Historical Census Statistics
Print and electronic – A How-to
DLI National Training Day, June 2, 2014, Toronto
Susan Mowers...
Workshop Objectives
Understanding what you can find using
historical Census publications
Learning the key changes to Censu...
• How often do you use
the print volumes of
the historical Census?
o once a month?
o once a term?
o never…
o or do you use...
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Census changes
3. Scope of Census statistical publications
4. Sources of Census statistics and
…...
Why do we need a workshop on
Historical Census resources?
• Increasing lack of familiarity with researching historical
Cen...
Workshop topics
1. Introduction
2. Census changes
3. Scope of Census statistical publications
4. Sources of Census statist...
Censuses to the early 1900’s
.
Population Census
Parallel censuses:
- recent deaths
- farms; livestock; farm products;
- r...
Censuses to 1901
● 1666-1872 - Colonial censuses, starting with New France, 1666. Age, sex,
language, occupation, housing ...
1906 to today
● 1906 (Alberta and Saskatchewan - 1896 (Manitoba)
○ first quinquennial Censuses (Censuses of Agriculture)
●...
Workshop topics
1. Introduction
2. Census changes
3. Scope of Census statistical publications
4. Sources of Census statist...
Two major Census
statistical publications
Profiles Tabulations
(Simple variable tables)
• Major component of the print
Cen...
What are Profiles?
● Univariate* overviews of geographic areas,
SOURCE: Statistics Canada. 2007. Ontario, Quebec. 2006 Com...
What are Census (cross)tabulations?
● Multivariate tables by region
● Detailed subject matter
● Use Topic-based tabulation...
Evolution of the
Census tabulation series
● Going back in time to 1996, the greater in number and depth
of the electronic ...
Workshop topics
1.Need for skills and tools
2. Census changes
3. Scope of Census statistical publications
4. Sources of Ce...
MODERN CENSUSES
(1961 onward)
Compared features of aggregate data sources
Features Stat Can website
(Census/ Community
Profiles )
CHASS
Census Analyzer
...
Data sources by type of tables for
recent censuses (1961 onward)
Type of
table
Census Website CHASS
Census
Analyzer
DLI EF...
Census cross-tabulations
Year Census Product Data Source Format
2011 Topic-based tabulations
Including DA-level
Very few v...
HISTORICAL
CENSUSES (before 1961)
Pre-Confederation Censuses:
1665-1871
• From the print: Censuses of Canada, 1665 to 1871, Statistics of
Canada, Volume IV
...
Digitized Print Volumes of the
Census of Canada
Databases of nomimal censuses (1825 to 1921)
• LAC
• Ancestry.ca
Canadiana...
How to explore the digitized volumes
… an overview
• UofT guide to the Census aggregate statistics
o Detailed breakdown by...
DEMONSTRATION
Question:
What are the top countries for place of birth of
immigrants?
• In the 1981 census
• In the 1951 ce...
Workshop topics
1.Need for skills and tools
2. Census changes
3. Scope of Census statistical publications
4. Sources of Ce...
Reference materials …
● To provide background on the Census questions asked …
○ Topical information and finding tools
● To...
Reference Materials
(A) Researching by topic: after Confederation
● "Census questions and derived variables since Confeder...
Reference Materials
(A) Researching by topic: before Confederation
Approximately 1821-1871
● Library and Archives Canada, ...
Reference Materials
(B) Navigating the Census by year
The Census publications grew substantially over time, making manual ...
Reference Materials
(B) Navigating the Census information: the earlier Population
Censuses
1665 - 1871
● Queen’s Universit...
Questions?
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Historical Censuses of Canada. DLI 2014

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How best to explore recent and historic censuses of Canada. Presentation given at the 2014 Data Liberation Initiative National Training.
Authors: Alex Guindon and Susan Mowers

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Historical Censuses of Canada. DLI 2014

  1. 1. Historical Census Statistics Print and electronic – A How-to DLI National Training Day, June 2, 2014, Toronto Susan Mowers Alex Guindon
  2. 2. Workshop Objectives Understanding what you can find using historical Census publications Learning the key changes to Census publications over time
  3. 3. • How often do you use the print volumes of the historical Census? o once a month? o once a term? o never… o or do you use the digitized version?
  4. 4. Agenda 1. Introduction 2. Census changes 3. Scope of Census statistical publications 4. Sources of Census statistics and …reference materials
  5. 5. Why do we need a workshop on Historical Census resources? • Increasing lack of familiarity with researching historical Census statistics • Census – to – Census variations • Changes in use patterns • Recent digitization of print volumes
  6. 6. Workshop topics 1. Introduction 2. Census changes 3. Scope of Census statistical publications 4. Sources of Census statistics and reference material We are here
  7. 7. Censuses to the early 1900’s . Population Census Parallel censuses: - recent deaths - farms; livestock; farm products; - real estate - fur & fabric products - forestry products - shipping and fisheries - mining products - industry, etc. Many families would have been enumerated in several censuses No wonder Censuses were only held once every 10 years!
