Rise of non-communicable diseases and role of urban planning in India<br />Dr. Amit Samarth<br />1<br />
Objectives<br /><ul><li>Growth of urban population in India
Rising epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
Role of urban environment as a important determinant of health
Healthy urban planning
Strategies to reduce NCDs by improving urban environment
Way forward</li></ul>2<br />
Growth in urban population of India<br /><ul><li>Population of India - increase from 1029 million to 1400 million in a per...
Urban population – from 286 million to 575 million
Increase in urban population will almost account for two-thirds of population increase
Slum dwelling population is also increasing  - major contributor
Growth due to natural increase
More than 40% population will be living in the urban areas by 2026
Change in population dynamics of India - major implication for health and well being </li></ul>3<br />
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Urban Planning to address Non-Communicable diseases

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This ppt describes the important challenges faced by urbanising India and how urban planning can address the social and physical determinants of Health

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Urban Planning to address Non-Communicable diseases

  1. 1. Rise of non-communicable diseases and role of urban planning in India<br />Dr. Amit Samarth<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br /><ul><li>Growth of urban population in India
  3. 3. Rising epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
  4. 4. Role of urban environment as a important determinant of health
  5. 5. Healthy urban planning
  6. 6. Strategies to reduce NCDs by improving urban environment
  7. 7. Way forward</li></ul>2<br />
  8. 8. Growth in urban population of India<br /><ul><li>Population of India - increase from 1029 million to 1400 million in a period from 2001 to 2026
  9. 9. Urban population – from 286 million to 575 million
  10. 10. Increase in urban population will almost account for two-thirds of population increase
  11. 11. Slum dwelling population is also increasing - major contributor
  12. 12. Growth due to natural increase
  13. 13. More than 40% population will be living in the urban areas by 2026
  14. 14. Change in population dynamics of India - major implication for health and well being </li></ul>3<br />
  15. 15. Epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)<br /><ul><li>Triple burden of disease
  16. 16. Diabetic capital of the world
  17. 17. High prevalence of Hypertension
  18. 18. Obesity and overweight is on the rise
  19. 19. Nutrition transition
  20. 20. More than 50 percent deaths occur in India due to cardiovascular diseases
  21. 21. The vehicular traffic major contributor towards air pollution
  22. 22. Air pollutants a major risk factor for NCDs
  23. 23. Increasing Road traffic accidents
  24. 24. Climate change</li></ul>Reference – Report of National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, 2005<br />4<br />
  25. 25. Role of urban environment for human health<br /><ul><li>Environment plays a crucial role - for human health
  26. 26. Health is determined by – conditions in which we live
  27. 27. Cities play a major role in providing the facilities and infrastructure that determine human health
  28. 28. Important role to address health and socio-economic inequities
  29. 29. 2008 - a landmark in the history of human civilisation as more people started living in the urban areas than in rural areas
  30. 30. WHO has made ‘Urban Health’ as its theme for World Health Day for the year 2010
  31. 31. Role in climate change – human activities in cities</li></ul>5<br />
  32. 32. Healthy urban planning<br /><ul><li>Planning and developing urban spaces for promoting active living among the citizens
  33. 33. Healthy urban planning is a process to bring WHO’s core strategy of ‘Health for all’ into reality
  34. 34. Inter-sectoral collaborative approach
  35. 35. Approach to understand and modify the social and physical determinants of health
  36. 36. Integrates human and environmental health at all the levels of policy and decision making
  37. 37. Major influence on risk factors for non-communicable
  38. 38. Potential to address climate change and sustainable development
  39. 39. Urban planning scenario in India – presently weak</li></ul>6<br />
