Act Talk - Gijs Krijnen: "Imitating Cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality?"

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Act Talk - Gijs Krijnen: "Imitating Cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality?"

  1. 1. Imitating cricket mechanosensing:Dream or reality?Gijs Krijnen & Jerôme Casas*Transducers Science & Technology Group, MESA+/Impact Research Institutes,University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands* Institut de Recherche en Biologie de lInsecteIRBI UMR CNRS 6035, Université de Tours, France2010, Tuesday May 18
  2. 2. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Overview● Why biomimetic sensors?● MEMS (& what it is not)● Artificial flow-sensitive mechano-sensory hairs● Sensor Principle, Design,Fabrication & Characterization● Adaptability, Nonlinearity and Stochastic Resonance● From MEMS to Biology● Biomimetic Hairsensors: Dream or Reality?● Conclusions22010, Tuesday May 18
  3. 3. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Biomimetic Sensory Research Drivers● Principles and versatility● Performance Sensitivity Directionality Accuracy Dynamic range (Reduction) of cross-sensitivity● Power consumption / efficiency● Size / density of sensors● Robustness● (Examples for) Multi-modal sensory integration32010, Tuesday May 18
  4. 4. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? The Chase SceneCourtesy J. Casas, IRBI, Univ. de ToursWolfspider chasing a wood-cricket42010, Tuesday May 18
  5. 5. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Cricket Hair SensorsAcheta DomesticaPhotograph courtesy of J. Casas et. al.52010, Tuesday May 18
  6. 6. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Cricket Sensory Hairs Make Sense (I)(T. Shimozawa et al, in Sensors and Sensing in Bio. and Eng. 2003)62010, Tuesday May 18
  7. 7. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Cricket Sensory Hairs Make Sense (I)(T. Shimozawa et al, in Sensors and Sensing in Bio. and Eng. 2003)62010, Tuesday May 18
  8. 8. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Cricket Sensory Hairs Make Sense (II)(Adapted from Raangs, 2005)● Sound: Pressure: P(t,r) Particle velocity: U(t,r)● U prevails Near source (r < λ/2π) Small source (R<λ/2π)● Crickets & predators: f=10 .. 100 Hz λ > 3 m few cm source R<0.1 m interaction 0 .. 1 m (very) near field (K. Beissner , JASA 71, pg 1406, 1982)72010, Tuesday May 18
  9. 9. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Flow Mediated PerceptionCourtesy J. Casas, IRBI, Univ. de ToursMovie of Fluid MovementParticle Image VelocimetryFlow Field Extraction82010, Tuesday May 18
  10. 10. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Flow Mediated PerceptionSpider running speed is 9.4 cm/s. Line is statistical fit.Crickets can perceive running spiders at several cm’s(Casas et al., 2008 PLoS ONE 3(5): e2116)Lets make artificialhair-sensors92010, Tuesday May 18
  11. 11. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? MEMS (& What it is not)102010, Tuesday May 18
  12. 12. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Sequential Fabrication Process: 2.5D0) Si/Glass substrate 1) Add material in thin layer (0.1 – 10 µm thick)2) Apply a photolithographical mask3) Etch unnecessary parts (selectively)4) Remove mask5) Structure Ready or Start from 10HaveapartyFrom2-12weeksFailure /Incompatibility112010, Tuesday May 18
  13. 13. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Photolithography● Spin photoresist12● Etch through holesand remove photoresist● Illuminate through mask● Develop image2010, Tuesday May 18
  14. 14. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? ABCDESurface micromachining● Sacrificial layer13● Patterning● Structural layer● Patterning● Selective etching& sacrificial release2010, Tuesday May 18
  15. 15. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? MEMS● No free-form technology (2.5D)● Stiff materials (4 – 300 GPa)● Limited range of dimensions100 nm – 1 cm in plane10 nm – 10 µm out of plane● Limitation due to stress● Scaling behaviourSurface forces dominate body forcesNo quantum physics (no nano)Full 3DRange of (flexible) materialsFewer range limitations0.1 nm – 30 m?? flexible materialsScaling behaviourScale dependentall physicsBIOLOGY142010, Tuesday May 18
