To deal with various technologies which provide smart sensing in healthcare and compare them for their energy usage and battery life and discuss the format of communication to the database of these devices. To put forward devices which use smart sensors in advanced medical check-ups. To discuss the prospects of upcoming technology called Smart Dust in e-health and its advantages and effects for better deployment of trustworthy services in healthcare keeping in mind all the capabilities of the Smart Sensor.
Smart sensor technology in healthcare & protection
PARTS PLAYED BY
DEEPIKA :: Handled the research Biosensors & various
connecting services like (ZigBee/ IEEE standard 804.15.6,
Bluetooth, WPAN, WLAN) and networks with the main
OSHIN :: Handled the research on various applications and
devices which work as Smart Sensors in healthcare and their
future prospects and firmness in e-health fields.
To deal with various technologies which provide smart
sensing in healthcare and compare them for their
energy usage and battery life and discuss the format of
communication to the database of these devices. To put
forward devices which use smart sensors in advanced
medical check-ups. To discuss the prospects of
upcoming technology called Smart Dust in e-health and
its advantages and effects for better deployment of
trustworthy services in healthcare keeping in mind all
the capabilities of the Smart Sensors.
SENSORS USED IN
What do they measure?
•ECG (Heart Rate)
APPLICATIONS OF E-
• Patient Monitoring Blood pressure, blood
• Environmental Tests Environmental
• Diagnosis Patient Monitoring,
Cancer or Tumor
• A biosensor is an analytical device,
used for the detection of an analyte,
that combines a biological component
with a physiochemical detector.
• The sensitive biological element(e.g.
tissue, microorganisms, organelles,
cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies,
nucleic acids, etc.), a biologically
derived material or biomimetic
component that interacts (binds or
recognizes) with the analyte under
The sensor which can
measure heart and brain
activity (ECG, EEG and EMG).
• A common example of a commercial biosensor is the blood glucose
biosensor, which uses the enzyme glucose oxidase to break blood
• In doing so it first oxidizes glucose and uses two electrons to reduce
the FAD (a component of the enzyme) to FADH2.
• This in turn is oxidized by the electrode (accepting two electrons from
the electrode) in a number of steps.
• The resulting current is a measure of the concentration of glucose. In
this case, the electrode is the transducer and the enzyme is the
biologically active component.
• Glucose monitoring in diabetes ← historical market driver.
• Detection of pathogens.
• Routine analytical measurement of folic acid, vitamin B12 etc
as an alternative to microbiological assay.
• Drug discovery & evaluation of new compound biological
Smart sensor enhances the following applications:
Self calibration: Adjust deviation of o/p of sensor from desired value.
Communication: Broadcast information about its own status.
Computation: Allows one to obtain the average, variance and standard
deviation for the set of measurements.
Multisensing: A single smart sensor can measure pressure, temperature,
humidity, gas flow and infrared, chemical reaction surface
acoustic vapour etc.
Cost effective: less hardware and reduction of repetitive testing make smart
sensor cost effective.
1. Mertia Sensing Device :-
A small sensor is worn on the body and is attached using a
skin-friendly adhesive. The low-profile design makes it
suitable for daily activities like showering and exercise. The
sensor is built to gather a variety of patient information,
from heart rate and respiration to sleep duration and activity
ZigBee is targeted at applications that
require a low data rate, long battery life,
and secure networking. ZigBee has a
defined rate of 250 kbit/s, best suited for
periodic or intermittent data or a single
signal transmission from a sensor or input
ZigBee is a specification for a suite
of high level communication
protocols using small, low-power
digital radios based on an IEEE 802
standard for personal area
ZigBee is seen as a key technology
for home automation and sensor
networks, but its characteristics
can be extremely valuable in some
healthcare applications as well.
2. ZigBee(IEEE 802.15.4)
• Acquire data from patients in real world
• It sends data to the centralized server and the
centralized server forwards data to all the nodes
• It can be configured from the remote server
• Wearable sensors to patients for comfortability
4. Smart dust:- Smart dust is a theoretical concept of a tiny
wireless sensor network, made up of microelectromechanical
sensors (called MEMS), robots, or devices, usually referred to as
motes, that have self-contained sensing, computation,
communication and power.
• Blood pressure sensor, Weight scale.
• Emfi-sensors for exercise equipments/bed.
• Low resolution IR camera.
• Ultrasound radar.
• Capacitive floor sensors.
• ZigBee sensor network.
• Connection to local and remote servers.
• Strong collaborative, and robust clinical research with population
studies is required!
Range 100m ~10-100m ~10m
Cost/complexity >6 1 0.2
Power consumption Medium Low Ultralow
Size Larger smaller smallest
BLUETOOTH VS. ZIGBEE (IEEE
Bluetooth based WPAN
• Few devices
• Data range is 10m to 100m
• Data rate is nearly 1Mb/s
• Power consumption is a
• Battery life is low.
• Star only.
IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN
• Many devices
• Data range is nearly 10m
• Data rate is 20
• Power consumption is ultra
• Battery lasts years.
• peer to peer, Star.
COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS :-
AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS OF
MEDICAL SENSING :
• Sensors: various types of wearable biomedical sensors with
integrated radio transceivers (ex: accelerometer in bracelet to
detect hand tremors, mertia)
• Radio signal received by cell phone and transmitted to server
• Analysis of raw data performed via wavelet analysis
• Decision tree or artificial neural network used to decide
appropriate action (data is within normal range, outside
normal range and either does or does not require emergency
• Data stored in server side database and report is generated to
send to healthcare professional
• As shown in next figure:
ARCHITECTURE OF THE PROCESS OF
MEDICAL SENSING :
• A wireless pulse oximeter and wireless two-lead EKG(as given in fig. below)
• These devices collect heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation and EKG data .
