IT’S NOT JUST A DOCUMENT:
USING GOVERNMENT DATA
IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

Marianne Ryan

Melissa Oakes
Cathy Johnson

Char...
“I just want it the way I want it.”

When Harry Met Sally

11/15/2013

2
When it was just a document . . .

11/15/2013

3
The past: The terminology of of documents
The past: The terminology documents
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

11/15/2013

Report
Statem...
The present: A new vocabulary for changing research needs

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

11/15/2013

Data
Pattern
Text mining
Importi...
Supporting interdisciplinary emphases and connections
Supporting interdisciplinary emphases and connections
in·ter·dis·ci·...
Generation

Traditionals (Silents, Veterans)

Boomers

X-ers

Millenials (Nexters)

Approximate Dates of Birth

1922-1943 ...
Northwestern University LibraryLibrary
Northwestern University
Public Services Division (through 2009)

Public Services Di...
Northwestern University Library

Northwestern University Library
Restructured Public Services Division (since 2010)
Restru...
Northwestern University Library
Research & Information Services Department (since 2010)
Department Head
Departmental Progr...
Now and in the Future:
A New Way of Thinking About Government Documents
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

11/15/2013

Geographical place name...
Documents with Geographic References and…

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Cornplanter

Nenetooyah

1791-1800
1821-1840
1861-188...
Comparing Nay Votes:
Indian Vaccination Act of 1832/Swine Flu Vaccination Program of 1976
Percent of Member “Nay”
Votes by...
Vaccine Programs:
Comparing Document Language Over Time
Language
Characterization

1976

2009

Negative

Hostile, bitter
e...
Documents….Word Usage Over Time

Remedies for Disease
35000

Documents

30000
25000

Timeline Events:
Antibiotic

20000

A...
Tobacco and Smoking: Witness Affiliations by Sector Over Time

70

Witness Affiliations:
Smoking/Tobacco/Cigar/Cigarette

...
We haven’t quite made it past It’s not just a document
• Text mining opens up countless new applications for Congressional...
Examples of research for a variety of disciplines
Discipline

Researching document Text mining
by document

Health

Antibi...
Examples

11/15/2013

20
11/15/2013

21
Future of text mining/analysis?
• Libraries vary on strategic plans to meet the needs of researchers
• Licensing can be a ...
Questions?
catherine.johnson@proquest.com

melissa.oakes@proquest.com
marianne-ryan@northwestern.edu

11/15/2013

23
It’s Not Just a Document: Using Government Data in Teaching and Research
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Catherine Jervey Johnson (speaker), Diane H Smith (speaker), Marianne Ryan (speaker), Melissa Oakes (speaker)

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It’s Not Just a Document: Using Government Data in Teaching and Research