  16. 16. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 15Artificial Flow-Sensitive Hair Sensors2010, Tuesday May 18
  17. 17. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Why MEMS Hair - Sensors?● Why hairs? can be arranged in high density arrays ⇒ high spatial resolution flow pattern measurements ⇒ flow camera● Why measuring flow or particle velocity? near field sensitivity, small sources vector ⇒ directionality● Possibility for Acoustics? Frequency resolved flow measurements Electro-mechanical signal-processing● Why MEMS? the usual: batchwise & parallel fabrication of many (arrays of) hairs,small structures, integration, interfacing, etc.162010, Tuesday May 18
  18. 18. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Artificial Sensory Hairs● Design considerations Transduction principle Density of hair-sensors Directionality SensitivityY. Ozaki et al., Proc. MEMS 2000, pg 531D.K. KIM et. Al. , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.Vol. 39 (2000) pp. 7134–7137172010, Tuesday May 18
  19. 19. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Artificial Sensory Hairs: Liu Group Illinois● Sensitivity: 0.7 mm/s In water @ 50 Hz Bandwidth 2 HzN. Chen, et. al, Journal of MEMS 16, pp 999 - 1014, 2007182010, Tuesday May 18
  20. 20. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 19Sensor Principle & Optimization2010, Tuesday May 18
  21. 21. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Sensor considerations● Small displacements (nm-scale): Requires high sensitivity● Array application: Low power consumption ⇒ Generator type sensor Small number of interconnectionsCapacitivedifferentialPiezo-ElectricPiezoResistiveThermoResistivePower-consumption + + + + +/- - -Interconnections # 2, 3 2 2/4 2/4Thermal Xtalk + + + + - - -Technology +/- - +/- +Parasitics - - - - +/- +202010, Tuesday May 18
  22. 22. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Conceptual Sensor Structure(M. Dijkstra et al., J. Micromech. Microeng. 15 (2005) S132–S138)212010, Tuesday May 18
  23. 23. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? ● Mechanical system:⇒ Damped 2nd order (J,S,R)● Oscillating Flow:⇒ Stokes/Rayleigh profile⇒ Boundary layer, Strouhal number,● Driving torque:⇒ Stokes drag force⇒ Hair length, diameter● Capacitance changes:⇒ Analytical expressions⇒ Capacitor geometry⇒ Stress & curvatureCourtesy J. CasasHair-Sensor Physics(After T. Shimozawa et al, JCPA, 1998)222010, Tuesday May 18
  24. 24. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (I): Mechanical Response(T. Shimozawa, et al., J. Comp. Physiology A 183, 171-186, 1998)232010, Tuesday May 18
  25. 25. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (I): Mechanical Response(T. Shimozawa, et al., J. Comp. Physiology A 183, 171-186, 1998)232010, Tuesday May 18
  26. 26. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (II): PredictionsBoundary layer imposes stronglength dependency⇒ L>400 µm (100 Hz)Influence hair diameter small(G. Krijnen et al., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6592, 65920F, 2007)242010, Tuesday May 18
  27. 27. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (II): PredictionsBoundary layer imposes stronglength dependency⇒ L>400 µm (100 Hz)Influence hair diameter small(G. Krijnen et al., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6592, 65920F, 2007)242010, Tuesday May 18
  28. 28. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (II): PredictionsBoundary layer imposes stronglength dependency⇒ L>400 µm (100 Hz)Influence hair diameter small(G. Krijnen et al., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6592, 65920F, 2007)242010, Tuesday May 18
  29. 29. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? ● FoM = usable bandwidth × sensitivity● Bandwidth proportional to ω0:● Sensitivity proportional to:● Figure of Merit:● FOM Crickets / FOM Artificial Hairs @ 1 mm: 68 Long, thin, lightweight hairs: D: 8 vs 50 µm Soft suspension: S: 2.10-11 vs 8.10-9 Nm/radModel (III): Figure of Merit(G. Krijnen et al., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6592, 65920F, 2007)252010, Tuesday May 18
