important parts:
1. Measurement of specific costs
2. Measurement of overall cost of capital
Measurement of Cost of Capital
It refers to the cost of each specific sources of finance like:
• Cost of equity
• Cost of debt
• Cost of preference share
• Cost of retained earnings
Cost of Equity
Cost of equity capital is the rate at which investors discount the expected dividends of the firm to
determine its share value.
Conceptually the cost of equity capital (Ke) defined as the “Minimum rate of return that a firm
must earn on the equity financed portion of an investment project in order to leave unchanged the
market price of the shares”.
Cost of equity can be calculated from the following approach:
• Dividend price (D/P) approach
• Dividend price plus growth (D/P + g) approach
• Earning price (E/P) approach
• Realized yield approach.
Dividend Price Approach
The cost of equity capital will be that rate of expected dividend which will maintain the present
market price of equity shares.
Dividend Price Plus Growth Approach
The cost of equity is calculated on the basis of the expected dividend rate per share plus growth in
dividend.
D
Ke = ______+g
NP
Ke = Cost of equity capital
D = Expected Dividend per share
Np = Net proceeds of an equity share
g= Growth in expected dividend
D
Ke = ______
NP
Ke = Cost of equity capital
D = Dividend per share
Np = Net proceeds of an equity share
COST OF EQUITY ON THE BASIS OF MARKET
PRICE
D
Ke = ______
MP
Earning Price Approach
Cost of equity determines the market price of the shares. It is based on the future earnings prospects
of the equity.
Realized Yield Approach
It is the easy method for calculating cost of equity capital. Under this method, cost of equity is
calculated on the basis of return actually realized by the investor in a company on their equity
capital.
Cost of Debt
Cost of debt is the after tax cost of long-term funds through borrowing. Debt may be issued at par,
at premium or at discount and also it may be perpetual or redeemable.
Debt Issued at Par
Debt issued at par means, debt is issued at the face value of the debt.
DEBT ISSUED AT PREMIUM
E
Ke = ______
NP
Ke = Cost of equity capital
E = Earnings per share
Np = Net proceeds of an equity share
Ke = PVf xD
Ke = Cost of equity capital
PVf = Present value of discount factor
D= Dividend per share
Kd = (1 –T) R Kd = Cost of debt
T =Tax rate
R = debenture interest rate
I
Kd = ______(1-T)
NP
Kd = Cost of debt
I= Annual interest payment
NP =Net proceeds
T = Tax rate
NP = Face value + premium
DEBT ISSUED AT DISCOUNT
COST OF REDEEMABLE DEBT
Cost of Preference Share Capital
Cost of preference share capital is the annual preference share dividend by the net proceeds from
the sale of preference share. There are two types of preference shares irredeemable and
redeemable.
COST OF IRREDEEMABLE PREFERENCE SHARES
I
Kd = _______ (1-T)
NP
Kd = Cost of debt
I= Annual interest payment
NP =Net proceeds
T = Tax rate
NP = Face value - Discount
I +(P-NP)/n
_____________
Kd (before tax) = (P+NP)/2
I = Annual interest payment
P = Par value of debenture
NP = Net proceeds
n = Number of years to maturity
Kd (after tax) = Kd(before tax) x (1-T)
Dp
Kp = _______
Np
Kp = cost of preference share capital
Dp = fixed preference dividend
Np = Net proceeds of preference shares
COST OF REDEEMABLE PREFERENCE SHARES
Cost of Retained Earnings
Retained earnings is one of the sources of finance for investment proposal; it is different from
other sources like debt, equity and preference shares. Cost of retained earnings is the same as the
cost of an equivalent fully subscripted issue of additional shares, which is measured by the cost of
equity capital.
Measurement of Overall Cost of Capital
It is also called as weighted average cost of capital and composite cost of capital. Weighted average
cost of capital is the expected average future cost of funds over the long run found by weighting
the cost of each specific type of capital by its proportion in the firms’ capital structure. The
computation of the overall cost of capital (Ko) involves the following steps.
(a) Assigning weights to specific costs.
(b) Multiplying the cost of each of the sources by the appropriate weights.
(c) Dividing the total weighted cost by the total weights.