  8. 8. Censuses to 1901 ● 1666-1872 - Colonial censuses, starting with New France, 1666. Age, sex, language, occupation, housing and other property... - More info [Link] ● 1765... - Questions introduced on race, religion and ethnic origin ● 1871 - First national Census - under 1867 BNA (representation by population) - NB, NS, QC and ON - included aboriginal persons - questionnaires, called schedules, were administered by enumerators - Census Dictionary appendix A traces Census questions and derived variables since Confederation (when Census questions were first asked) ● 1881 - saw the adoption of the oath of secrecy for census enumerators - and covered PEI, Man., NWT and BC ● 1891 - Question on parents’ birthplaces introduced (previously the father’s) ● 1901 - 11 schedules (561 questions overall), reduced to 5 schedules by 1921 Sources: Nancy Lemay, The library and the Canadian Census (2009, University of Ottawa Slideshare presentation [Link] and Statistics Canada, History of the Census [Link],
  9. 9. 1906 to today ● 1906 (Alberta and Saskatchewan - 1896 (Manitoba) ○ first quinquennial Censuses (Censuses of Agriculture) ● 1921 - most recent Census release of microdata (92 year embargo) ● 1931 - Questions regarding the causes and severity of unemployment ● 1941 - Last year fertility questions asked (dropped in 1921 and 1931) ● 1951 - Census Tracts and tables introduced ● 1961 - Enumeration Area-level and Basic Summary Tables ● 1971 - Self-enumeration introduced ● 1986 - First “full” quinquennial Census ● 1996 - Dissemination of detailed tables via DLI and use of web site ● Undercoverage rates …1961 to 1976 [csv Link] 1971-2001 [Link], 2006 [Link] and voluntary 2011 National Household Survey [Link - forthcoming] and [Link]
  10. 10. Workshop topics 1. Introduction 2. Census changes 3. Scope of Census statistical publications 4. Sources of Census statistics and reference material We are here
  11. 11. Two major Census statistical publications Profiles Tabulations (Simple variable tables) • Major component of the print Census publications • Electronic formats, e.g., online Community Profiles or Census Profile... • Many distribution channels: Census Analyser, Profile series via DLI and the public web site, former E-Stat (now DLI and Queen’s). (Allow cross-tabulations of two + variables) Various names and distribution channels via Statistics Canada: • detailed tables through DLI: Topic-based Tabulations, former Basic Summary Tables, and former Dimension Series • simpler Topic-based tabulations through Statistics Canada web site, • simpler Nation Series & Dimension Series (both replaced by the Topic-based tabulations) via the Depository Services Program
  12. 12. What are Profiles? ● Univariate* overviews of geographic areas, SOURCE: Statistics Canada. 2007. Ontario, Quebec. 2006 Community Profiles, 2006 Census [Table]. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 92-591-XWE. Ottawa. Released March 13, Retrieved from 2007.http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/profiles/community/Index.cfm?Lang=E Characteristic (variable) Quebec Ontario Population, total 7,546,130 12,160,285 male, total 3,687,695 5,930,700 male, aged 0-4 191,565 343,475 mother tongue, French only 5,877,660 488,815 immigrants 851,555 3,398,725 LIMITATION: Variables, (e.g., French mother tongue and immigrants), can not be combined Two types of Profile tables: Thematic & Cumulative profiles
  13. 13. What are Census (cross)tabulations? ● Multivariate tables by region ● Detailed subject matter ● Use Topic-based tabulations to tabulate two or more characteristics yourself, e.g., Education-Immigration-Sex table 97-562-XCB200601: SOURCE: Statistics Canada. 2009. Occupation - National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 (720), Class of Worker (6) and Sex (3) for the Labour Force 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data, Topic-based Tabulation: Labour, Occupation. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp- pd/tbt/index-eng.cfm
  14. 14. Evolution of the Census tabulation series ● Going back in time to 1996, the greater in number and depth of the electronic tables (DSP/Web + DLI). ● 1996- 2006 Censuses: ● multiple tabulation series and ● geography goes down to dissemination areas and census tracts ● 2011 National Household Survey Data Tables (like the former 20% Census) ● 2011 Census Topic-based tabulations (like the 100% / short- form Census)
  15. 15. Workshop topics 1.Need for skills and tools 2. Census changes 3. Scope of Census statistical publications 4. Sources of Census statistics and reference material We are here
  16. 16. MODERN CENSUSES (1961 onward)
  17. 17. Compared features of aggregate data sources Features Stat Can website (Census/ Community Profiles ) CHASS Census Analyzer DLI EFT (FTP Site) ODESI, Equinox, Abacus Search functions By place name By postal code, geo code (2011 only) None Limited (depends on FTP client) Sophisticated (field searching, boolean logic, etc.) *Not at variable level Browse functions List of place names Sophisticated selection menu (geography, variables, output, file format) Folder structure navigation Varies but generally good Download data for all geo units in Canada Yes, but complicated Yes Yes Yes Download specific variables No (only tables by theme) Yes No No (some exceptions) File formats CSV, TAB IVT, XML (complete tables) TXT, HTML, CSV, SAS, SPSS, DBF IVT, TXT Multiple Access Public By subscription DLI contacts By subscription/region