  30. 30. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (IV): FoM and Scaling in CricketsAllometric scaling: FoM changes by a factor of 7, Q by a factor of < 2(T. Shimozawa, et al., J. Comp. Physiology A 183, 171-186, 1998)262010, Tuesday May 18
  31. 31. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (V): Capacitive Sensing● Capacitance change per unit of rotation:(G. Krijnen et al., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6592, 65920F, 2007)27● Rectangular membrane with curvature up to δ:● Optimization Long membrane Small gap No curvature (stress)2010, Tuesday May 18
  32. 32. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Model (VI): Compliant Materials● How to optimise rotational and vertical stiffness?● Rotational stiffness given by:● Vertical stiffness:● Ratio for given S=S0:Short beams of low Youngs modulus material!Use what the crickets use282010, Tuesday May 18
  33. 33. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 29Sensor Fabrication & Characterization2010, Tuesday May 18
  34. 34. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Christiaan Bruinink, MEMS 2009Fabrication of 3nd Generation SensorsOptical microscope image302010, Tuesday May 18
  35. 35. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Fabricated Devices● Single layer SU-8 (470 µm), Cr electrodes● Sensors parallel to increase C● “Cercus” shape● Double layer SU-8 (980 µm)● 1 µm gap● 2 diameter hairs (75% lower J)● Al electrodes, 0.6 µm gap(G. Krijnen et al., Proc. EuroSensors 2006)312010, Tuesday May 18
  36. 36. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Characterization (I)WLIM (3G Sensor)● 200 µm x 90 µm Membrane● Partial electrode areas● ~ 200 nm downward curvature(2 - 3 µm upward in 2G)●Optical effectsRam. Kottumakulal322010, Tuesday May 18
  37. 37. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Characterization (II)Sensor Interfacing● Differential capacitive readout● Charge-amplifier = op-amp + capacitive feedback(charge-to-voltage converter)332010, Tuesday May 18
  38. 38. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Characterization (III)Capacitive Read-out, Acoustic Actuation342010, Tuesday May 18
  39. 39. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Characterization (IV)Frequency ResponseType A: Ls=75 Ws=10 Q=2.3Type W: Ls=100, Ws=10, Q=1.8352010, Tuesday May 18
  40. 40. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Characterization (V)Sensitivity of 3G Sensors●Measured withLock In Amplifier1 Hz BW●100 hairs in parallel●Sensitivity: 2 mm/s(⇒ 100 hairs, BW 1 kHz)●Cricket: 30 µm/s(single hair, BW ≈ 0.3 - 1 kHz)Marcel Kolster362010, Tuesday May 18
  41. 41. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Characterization (VI):Directivity (3G Sensors)(Ram. Kottumakulal et.al, Transducers 2009)● Other modes● Viscous coupling372010, Tuesday May 18
  42. 42. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 38Adaptability2010, Tuesday May 18
  43. 43. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Adaptability (I): ES Spring Softening● Add bias Voltage U(G. Krijnen et al, Nanotechnology, vol 17, pp. 84-89, 2006)39● Transduction Theory● On application of DC bias: Lower resonance frequency Higher sensitivity2010, Tuesday May 18
  44. 44. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Adaptability (II): Increasing SensitivityAcoustic Actuation (2G Sensors)● Lines ⇒ model● Fitted for Udc=0● κ /S0=0.0171 V-2 (fit)● κ /S0=0.0167 V-2(calculated)● Trend predicted well(J. Floris et al., Proc. Transducers 2007, pg 1267)402010, Tuesday May 18
  45. 45. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Adaptability (III): Shifting fresElectrostatic Actuation 2G sensors● Fitted for Udc=0● κ /S0=0.0160 V-2 (fit)● κ /S0=0.0167 V-2(calculated)(J. Floris et al., Proc. Transducers 2007, pg 1267)412010, Tuesday May 18
  46. 46. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Adaptability (IV): Response Curve Predictions422010, Tuesday May 18
