DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
   DEFINICIONES          MODO PW   HISTORIA              MODO COLOR   TRANSDUCTORES         POWER DOPPLER   MODOS D...
CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS DELSONIDODEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
   Sonido es una onda    mecánica    longitudinal que se    propaga a través de    un medio elástico.                    ...
Compresión: Región de alta presión.Rarefacción: Zonas de baja presión.Las compresiones y rarefacciones sealternan a través...
   AMPLITUD: Es el valor máximo    del movimiento de una onda.   PERIODO: Tiempo que se tarda    en realizar un ciclo co...
   LONGITUD DE ONDA: La    distancia que recorre una    onda sonora en el tiempo    de un período es lo que se    llama l...
Medium   Velocity (m/s)   Medium   Velocity (m/s)  Air         330          Liver       1549Water        1480         Kidn...
   FRECUENCIAS                       20Hz             20kHz            Infrasound     Audible Sound      Ultrasound      ...
Piezoelectricity crystal                           DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
1910s   Ultrasound sonar theory was developed in France1942    A mode was invented in Austria for brain scanning1950s   M ...
1910sDEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
DESCRIPCION DE CADA UNODE ELLOSDEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
   A=AMPLITUD    SOLO SE REGISTRA LA    INTENSIDAD DE LA SEÑAL DEL    ECO.                           DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
M: Motiondisplayed over time             TimeDepthFunction: to display tissue motion                 1950s                ...
B: Brightness• displayed as dotson screen• stronger signal,brighter dotB mode is alsocalled 2D mode.Function: to display t...
Convex                         LinearConvex Probe     Linear probe       Phased array probe               DEPARTAMENTO DE ...
DESCRIPCION DE CADA UNODE ELLOSDEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
   Austria      Physicist and       mathematician      Born in 1803 in Salzburg      Found Doppler Principle       in ...
Sound source: NOT moving          Sound source: moving                       DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
Blood cell NOT moving         Blood cell moving forward/backward                        DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
2  f  v  cos                      fD     f + fD                        c                   fD: Doppler shift of the f...
Color Doppler:                        Color Doppler1. Color: Color Doppler2. Power: Power Doppler:3. Directional Power Dop...
Color Doppler:Pixels assigned colorbased on meanvelocityRed towards probeBlue away from probeColor mode is alsocalled CDFI...
Power Doppler:Pixels assigned colorbased on meanpowerPower mode isalso called CPAmode. (ColorPower Angio)Function: to disp...
DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
B mode           Color mode            Power modeGray Scale   Velocity    Variance     Power    Directional               ...
B mode - colorized             Color modeWhole image is colorized.      Only blood flow is colorized.                     ...
Color           Power         DirPower      Direction         Yes              No             Yes        Angle           Y...
Color mode                 Power mode                         vertical         oblique     Angle Dependent                ...
Some elements are         transmitting sound waves.         The others are receiving.         The transmitting and        ...
Sample Line                      Sensitive Region                      Angle Correction             Gray scale stands for:...
CW: Continuous-WaveDopplerspeed of blood cellsdisplayed on atime/velocity graph                       Time     Velocity   ...
Elements are both                                      transmitting and receiving                                      sou...
Sample Line                       Sample Volume                       Angle Correction            Gray scale stands for:  ...
PW: Pulse-WaveDoppler  Velocity                 Time Function: to measure velocity of blood flow       1959               ...
Sample Line              PW mode                      CW mode Sample Line  Principle   Pulsed-wave                  Contin...
PW mode                M mode Principle          Doppler              Pulse-echo  Y-axial     Velocity (cm/s, m/s)     Dep...
Anatomical M mode                      Along sound beamConventional M mode                           DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
Linear Fan                                  1990         DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
Diagnostic CenterVerification             Doctor                             DICOM Printer              Print             ...
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Física básica del ultrasonido

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Física básica del ultrasonido