• It is over a short-range (100m) wireless network to any number of receiving
devices, including PDAs, laptops, ambulance terminals.
• Data is displayed in real time & integrated into the patient care record.
• The sensor devices can be programmed to process the vital sign data, for
example, to raise an alerts when vital signs fall outside of norms .
• These vital sign sensors consist of a low-power microcontroller and low-power
digital spread-spectrum radio .
• Powered by batteries with a lifetime of up to a year.
Pulse Oximeter Wireless two-lead EKG
sensor for stroke patient
What is wearable smart shirt?
Wearable smart shirt = Wearable + smart shirt
• smart shirt is an analytical
device used for detection of
temperature ,heart rate etc.
• Object that can be worn on
• e.g. wrist watches, ring,
•A noninvasive system
•Based on plethysmography (measuring changes in volume within an organ or
whole body usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it
•Wearable medical system, which provides constant monitoring of ambulatory
patients by measuring and storing respiratory and cardiac parameters.
•Creates health profile during normal daily activities.
•Embedded sensors collect data on cardiopulmonary function.
•Can be combined with optional peripherals and monitor functions such as
electrocardiogram, electro-myografima, leg movement, body temperature,
blood oxygen saturation, blood pressure etc .
Remote Monitor the vital sign.
Communicate seamlessly with external devices.
Enhance safety and quality of care for patient through
Monitoring of individuals who work with hazardous
• GTWM that is outfitted with a microphone or GPS may compromise
the wearer's privacy.
• Technology like Bluetooth and WLAN using for data transfer , having
short range 30-300 m.
• The data that is transferred by the "Smart Shirt" could be viewed
and access by unauthorized people.
Right Treatment at the right
Easy to wear and takeoff.
Reduce the work load of
very fast process.
Initial cost is high
Battery life is less
Repairing and maintaince
process is tedious.
SOME LATEST COMMERCIAL
Plastic Sensor Fiber
Woven Temperature Sensor
inserted into Textile
on smart phone
Wearable sensor a 3-axis
Wristband packed with
vibration and motion sensors
to track and analyze exercise,
diet, and sleep data .
Wrist-worn device that measures
the wearer’s heart rate, caloric
burn, sleep patterns .
SOME LATEST COMMERCIAL
Withings Wi-Fi Body Scale
Sends body measurements
wirelessly to computer or
iPhone, to track gains or losses
over time .
Sensor for tracking blood glucose
levels. It also tracks carbs intake
and insulin dose for users with
SOME LATEST COMMERCIAL
Advantages of biosensors
i.Minimum Interconnecting Cables
iii.Easy to Design, Use and Maintain
iv.Scalable -Flexible System
We have various advantages related to access of health related information from
distant areas to the server instantly .This can be very time saving and energy
efficient process. Even very large amount of data can be saved in the database. It
has a promising future.
The smart sensor consists of both actuators & sensors, so it is
more complexed than other simple sensors.
The complexity is much higher in the wired smart sensors, as
a consequence the costs are also higher.
BIOSENSORS BY PATIENTS
Especially important for elderly patients:
• Tendency to reject technology
• Must be intuitive and easy to operate
A study in which elderly residents of Sydney participated in an open-ended
• Overall positive view of WSNs due to implications for independence
• Ashamed of visible sensors (design as unobtrusive as possible)
• Adherence issues due to forgetfulness
• Distrust of technology
PLAYERS IN THE FIELD OF E-HEALTH
Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Healthcare in Hospitals by
firstname.lastname@example.org , Garimella Ramamurthy, Sujeeth Nanda in ifth
International Conference on eHealth, Telemedicine, and Social Medicine(eTELEMED
ZigBee Wireless Sensor Applications for Health, Wellness and Fitness - March
2009 at www.zigbee.org
A Health Monitoring System Using Smart Phones and Wearable Sensors Valerie
GAY , Peter LEIJDEKKERS- Faculty of IT, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box
123, Broadway 2007 NSW Australia
On the Use of Wireless Network Technologies in Healthcare Environments Nicolas
Chevrollier Nada Golmie National Institute of Standards and Technology
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899,2010
Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to Healthcare Promotion Paulo Neves,
Michal Stachyra, Joel Rodrigues,2010
Patient Monitoring Using Personal Area Networks of Wireless Intelligent Sensors
Emil Jovanov, Dejan Raskovic, John Price, John Chapman, Anthony Moore,
Abhishek Krishnamurthy Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,
University of Alabama in Huntsville 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899,2009
•Blood pressure sensor,
•Emfi-sensors for exercise
•Low resolution IR camera.
•Capacitive floor sensors.
•ZigBee sensor network.
•Connection to local and remote
Smart dust is a theoretical concept of a tiny wireless sensor network, made up
of microelectromechanical sensors (called MEMS), robots, or devices, usually
referred to as motes, that have self-contained sensing, computation,
communication and power.
FUTURE OF ”SMART DUST” IN HEALTHCARE
–TO LEAP FORWARD
- THE NEW TECHNOLOGY AND NEW SENSORS
WILL ENABLE US TO BRING NEW SERVICES FOR
- FOR THE CUSTOMERS NEW TECHNOLOGY
COULD PROVIDE COMPLETELY NEW AVENUES
ENABLING PERSONALIZED DISEASE
PREVENTION, DISEASE MANAGEMENT AS WELL
AS REHABILITATION AND CARE THAT IS NOT
STRONG COLLABORATIVE, AND ROBUST
CLINICAL RESEARCH WITH POPULATION