Why new or emerging cities need to be different in India?<br />UNHABITAT, State of the World Cities, 2008-09<br />Amit Sam...
Our collective purpose as a society <br />To be economically progressive<br />To be socially cohesive<br />To promote heal...
Ecological model of Human Health<br />Human health should be seen in a physical, social, behavioural, and ecological conte...
What have our cities achieved?<br />Drivers of economic growth<br />Hubs of world class education, commerce and specialize...
Cities in India are of great contrast<br />80 million or more urban poor live in cities of India<br />Informal sector one ...
Poor health indicators of the urban poor<br />Urban areas in India have better specialized healthcare services but facilit...
Urban environment affects each one of us<br />Only 2 per cent cities have low air pollution on the basis of PM10<br />In 8...
Promoting  and protecting health has become a challenge<br />Lack of good footpaths<br />Absence of dedicated cycling trac...
Threats to cities due to climate change<br />Urban flooding due to heavy rainfall<br />Flooding provides opportunities for...
What we need to do in emerging cities of India?To promote and protect health….!<br />
Embedding health in all policies<br />Good urban governance & healthy urban planning<br />Healthy Urban Population<br />Im...
Make Healthy Choice – The Easy Choice<br />12<br />Community<br />Basic services<br />Information & Education<br />Housing...
Improve Transportation<br /><ul><li> Provide better public transport
 Facilitate more walking and cycling
 Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Urbanising India and health issues

990 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
990
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
60
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Urbanising India and health issues

  1. 1. Why new or emerging cities need to be different in India?<br />UNHABITAT, State of the World Cities, 2008-09<br />Amit Samarth<br />
  2. 2. Our collective purpose as a society <br />To be economically progressive<br />To be socially cohesive<br />To promote health and well-being<br />To enable individuals to achieve their intellectual and physical potential<br />To ensure that citizens today and tomorrow will be able to enjoy the basic amenities of life in a sustainable and eco-friendly way<br />
  3. 3. Ecological model of Human Health<br />Human health should be seen in a physical, social, behavioural, and ecological context. <br />Health promotion activities should involve other sectors making a contribution to health, such as education, food, nutrition, and environment.<br />Source: Barton and Grant, 2006<br />
  4. 4. What have our cities achieved?<br />Drivers of economic growth<br />Hubs of world class education, commerce and specialized health care services<br />400 million are already living in Urban India<br />590 million will be living in urban India by 2030<br />68 million plus cities by 2030<br />13 cities with more than 4 million people<br />6 Megacities with more than 10 million people<br />Source: India’s Urban Awakening. Building Inclusive cities , Sustaining Economic Growth<br />
  5. 5. Cities in India are of great contrast<br />80 million or more urban poor live in cities of India<br />Informal sector one of the key drivers of cities economic growth<br />Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have highest slum population<br />Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata have highest slum population<br />Growing inequalities and growing exclusion<br />Poor living conditions<br />Poor health outcomes<br />Source: India Urban Poverty Report 2009<br />
  6. 6. Poor health indicators of the urban poor<br />Urban areas in India have better specialized healthcare services but facilities for promotive and primary care are non-existant<br />High infant and maternal mortality<br />High water-borne diseases<br />High vector borne disease like malaria and dengue<br />Higher incidence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease<br />Poor occupational health<br />Higher mental illnesses<br />Road traffic injuries<br />In Andhra Pradesh, there are 7500 slum localities but there are only 250 Urban Healthcare Centres<br />Source: Living conditions in 8 cities of India. NFHS-III Survey 2005-06<br />
  7. 7. Urban environment affects each one of us<br />Only 2 per cent cities have low air pollution on the basis of PM10<br />In 80 per cent of cities at least one criteria pollutant exceeded the annual average ambient air quality standards<br />Exponential growth in private vehicles in last few years -17 million vehicles in last 7 yrs<br />Personal vehicles – cars and two-wheelers -- use up more than 75 per cent of the road space, but meet only 20 per cent of the city’s commuting demand<br />Are we creating more space for cars rather than for our own self?<br />Source: State of Air Pollution in Indian Cities 2007, Centre for Science and Environment<br />
  8. 8. Promoting and protecting health has become a challenge<br />Lack of good footpaths<br />Absence of dedicated cycling tracks<br />Lack of green spaces<br />Lack of sports facilities<br />Lack of social space<br />Changing food systems and nutritional transition<br />Food inflation<br />
  9. 9. Threats to cities due to climate change<br />Urban flooding due to heavy rainfall<br />Flooding provides opportunities for breeding of disease carrying insects such as mosquito<br />Lack of adequate water can compromise hygiene and thus increasing rates of diarrhoealdisease<br />Decreased crop yields can stress food supplies<br />
  10. 10. What we need to do in emerging cities of India?To promote and protect health….!<br />
  11. 11. Embedding health in all policies<br />Good urban governance & healthy urban planning<br />Healthy Urban Population<br />Improve health and social equity<br />Improve availability and access to healthcare services<br />Improve living and working condition<br />
  12. 12. Make Healthy Choice – The Easy Choice<br />12<br />Community<br />Basic services<br />Information & Education<br />Housing<br />Good water quality<br />Healthcare<br />services<br />Sanitation<br />Education and employment<br />Government services<br />Social & Cultural <br />activities<br />Waste management<br />Good air quality<br />Health and Social equity leading to Healthy Urban Population<br />Healthy Environment<br />Green <br />Spaces<br />Cheap<br />Lightings<br />Cheap and nutritious<br />Cheap transport<br />Roads<br />Access to food<br />Clean<br />Infrastructure<br />Nutrition<br />Energy<br />
  13. 13. Improve Transportation<br /><ul><li> Provide better public transport
  14. 14. Facilitate more walking and cycling
  15. 15. Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases
  16. 16. Reduce obesity
  17. 17. Reduced respiratory diseases
  18. 18. Improved mental health and decreased depression
  19. 19. Reduce carbon emissions and air pollutants
  20. 20. Increased physical activity
  21. 21. Improved social capital </li></ul>Source: Margalit Younger, Heather R. Morrow-Almeida, Stephen M. Vindigni, Andrew L. Dannenberg. The Built Environment, Climate Change, and Health<br />Opportunities for Co-Benefits<br />
  22. 22. Better buildings and land use<br /><ul><li> Provide convenient and well lit stairs
  23. 23. Natural ventilation
  24. 24. Increase facilities such as parks, and opportunities for physical exercise
  25. 25. Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases
  26. 26. Reduced respiratory diseases
  27. 27. Improved mental health and productivity
  28. 28. Reduced susceptibility to heat related illnesses
  29. 29. Improved air quality
  30. 30. Increased physical activity
  31. 31. Decreased heat island effects</li></ul>Source: Margalit Younger, Heather R. Morrow-Almeida, Stephen M. Vindigni, Andrew L. Dannenberg. The Built Environment, Climate Change, and Health<br />Opportunities for Co-Benefits<br />
  32. 32. Improve nutrition<br /><ul><li>Sustainable agriculture
  33. 33. Promote locally grown food
  34. 34. Provide healthy food options and information
  35. 35. Reduce demand for meat consumption
  36. 36. Reduced obesity
  37. 37. Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes
  38. 38. Improved and better balanced nutrition
  39. 39. Reduce carbon emissions </li></ul>Source: Margalit Younger, Heather R. Morrow-Almeida, Stephen M. Vindigni, Andrew L. Dannenberg. The Built Environment, Climate Change, and Health<br />Opportunities for Co-Benefits<br />

×