  47. 47. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 43Happy with Nonlinearity & NoiseElectro Mechanical Signal Processing2010, Tuesday May 18
  48. 48. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Happy with noise: Stochastic Resonance● Threshold system model for flow detection in grayfish442010, Tuesday May 18
  49. 49. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Stochastic Resonance in Cricket Perception● Low signal level: Transinformationrate ↑with noise ↑ High noise power⇒ saturation● High signal level: Deteriorationwith noise ↓Levin, Miller, Nat. 380, 1996, p165452010, Tuesday May 18
  50. 50. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Negative Spring-Stiffness & Amplification (1)● Lateral line sensors &hair-cells in the mammaliancochlea have extendeddynamic range up to 50 dB● Combination of two (sets of) hairs withconnected tip-links● Opening of ion-channels adds force tothe moving cilia● Net effect: negative spring stiffness(Hundspeth, C. R. Biologies 328 (2005) 155–162)462010, Tuesday May 18
  51. 51. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Happy with Noise: Stochastic Resonance● Double potential energy well● Skewed energy function lowersthreshold unidirectionally472010, Tuesday May 18
  52. 52. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Negative Spring-Stiffness & Amplification (2)● DC-biasing schemecauses instability beforenegative spring-stiffness isobtained● Solution: displaced comb-like structure● No pull-in482010, Tuesday May 18
  53. 53. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 49From MEMS to Biology2010, Tuesday May 18
  54. 54. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Good hints,but difficult to interpret…….back to technology…How Are Cricket Arrays Optimised?● Aerodynamics● Viscous Coupling● DirectivityT. Steinmann, J. Casas502010, Tuesday May 18
  55. 55. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? From MEMS to Biology: Viscous Coupling● Viscous coupling between hairs hard to do on crickets suggested forhair-distances < 10·Dh special structures512010, Tuesday May 18
  56. 56. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? f=80 Hz f=160 Hz f=320 HzMEMS High density Arrays● Interaction between flow and hairs ⇒ viscous coupling● Hairs-sensors need to be judiciously spaced● MEMS helps biologistT. Steinmann, J. Casas522010, Tuesday May 18
  57. 57. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 53Biomimetic Mechanosensing:Dream or Reality2010, Tuesday May 18
  58. 58. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? MEMS Hairsensors: Dream or Reality?● Mechanical performance comparable! optimised damping (impedance matching) small rotational stiffness / moment of inertia● Mechanical robustness: Use non-brittle materials (polymers, metals) Prevent rotational / vertical pull-in● Cross-sensitivity Gravitation & Inertial (cross-) effects Limitation to the shapes we can make● Capacitive read-out inferior to neural signal acquisition fF changes on pF parasitics: prone to noise / interference How to get digital spike like signals (electro-mechanically)● Sensor arrays: Which spatio-temporal signatures? Efficient (low-power) signature recognition?542010, Tuesday May 18
  59. 59. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Cricket Signal ProcessingNeurons provide:●efficient●fast●Parallel●robust informationcollectiontransport &processingHow do we get this?(Insausti, Lazzari et al. Submitted to Journal of Morphology)552010, Tuesday May 18
  60. 60. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Distributed Arrays (Dreams)10 Hz20 Hz30 Hz562010, Tuesday May 18
  61. 61. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Distributed Arrays (Dreams)● Sensor Array● Single hair interfacing● Spatio-temporal flow distribution● E.g. spatio-frequency distribution 10 Hz20 Hz30 HzCourtesy of J. Casas et. al.562010, Tuesday May 18
  62. 62. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Distributed/Dispersed Sensing● Arrays of hairs with single hair interfacing● Detection ofspatio-temporalpatterns(signatures)● First resultsare promising(R. Wiegerink et al., Proc. IEEE Sensors 2007, pg 1073)572010, Tuesday May 18