  18. 18. Data sources by type of tables for recent censuses (1961 onward) Type of table Census Website CHASS Census Analyzer DLI EFT (FTP site) ODESI, Equinox, Abacus Profiles Yes (1996-2011) No DA-level data Yes Yes Yes Topic-based Tabulations Yes (2001-2011) 1996: only selective Nation Series tables No Yes Yes Basic Summary Tabulations No No Yes Some
  19. 19. Census cross-tabulations Year Census Product Data Source Format 2011 Topic-based tabulations Including DA-level Very few variables DLI EFT Stat Can web site B2020, ASCII HTML (web) 2006 Topic-based tabulations (Web: DA-level upon request only) DLI EFT Stat Can web site B2020, ASCII HTML (web) 2001 Topic-based tabulations(Web: DA- level uon request only) DLI EFT Stat Can web site B2020, ASCII HTML (web) 1996 Dimension Series (more detail/variables) DLI EFT B2020, ASCII Nation Series (Web: only some tables) DSP EFT Stat Can web site B2020, ASCII HTML (web) Basic Summary Tables , lower levels of geography (going back to 1961) DLI EFT B2020, ASCII
  20. 20. HISTORICAL CENSUSES (before 1961)
  21. 21. Pre-Confederation Censuses: 1665-1871 • From the print: Censuses of Canada, 1665 to 1871, Statistics of Canada, Volume IV • 343 tables in Beyond 20/20 viewer format • Formerly on E-Stat, now available through Queen’s University Library web site (in English) • By region and date • The tables also available via DLI/EFT under census_pop_recens (in English and French) Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island Atlantic Canada - 1671-1871
  22. 22. Digitized Print Volumes of the Census of Canada Databases of nomimal censuses (1825 to 1921) • LAC • Ancestry.ca Canadiana: 1851-1891 Internet Archive (archive.org): 1851-1991 • Complete volumes • Reference materials • PDFs are searchable (OCRed) and downloadable
  23. 23. How to explore the digitized volumes … an overview • UofT guide to the Census aggregate statistics o Detailed breakdown by product and geographic level o Digitized catalogue of products (when available) o Digitized tables of contents o Extensive historical coverage • Questionnaires and schedules (University of Ottawa) • Canadian census questions and derived variables since confederation (from Appendix A of the 2011 Census Dictionary)  Internet Archive -- Advanced Search - Under collection select: statisticscanada - In any field:[census year] AND [topic] Example: 1981 census immigra* - Keyword search in the PDFs
  24. 24. DEMONSTRATION Question: What are the top countries for place of birth of immigrants? • In the 1981 census • In the 1951 census Answering this question shows that: • It is possible to retrieve a lot of information from old censuses • but it may not be immediately comparable to statistics from recent censuses
  25. 25. Workshop topics 1.Need for skills and tools 2. Census changes 3. Scope of Census statistical publications 4. Sources of Census statistics and … reference materials We are here
  26. 26. Reference materials … ● To provide background on the Census questions asked … ○ Topical information and finding tools ● To navigate the printed Census tables whether print or digitized formats
  27. 27. Reference Materials (A) Researching by topic: after Confederation ● "Census questions and derived variables since Confederation” in Census Dictionary Appendix A … ”when” ● Questionnaires 1871-2006 uO Library | 1871-1961: CCRI *Canadian Century Research Infrastructure ● Search the Statistics Canada Library catalogue [Link] ■ Search by series (e.g., Census and optional year) and keyword (your topic) searches ● add series keywords, e.g., Nation or Population or Bulletin ■ Records often have links to the Internet archive version ■ Note the title of the publication or the Statistics Canada catalogue number … important because the titles of the publications do not often indicate the topic, and because many topical tables are outside the “Population” volumes ● Also search Internet Archive [Link] e.g., title keyword: Census and (Year) and collection is: statisticscanada
  28. 28. Reference Materials (A) Researching by topic: before Confederation Approximately 1821-1871 ● Library and Archives Canada, > About the 1871 Census : Column headings and interpretation (“about” the questions on the Census schedules) ● Manuals containing the Census Act and Instructions to enumerators [Internet archive search of Census manuals] and on CCRI
  29. 29. Reference Materials (B) Navigating the Census by year The Census publications grew substantially over time, making manual browsing through the print volumes increasingly laborious … ● 1961-2006 ○ Products and Services catalogues essential to understanding Census publications ■ Statistics Canada 2006-Preview | 2001 | 1996 > See Census reference products ■ U of T – [Link] > See individual Census years > Doumentation > Products ○ Use series/title information from above with Statistics Canada library catalogue [Link]
  30. 30. Reference Materials (B) Navigating the Census information: the earlier Population Censuses 1665 - 1871 ● Queen’s University Library web site | Bilingual access: DLI/EFT 1825 – 1891, again note: Manuals containing the Census Act and Instructions to enumerators [Link] and via CCRI … overviews, e.g., 1666-1871 Censuses of Canada … various: Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present [Link] Aboriginal peoples [Link] 1867 – Historical statistical almanacs/yearbooks, [Link] & Articles [Link] 1851- 1975 Population and migration – with details [Link]
  31. 31. Questions?

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