The overall cost of capital can be calculated with the help of the following formula;
Ko= Kd Wd + Kp Wp + Ke We + Kr Wr
Kr = Ke(1-t) (1-b)
Kr= Cost of retained earnings
Ke = Cost of equity
t = Tax rate
b= Brokerage cost
Dp + (RV-Np)/n
Kp = _______
(RV+ Np)/2
Kp = cost of preference share capital
Dp = fixed preference dividend
Np = Net proceeds of preference shares
RV = Redemption value
n = Number of years to redemption
Where,
Ko = Overall cost of capital
Kd = Cost of debt
Kp = Cost of preference share
Ke = Cost of equity
Kr = Cost of retained earnings
Wd= Percentage of debt of total capital
Wp = Percentage of preference share to total capital
We = Percentage of equity to total capital
Wr = Percentage of retained earnings
Weighted average cost of capita l is calculated in the following form ula also
XW
Kw = __________
W
Kw =Weighted average cost of capital
X= Cost of specific sources of finance
W=Weight, proportion of specific sources of finance

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Cost of capital

  • 1. COST OF CAPITAL Dr. S. BELLARMIN DIANA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BON SECOURS COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, THANJAVUR
  • 2. COST OF CAPITAL Cost of capital is an integral part of investment decision as it is used to measure the worth of investment proposal provided by the business concern. It is used as a discount rate in determining the present value of future cash flows associated with capital projects. Cost of capital is also called as cut-off rate, target rate, hurdle rate and required rate of return. When the firms are using different sources of finance, the finance manager must take careful decision with regard to the cost of capital; because it is closely associated with the value of the firm and the earning capacity of the firm. Meaning of Cost of Capital Cost of capital is the rate of return that a firm must earn on its project investments to maintain its market value and attract funds. Cost of capital is the required rate of return on its investments which belongs to equity, debt and retained earnings. If a firm fails to earn return at the expected rate, the market value of the shares will fall and it will result in the reduction of overall wealth of the shareholders. Definitions The following important definitions are commonly used to understand the meaning and concept of the cost of capital. • According to the definition of John J. Hampton “Cost of capital is the rate of return the firm required from investment in order to increase the value of the firm in the market place”. • According to the definition of Solomon Ezra, “Cost of capital is the minimum required rate of earnings or the cut-off rate of capital expenditure”. • According to the definition of James C. Van Horne, Cost of capital is “A cut-off rate for the allocation of capital to investment of projects. It is the rate of return on a project that will leave unchanged the market price of the stock”. • According to the definition of William and Donaldson, “Cost of capital may be defined as the rate that must be earned on the net proceeds to provide the cost elements of the burden at the time they are due”. Assumption of Cost of Capital Cost of capital is based on certain assumptions which are closely associated while calculating and measuring the cost of capital. It is to be considered that there are three basic concepts:
  • 3. 1. It is not a cost as such. It is merely a hurdle rate. 2. It is the minimum rate of return. 3. It consists of three important risks such as zero risk level, business risk and financial risk. Cost of capital can be measured with the help of the following equation. K = rj + b + f. Where, K = Cost of capital. rj = The riskless cost of the particular type of finance. b = The business risk premium. f = The financial risk premium. CLASSIFICATION OF COST OF CAPITAL Cost of capital may be classified into the following types on the basis of nature and usage: • Explicit and Implicit Cost. • Average and Marginal Cost. • Historical and Future Cost. • Specific and Combined Cost. Explicit and Implicit Cost The cost of capital may be explicit or implicit cost on the basis of the computation of cost of capital. Explicit cost is the rate that the firm pays to procure financing. Implicit cost is the rate of return associated with the best investment opportunity for the firm and its shareholders that will be forgone if the projects presently under consideration by the firm were accepted. Average and Marginal Cost Average cost of capital is the weighted average cost of each component of capital employed by the company. It considers weighted average cost of all kinds of financing such as equity, debt, retained earnings etc. Marginal cost is the weighted average cost of new finance raised by the company. It is the additional cost of capital when the company goes for further raising of finance. Historical and Future Cost Historical cost is the cost which as already been incurred for financing a particular project. It is based on the actual cost incurred in the previous project.