  1. 1. IT’S NOT JUST A DOCUMENT: USING GOVERNMENT DATA IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH Marianne Ryan Melissa Oakes Cathy Johnson Charleston Conference November 2013
  2. 2. “I just want it the way I want it.” When Harry Met Sally 11/15/2013 2
  3. 3. When it was just a document . . . 11/15/2013 3
  4. 4. The past: The terminology of of documents The past: The terminology documents • • • • • • • • • 11/15/2013 Report Statement Vote List Statistic Graph Table Guide Map 4
  5. 5. The present: A new vocabulary for changing research needs • • • • • • • • • 11/15/2013 Data Pattern Text mining Importing/exporting Visualizing Layering Geo-referencing Intersections Manipulating 5
  6. 6. Supporting interdisciplinary emphases and connections Supporting interdisciplinary emphases and connections in·ter·dis·ci·plin·ary adjective -ˈdi sə-plə-ˈner ē : involving two or more academic, scientific, or artistic areas of knowledge : involving two or more disciplines __________________________________________________ Geography and Journalism Biology and Music Art and Business Law and Psychology French and Economics Theater and Environmental Studies Engineering and Marketing Medicine and Urban Planning Political Science and Philosophy Accounting and Linguistics 11/15/2013 6
  7. 7. Generation Traditionals (Silents, Veterans) Boomers X-ers Millenials (Nexters) Approximate Dates of Birth 1922-1943 (Pre-WWII) 1943-1960 1961-1980 1981-1999 Characteristics that influence information seeking Accustomed to top-down flow of information Formal Learning environment that is stable Formal Feedback Interactive and nonauthoritarian Information Seeking Like materials that are organized and summarized Example: Reader’s Digest Dewey Decimal Easy to scan format Example: Business Week; USA Today; People Government Resources Government documents Arranged by SuDoc number Mediated expertise Government publications Supplementary finding aids Microfiche compilations Highly independent Entrepreneur Comfortable with change Raised with instant access Want frequent, immediate feedback Self-directed Sample and learn by doing Not attracted to classroom Prefer fewer words Don’t read as much Visual stimulation – headlines, subheads, quotes, graphics, lists Example: Spin, Fast Company, Wired, chat-room dialogue Globally concerned Diverse Cyber-literate Media Savvy Collaborative Multitaskers Teamwork Technology Multi-media Readers Lively and varied materials Chat (Instant Messaging) Search engine (Google) Government information CD-ROM databases Keyword searching Ability to cut and paste Government content Data Images Federated searching Ability to manipulate Adapted from the summary of Information Seeking and the Generations provided by Eileen Abels' at http://www.ala.org/rusa/sites/ala.org.rusa/files/content/sections/rss/rsssection/rrsscomm/virtualreferencecommittee/an07infoseekgen.pdf
  8. 8. Northwestern University LibraryLibrary Northwestern University Public Services Division (through 2009) Public Services Division (through 2009) 11/15/2013 8
  9. 9. Northwestern University Library Northwestern University Library Restructured Public Services Division (since 2010) Restructured Public Services Division (since 2010) 11/15/2013 9
  10. 10. Northwestern University Library Research & Information Services Department (since 2010) Department Head Departmental Program Assistant Assistant Head/Research & Information Services Dept Principal Bibliographer & Coordinator for General Studies Humanities & Social Sciences Coordinator Assistant Head, Government & Business Information Geospatial & Data Services GIS/Data Specialist (open position) African American Studies Librarian East Asian Studies Librarian Geospatial & Cartographic Specialist Latin American Studies Librarian (open position) Business & Management Collection Development Librarian Collection Processing Assistant (1/2 time) Business, Economics, & Data Librarian (open position) ) Govt. Information Processing Assistant 11/15/2013 Science Coordinator (dotted line, reports through Branch & OffCampus Services Dept) Government Information Librarian 10
  11. 11. Now and in the Future: A New Way of Thinking About Government Documents • • • • • • • 11/15/2013 Geographical place names…trends, charts, and map visualizations Votes…vote comparisons and trends Text…comparative text analysis Words…word usage over time Witness testimonies…track witness language Witness affiliations…track by sector over time Confirm a hypothesis…suggest a hypothesis 11
  12. 12. Documents with Geographic References and… 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Cornplanter Nenetooyah 1791-1800 1821-1840 1861-1880 1901-1920 1941-1960 1981-2000 Documents Comparison of References to Seneca and Cherokee Signers of Treaties 11/15/2013 12
  13. 13. Comparing Nay Votes: Indian Vaccination Act of 1832/Swine Flu Vaccination Program of 1976 Percent of Member “Nay” Votes by Party Affiliation Vaccination: Percent of "Nay" Votes Breakdown by Region 60 120 50 40 30 100 In 1832, 50% of the Nay Votes were from the South Atlantic States 80 60 Majority Party Year 1832 40 20 Minority Party Year 1832 20 Majority Party Year 1976 Year 1832 10 0 Mid Atlantic States high percentage of Nay votes in 1832 and 1976 Year 1976 0 Minority Party Year 1976 11/15/2013 14
  14. 14. Vaccine Programs: Comparing Document Language Over Time Language Characterization 1976 2009 Negative Hostile, bitter enemy, useless, dange rous Dread looms watchful continuing concern controversial Death, big problem Positive Benefit, advantage Better to be safe than sorry Safeguarding life Scientific/Medical Experiment, plague Papers, scientific journals, science, New England Journal of Medicine, compelling evidence, clinical trials Public health, safety, physical health, pandemic Money Money Million Dime, IOU, fiscal health, pocketbook, debt, fiscal year, billion Government Constitutional power Administration’s implementation Government manages constituents, Congress Demographic groups 11/15/2013 1832 Indians, Indian agents Children, various agegroups, elderly Children, grandchildren, grandma, Guantanamo Khalid Sheik Mohammed 15
  15. 15. Documents….Word Usage Over Time Remedies for Disease 35000 Documents 30000 25000 Timeline Events: Antibiotic 20000 Antiseptic 15000 Vaccines 10000 Disinfect 5000 Leeches Quarantine 0 11/15/2013 16
  16. 16. Tobacco and Smoking: Witness Affiliations by Sector Over Time 70 Witness Affiliations: Smoking/Tobacco/Cigar/Cigarette 60 50 40 anti-smoking exporters 30 farmers manufacturers 20 wholesale retail union 10 0 1878-1900 1901-1920 1921-1940 1941-1960 1961-1980 1981-2000 2001-2014 11/15/2013 17
  17. 17. We haven’t quite made it past It’s not just a document • Text mining opens up countless new applications for Congressional Content but at many libraries we are still struggling to get users to understand the value of congressional content • STEM content in Congressional publications includes witness testimony, inserted material, Congressional Research Reports, GAO reports, Office of Technology Assessment reports, etc. • ProQuest has provided search assistance for many years to help users to find word usage, language, issues, and trends in Congressional information 11/15/2013 18
  18. 18. Examples of research for a variety of disciplines Discipline Researching document Text mining by document Health Antibiotic resistance – current scientific content from GAO in 2011 Reports about resistance to antibiotics from 1960 to current (impact of growth in the industry and introduction to animals) Women’s Studies/Gender studies/Sociology Rape (definitions and sentencing) CRS report 9/13 Rape –definitions and sentencing between 1888 and now Political Science Terrorism – current topics Definition of terrorism in US History Business Accounting/Depreciation Depreciation of tangible assets as defined by the federal govt – raw data 11/15/2013 19
  19. 19. Examples 11/15/2013 20
  20. 20. 11/15/2013 21
  21. 21. Future of text mining/analysis? • Libraries vary on strategic plans to meet the needs of researchers • Licensing can be a tedious process • ProQuest has licensed some content to universities so they can locally load the content and do text mining • ProQuest is in the process of holding focus groups to assess the need of a service that would allow for this kind of analysis in Congressional content and Historical newspapers. 11/15/2013 22
  22. 22. Questions? catherine.johnson@proquest.com melissa.oakes@proquest.com marianne-ryan@northwestern.edu 11/15/2013 23

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