  63. 63. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 58• 1 × 4 array• {1.05 - 1.10 - 1.15 - 1.20} MHz• Single charge amplifier• 75 Hz air flow source(Results of Ahmad Dagamseh)FDM Implementation2010, Tuesday May 18
  64. 64. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 58• 1 × 4 array• {1.05 - 1.10 - 1.15 - 1.20} MHz• Single charge amplifier• 75 Hz air flow source(Results of Ahmad Dagamseh)FDM Implementation2010, Tuesday May 18
  65. 65. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 59Successful simultaneous measurement from (1x4) arrayFDM Implementation(Ahmad Dagamseh et. al, accepted for publication in Sensors & Actuators)2010, Tuesday May 18
  66. 66. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 60Bio-Inspired Measurements2010, Tuesday May 18
  67. 67. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Work by the Chang Liu Group, Univ. Ill.● Lateral line● Hot Wire Anemometers● Piezo resistive sensors61(Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Volume 2006, Article ID 76593, Pages 1–8)2010, Tuesday May 18
  68. 68. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Work by the Chang Liu Group, Univ. Ill.● Lateral line● Hot Wire Anemometers● Piezo resistive sensors61(Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Volume 2006, Article ID 76593, Pages 1–8)2010, Tuesday May 18
  69. 69. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 62Source localization(Results of Ahmad Dagamseh)Lateral Line System2010, Tuesday May 18
  70. 70. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 63at : different source-lateral line distanceVirtual lateral line re-constructs dipole fieldat : different sphere diameterdifferent vibration frequencies(Results of Ahmad Dagamseh)Virtual Lateral Line System2010, Tuesday May 18
  71. 71. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 64Lateral line – source distance is the only effective parameter(Results of Ahmad Dagamseh)Virtual Lateral Line System2010, Tuesday May 18
  72. 72. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Bio-Inspired Measurement2 x RealTime speed652010, Tuesday May 18
  73. 73. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? 66Conclusions2010, Tuesday May 18
  74. 74. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? Conclusions● We have successfully fabricated SU-8 sensory hairs up to 1 mm shown capacitive hair sensor arrays with good sensitivity demonstrated adaptability of sensitivity interfacing of arrays-sensors shown bioinspired sensing scheme (virtual lateral line)● We like to Further improve the sensors by hairs, lower spring-stiffnesses Reduce influence of parasitic capacitances, improve electronics● We can Adapt sensors by DC biasing Use parametric Amplification, Stochastic Resonance● We should borrow from nature Soft materials Dendrites and neuronsOr be Real Smart672010, Tuesday May 18
  75. 75. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? AcknowledgementsDominique Altpeter, John van Baar, Erwin Berenschot, Rick de Boer, Meint de Boer,Christiaan Bruininck, Ahmad Dagamseh, Marcel Dijkstra, Michiel van Dijk, HarmenDroogendijk Arjan Floris, Bjorn Hagendoorn, Nima Izadi, Theo Lammerink , MarcelKolster, Winfred Kuipers, Claudio Lazzaro, Remco Sanders, Satya Shankar Siripurapu,Thomas Steinmann, Vitaly Svetovoy, R. Jaganatharaja (Ram), Bas Verlaat, RemcoWiegerink, Henk van Wolferen.The EU for funding the Cicada/Cilia projectsNWO for the BioEARS Vici grantThe Cicada/Cilia teams682010, Tuesday May 18
  76. 76. 12/02/2010 Imitating cricket mechanosensing: dream or reality? AcknowledgementsDominique Altpeter, John van Baar, Erwin Berenschot, Rick de Boer, Meint de Boer,Christiaan Bruininck, Ahmad Dagamseh, Marcel Dijkstra, Michiel van Dijk, HarmenDroogendijk Arjan Floris, Bjorn Hagendoorn, Nima Izadi, Theo Lammerink , MarcelKolster, Winfred Kuipers, Claudio Lazzaro, Remco Sanders, Satya Shankar Siripurapu,Thomas Steinmann, Vitaly Svetovoy, R. Jaganatharaja (Ram), Bas Verlaat, RemcoWiegerink, Henk van Wolferen.The EU for funding the Cicada/Cilia projectsNWO for the BioEARS Vici grantThe Cicada/Cilia teams682010, Tuesday May 18

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