  1. 1. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  2. 2.  DEFINICIONES  MODO PW HISTORIA  MODO COLOR TRANSDUCTORES  POWER DOPPLER MODOS DE IMAGEN  MODO POWER MODO A DIRECCIONAL MODO M  IMAGEN MODO B PANORAMICA MODO DOPPLER  3D/4D MODO CW DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  3. 3. CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS DELSONIDODEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  4. 4.  Sonido es una onda mecánica longitudinal que se propaga a través de un medio elástico. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  5. 5. Compresión: Región de alta presión.Rarefacción: Zonas de baja presión.Las compresiones y rarefacciones sealternan a través del medio en lamisma forma que las partículas de aireindividuales oscilan de un lado a otroen la dirección de la propagación de laonda. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  6. 6.  AMPLITUD: Es el valor máximo del movimiento de una onda. PERIODO: Tiempo que se tarda en realizar un ciclo completo. Se mide en segundos (s). FRECUENCIA: Es el número de ciclos que se realizan en un segundo. Es, por tanto, la inversa del período: f=1/T Se mide en ciclos por segundo (cps), que se denomina normalmente hercios (Hz). DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  7. 7.  LONGITUD DE ONDA: La distancia que recorre una onda sonora en el tiempo de un período es lo que se llama longitud de onda (λ). VELOCIDAD DEL SONIDO: Es la velocidad con que se desplazan las ondas sonoras. Su dirección es perpendicular a la superficie vibrante bajo forma de ondas. Velocidad = Distancia recorrida / tiempo c=λ*f DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  8. 8. Medium Velocity (m/s) Medium Velocity (m/s) Air 330 Liver 1549Water 1480 Kidney 1561 Fat 1450 Muscle 1585 DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  9. 9.  FRECUENCIAS 20Hz 20kHz Infrasound Audible Sound Ultrasound Low High For medical diagnostic imaging 1MHz 20MHz DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  10. 10. Piezoelectricity crystal DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  11. 11. 1910s Ultrasound sonar theory was developed in France1942 A mode was invented in Austria for brain scanning1950s M mode was invented USA invented B mode in clinical application1956 CW mode was invented in Japan for heart valve application1959 PW mode was invented1983 Color Doppler mode was invented in Japan1990 Kretz, an Austria company made the first commercial 3D ultrasound scanner DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  12. 12. 1910sDEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  13. 13. DESCRIPCION DE CADA UNODE ELLOSDEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  14. 14.  A=AMPLITUD SOLO SE REGISTRA LA INTENSIDAD DE LA SEÑAL DEL ECO. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  15. 15. M: Motiondisplayed over time TimeDepthFunction: to display tissue motion 1950s DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  16. 16. B: Brightness• displayed as dotson screen• stronger signal,brighter dotB mode is alsocalled 2D mode.Function: to display tissue structure 1950s DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  17. 17. Convex LinearConvex Probe Linear probe Phased array probe DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  18. 18. DESCRIPCION DE CADA UNODE ELLOSDEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  19. 19.  Austria  Physicist and mathematician  Born in 1803 in Salzburg  Found Doppler Principle in 1842  Died in 1853 in VeniceDEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  20. 20. Sound source: NOT moving Sound source: moving DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  21. 21. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  22. 22. Blood cell NOT moving Blood cell moving forward/backward DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  23. 23. 2  f  v  cos  fD  f + fD c fD: Doppler shift of the frequency θ f: Transmitted frequency v: Velocity of the blood θ: Angle of incidence between thev ultrasound beam and the direction of the flow c: speed of sound in tissue DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  24. 24. Color Doppler: Color Doppler1. Color: Color Doppler2. Power: Power Doppler:3. Directional Power Doppler Spectral DopplerSpectral Doppler:1. CW: continuous wave Doppler2. PW: Pulse wave Doppler DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  25. 25. Color Doppler:Pixels assigned colorbased on meanvelocityRed towards probeBlue away from probeColor mode is alsocalled CDFI mode(Color Doppler FlowImaging) or CFM (colorflow mapping)Function: to display direction of blood flow 1983 DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  26. 26. Power Doppler:Pixels assigned colorbased on meanpowerPower mode isalso called CPAmode. (ColorPower Angio)Function: to display volume of blood flow, especially at low velocity DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  27. 27. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  28. 28. B mode Color mode Power modeGray Scale Velocity Variance Power Directional Power DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  29. 29. B mode - colorized Color modeWhole image is colorized. Only blood flow is colorized. Tissue is monochrome. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  30. 30. Color Power DirPower Direction Yes No Yes Angle Yes No No dependent Velocity Yes No No Sensitivity Normal High High Application Normal velocity Low velocity Low velocityPower Doppler displays amplitude of signal (how much)Color Doppler displays velocity (how fast) DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  31. 31. Color mode Power mode vertical oblique Angle Dependent Yes NoAt perpendicular angle No flow displayed Displayed normally DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  32. 32. Some elements are transmitting sound waves. The others are receiving. The transmitting and receiving of sound waves are JUST in the same time. There is NO Sample Volume. But there is a sensitive region.DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  33. 33. Sample Line Sensitive Region Angle Correction Gray scale stands for: the amount of all objects in that velocity along the sample line.DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  34. 34. CW: Continuous-WaveDopplerspeed of blood cellsdisplayed on atime/velocity graph Time Velocity Function: to measure velocity of blood flow, especially in heart 1956 DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  35. 35. Elements are both transmitting and receiving sound waves. The transmitting and receiving of sound waves are NOT in the same time. There is a Sample Volume. PRF: Pulse RepetitionTransmit Receive Transmit Receive … Frequency DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  36. 36. Sample Line Sample Volume Angle Correction Gray scale stands for: the amount of all objects in that velocity in the sample volume.DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  37. 37. PW: Pulse-WaveDoppler Velocity Time Function: to measure velocity of blood flow 1959 DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  38. 38. Sample Line PW mode CW mode Sample Line Principle Pulsed-wave Continuous wave All elements are Some elements are transmitting and receiving transmitting sound waves. Sensitive Region Sample Volume sound waves. The others are receiving. Angle Correction Angle Correction Probe All Phased array, pencil, other Velocity Low High Locate Sample volume Sample line Window Yes NoApplication All Cardiology DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  39. 39. PW mode M mode Principle Doppler Pulse-echo Y-axial Velocity (cm/s, m/s) Depth (cm, mm) frequency shift (kHz) Object Hemodynamics Tissue motion Locate Sample volume Sample lineApplication Cardiology, vascular Cardiology DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  40. 40. Anatomical M mode Along sound beamConventional M mode DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  41. 41. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  42. 42. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  43. 43. Linear Fan 1990 DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  44. 44. DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS
  45. 45. Diagnostic CenterVerification Doctor DICOM Printer Print Network Reception DICOM Server Imaging System 1 Imaging System 3 Storage Worklist Imaging System 2 DEPARTAMENTO DE VENTAS

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