  40. 40. 7<br />Community<br />Basic services<br />Information & Education<br />Housing<br />Good water quality<br />Healthcare<br />services<br />Sanitation<br />Education and employment<br />Government services<br />Social & Cultural <br />activities<br />Waste management<br />Good air quality<br />Healthy Urban Population<br />Healthy Urban Environment<br />Agricultural<br />produce<br />Green <br />Spaces<br />Cheap<br />Safe buildings<br />Cheap and nutritious<br />Efficient transport<br />Mechanism<br />Safe Roads<br />Access to local food<br />Clean<br />Infrastructure<br />Nutrition<br />Energy<br />
  41. 41. How we can address the risk factors for NCDs through urban planning?<br /><ul><li>Increasing physical activity
  42. 42. Improving air quality
  43. 43. Improving nutrition </li></ul>8<br />
  44. 44. Community<br />Promote walking and Cycling<br />Information & Education<br />Cycling tracks<br />Green <br />spaces<br />Parking facilities for bicycles<br />Ensuring safety<br />Social marketing through outdoor media<br />Trees along roads and footpaths<br />Community<br />Awareness<br />Safe footpaths<br />Increased<br />Physical Activity<br />Proper signages & illumination<br />Exercise facilities in parks<br />Easy access to urban transport<br />Easy access to services and facilities<br />Change rooms & toilets<br />Provide sports Equipment<br />Priority to pedestrian & cyclist<br />Public Gymnasiums<br />Safe <br />design<br />Integrated development of roads, transport & facilities<br />Promoting Exercise and sports<br />Infrastructure<br />Roads<br />9<br />
  45. 45. Community<br /> Traffic management<br />Congestion charges<br />Social marketing through outdoor media<br />Green <br />spaces<br />Use of <br />technology<br />Remove vehicles using old technology<br />Information & Education on air pollution<br />Reduction of use of private vehicles and air pollution<br />Restrict number of new vehicles sold<br />High quality urban transport<br />Least <br />priority to private vehicles<br />Reduce subsidies on fuel<br />Tighten air pollution norms<br />Green buffer zones<br />Limit parking for cars & motorcycles<br />Policies<br />Infrastructure<br />10<br />
  46. 46. Co-benefits of improving built environment to facilitate walking/Cycling and providing better transport<br /><ul><li> Provide better public transport
  47. 47. discouraging use of private vehicles
  48. 48. Facilitate more walking and cycling
  49. 49. Reduce carbon emissions and air pollutants
  50. 50. Improve air quality
  51. 51. Increased physical activity
  52. 52. Reduce obesity
  53. 53. Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases
  54. 54. Reduced respiratory diseases
  55. 55. Improved social capital
  56. 56. Reduce road traffic accidents
  57. 57. Mitigate climate change</li></ul>11<br />
  58. 58. Community<br />Promote urban agriculture<br />Urban agricultural extension services<br />Land rights<br />Social marketing through outdoor media<br />Waste and Wastewater management<br />Employment generation<br />Information & Education on nutrition<br />Effective marketing strategies<br />Restrict <br />processed food advertising<br />Improved urban nutrition <br />Appropriate Agriculture policies<br />Restrict number of fast food restaurants<br />Easy access of local produce into local markets<br />Plan and develop local markets<br />Reduce subsidies on fuel<br />Infrastructure<br />Promote local agriculture produce<br />12<br />
  59. 59. Co-benefits of promoting local markets, urban agriculture and public health<br /><ul><li>Improved and better balanced nutrition
  60. 60. Cheaper agricultural produce
  61. 61. Reduced carbon emissions
  62. 62. Local markets
  63. 63. Urban agriculture
  64. 64. Promote locally grown food
  65. 65. Provide healthy food options and information
  66. 66. Restrict fast food restaurants and advertising
  67. 67. Reduced obesity
  68. 68. Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes
  69. 69. Mitigate climate change
  70. 70. Sustainable development</li></ul>13<br />
  71. 71. Way forward – strengthening urban planning in India<br /><ul><li>Human and Environmental health – central to the decision making process
  72. 72. Appropriate policies, programmes and plans – can address the risk factors for NCDs
  73. 73. Political commitment
  74. 74. Financial resources
  75. 75. Collaboration among experts from different sectors
  76. 76. Continuous research and knowledge generation
  77. 77. Citizen consultation
  78. 78. Education and awareness – active and responsible citizens</li></ul>14<br />

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