  • 4. Future cost is the expected cost of financing in the proposed project. Expected cost is calculated on the basis of previous experience. Specific and Combine Cost The cost of each sources of capital such as equity, debt, retained earnings and loans is called as specific cost of capital. It is very useful to determine the each and every specific source of capital. The composite or combined cost of capital is the combination of all sources of capital. It is also called as overall cost of capital. It is used to understand the total cost associated with the total finance of the firm. IMPORTANCE OF COST OF CAPITAL Computation of cost of capital is a very important part of the financial management to decide the capital structure of the business concern. Importance to Capital Budgeting Decision Capital budget decision largely depends on the cost of capital of each source. According to net present value method, present value of cash inflow must be more than the present value of cash outflow. Hence, cost of capital is used to capital budgeting decision. Importance to Structure Decision Capital structure is the mix or proportion of the different kinds of long term securities. A firm uses particular type of sources if the cost of capital is suitable. Hence, cost of capital helps to take decision regarding structure. Importance to Evolution of Financial Performance Cost of capital is one of the important determine which affects the capital budgeting, capital structure and value of the firm. Hence, it helps to evaluate the financial performance of the firm. Importance to Other Financial Decisions Apart from the above points, cost of capital is also used in some other areas such as, market value of share, earning capacity of securities etc. hence, it plays a major part in the financial management. COMPUTATION OF COST OF CAPITAL Computation of cost of capital consists of two important parts: 1. Measurement of specific costs 2. Measurement of overall cost of capital
  • 5. Measurement of Cost of Capital It refers to the cost of each specific sources of finance like: • Cost of equity • Cost of debt • Cost of preference share • Cost of retained earnings Cost of Equity Cost of equity capital is the rate at which investors discount the expected dividends of the firm to determine its share value. Conceptually the cost of equity capital (Ke) defined as the “Minimum rate of return that a firm must earn on the equity financed portion of an investment project in order to leave unchanged the market price of the shares”. Cost of equity can be calculated from the following approach: • Dividend price (D/P) approach • Dividend price plus growth (D/P + g) approach • Earning price (E/P) approach • Realized yield approach. Dividend Price Approach The cost of equity capital will be that rate of expected dividend which will maintain the present market price of equity shares. Dividend Price Plus Growth Approach The cost of equity is calculated on the basis of the expected dividend rate per share plus growth in dividend. D Ke = ______+g NP Ke = Cost of equity capital D = Expected Dividend per share Np = Net proceeds of an equity share g= Growth in expected dividend D Ke = ______ NP Ke = Cost of equity capital D = Dividend per share Np = Net proceeds of an equity share COST OF EQUITY ON THE BASIS OF MARKET PRICE D Ke = ______ MP
  • 6. Earning Price Approach Cost of equity determines the market price of the shares. It is based on the future earnings prospects of the equity. Realized Yield Approach It is the easy method for calculating cost of equity capital. Under this method, cost of equity is calculated on the basis of return actually realized by the investor in a company on their equity capital. Cost of Debt Cost of debt is the after tax cost of long-term funds through borrowing. Debt may be issued at par, at premium or at discount and also it may be perpetual or redeemable. Debt Issued at Par Debt issued at par means, debt is issued at the face value of the debt. DEBT ISSUED AT PREMIUM E Ke = ______ NP Ke = Cost of equity capital E = Earnings per share Np = Net proceeds of an equity share Ke = PVf xD Ke = Cost of equity capital PVf = Present value of discount factor D= Dividend per share Kd = (1 –T) R Kd = Cost of debt T =Tax rate R = debenture interest rate I Kd = ______(1-T) NP Kd = Cost of debt I= Annual interest payment NP =Net proceeds T = Tax rate NP = Face value + premium
  • 7. DEBT ISSUED AT DISCOUNT COST OF REDEEMABLE DEBT Cost of Preference Share Capital Cost of preference share capital is the annual preference share dividend by the net proceeds from the sale of preference share. There are two types of preference shares irredeemable and redeemable. COST OF IRREDEEMABLE PREFERENCE SHARES I Kd = _______ (1-T) NP Kd = Cost of debt I= Annual interest payment NP =Net proceeds T = Tax rate NP = Face value - Discount I +(P-NP)/n _____________ Kd (before tax) = (P+NP)/2 I = Annual interest payment P = Par value of debenture NP = Net proceeds n = Number of years to maturity Kd (after tax) = Kd(before tax) x (1-T) Dp Kp = _______ Np Kp = cost of preference share capital Dp = fixed preference dividend Np = Net proceeds of preference shares
  • 8. COST OF REDEEMABLE PREFERENCE SHARES Cost of Retained Earnings Retained earnings is one of the sources of finance for investment proposal; it is different from other sources like debt, equity and preference shares. Cost of retained earnings is the same as the cost of an equivalent fully subscripted issue of additional shares, which is measured by the cost of equity capital. Measurement of Overall Cost of Capital It is also called as weighted average cost of capital and composite cost of capital. Weighted average cost of capital is the expected average future cost of funds over the long run found by weighting the cost of each specific type of capital by its proportion in the firms’ capital structure. The computation of the overall cost of capital (Ko) involves the following steps. (a) Assigning weights to specific costs. (b) Multiplying the cost of each of the sources by the appropriate weights. (c) Dividing the total weighted cost by the total weights. The overall cost of capital can be calculated with the help of the following formula; Ko= Kd Wd + Kp Wp + Ke We + Kr Wr Kr = Ke(1-t) (1-b) Kr= Cost of retained earnings Ke = Cost of equity t = Tax rate b= Brokerage cost Dp + (RV-Np)/n Kp = _______ (RV+ Np)/2 Kp = cost of preference share capital Dp = fixed preference dividend Np = Net proceeds of preference shares RV = Redemption value n = Number of years to redemption
  • 9. Where, Ko = Overall cost of capital Kd = Cost of debt Kp = Cost of preference share Ke = Cost of equity Kr = Cost of retained earnings Wd= Percentage of debt of total capital Wp = Percentage of preference share to total capital We = Percentage of equity to total capital Wr = Percentage of retained earnings Weighted average cost of capita l is calculated in the following form ula also XW Kw = __________ W Kw =Weighted average cost of capital X= Cost of specific sources of finance W=Weight, proportion of specific sources of finance