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Mechanical Sensor 
And Its Application 
By farzi faraz
What is sensor ? 
 A sensor is a converter that measures a physical quantity 
and converts it into a signal which can be ...
Three terms 
Transducer 
a device that converts a primary form of energy into a 
corresponding signal with a different ene...
Mechanical Sensor 
 Class of sensors to measure mechanical 
phenomena. 
 Includes 
Pressure sensor 
Force and torque sen...
Mechanical Sensing Techniques 
 Piezoresistivity 
 Piezoelectricity 
 Capacitive techniques 
 Inductive techniques 
 ...
Piezoresistivity 
Effect exhibited by various materials that exhibit a change in resistance 
due to an applied pressure. 
...
Piezoelectricity 
 the property of producing an electric charge when 
subjected to an applied mechanical force. 
 Effect...
Capacitive Techniques 
 The displacement measurement due to the change in capacitance. 
 Capacitance 
C  K 
 
0 
A 
d ...
Inductive Techniques 
 Inductance 
 a motion of permeable core changes the inductance 
 AC bridge can be used to detect...
Resonant Techniques 
 A resonator is a mechanical structure designed to vibrate at a 
particular resonant frequency. 
Blo...
Pressure Sensor 
 Pressure sensor is use to measure the pressure of fluid and gas in 
industrial application. 
Principles...
Pressure sensor 
 Pressure sensor types 
Absolute pressure sensor 
sensor measures the pressure relative to perfect vacuu...
Force and torque sensor 
 The fundamental operating principles of force and torque sensor 
instrumentation are closely al...
Force and torque sensor 
 Torque is a measure of the forces that causes an object to rotate. 
 Reaction torque sensors m...
Inertial Sensor 
 Inertial sensor measures linear acceleration along one or 
several axis refered to as accelerometer. 
...
Flow Sensor 
 A flow sensor is a device for sensing the rate of flow of 
material. 
 Material may be solid liquid or gas...
Application of different 
mechanical sensor
Application OF Pressure Sensor 
 Manometer a traditional pressure sensor. 
Manometers can be used both as a gauge sensor ...
Bourdon tube U tube manometer
Pressure sensor application in auto parts 
sensor Auto parts applications
Application of force and torque sensor 
 A force-sensing resistor is a material whose resistance changes 
when a force or...
torquemeter 
Force sensitive resister
Application of inertial sensor 
 Accelerometer 
In industrial application, the design of accelerometer is 
based on Newto...
accelerometer
Application of flow sensor 
 flow sensors are based on sensors which measure the transfer of heat 
caused by the moving m...
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Mechanical sensor

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Mechanical sensor

  1. 1. Mechanical Sensor And Its Application By farzi faraz
  2. 2. What is sensor ?  A sensor is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument.  Example a mercury in glass thermometer.
  3. 3. Three terms Transducer a device that converts a primary form of energy into a corresponding signal with a different energy forms. Sensor a device that detect or measures a signal. Actuator a device that generates a signal. sensor intelligent real world actuator feedback system
  4. 4. Mechanical Sensor  Class of sensors to measure mechanical phenomena.  Includes Pressure sensor Force and torque sensor Inertial sensor Flow sensor
  5. 5. Mechanical Sensing Techniques  Piezoresistivity  Piezoelectricity  Capacitive techniques  Inductive techniques  Resonant techniques
  6. 6. Piezoresistivity Effect exhibited by various materials that exhibit a change in resistance due to an applied pressure. Strain Gauge Sensors that exhibit a change in resistance as a result of an applied strain are generally termed strain gauges.  The strain gauge (SG) is glued to the element whose strain is to be measured  When stress is applied, the element and the SG is deformed at the same manner  Gauge factor is defined as R / R   strain GF Indicates how easy the strain can be measured Large GF means large change in resistance for a given strain Strain gauge
  7. 7. Piezoelectricity  the property of producing an electric charge when subjected to an applied mechanical force.  Effect arises because of the charge asymmetry within the crystal structure.  Quartz and Rochelle salt are naturally occurring piezoelectric. Applied force Piezoelectric material
  8. 8. Capacitive Techniques  The displacement measurement due to the change in capacitance.  Capacitance C  K  0 A d  There are 3 ways to change capacity  variation of plate separation  variation of plate area  variation of dielectric constant
  9. 9. Inductive Techniques  Inductance  a motion of permeable core changes the inductance  AC bridge can be used to detect the change in inductance    BdS s L   i
  10. 10. Resonant Techniques  A resonator is a mechanical structure designed to vibrate at a particular resonant frequency. Block Diagram
  11. 11. Pressure Sensor  Pressure sensor is use to measure the pressure of fluid and gas in industrial application. Principles Involves Are  Pressure is force per area that fluid exerts on its surroundings  Static Pressure  The fluid is not moving  Dynamic Pressure  The fluid is moving P  P gh 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 P  v  gy  P  v  gy =constant 1 1 1 2 2 2
  12. 12. Pressure sensor  Pressure sensor types Absolute pressure sensor sensor measures the pressure relative to perfect vacuum. Gauge pressure sensor sensor measures the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. Vacuum pressure sensor sensor that measures pressures below atmospheric pressure. Differential pressure sensor sensor measures the difference between two pressures
  13. 13. Force and torque sensor  The fundamental operating principles of force and torque sensor instrumentation are closely allied to the piezoelectric and strain gage devices used to measure static and dynamic pressures.  Consider a simple sensor that is to be developed to measure a reaction force at the base of a spring, as shown below.
  14. 14. Force and torque sensor  Torque is a measure of the forces that causes an object to rotate.  Reaction torque sensors measure static torque with a stationary or non-rotating transducer.  Rotary torque sensors use rotary transducers to measure torque.
  15. 15. Inertial Sensor  Inertial sensor measures linear acceleration along one or several axis refered to as accelerometer.  Sensor that measures angular acceleration along one or several axis are refered to as gyroscope. accelerometer gyroscope
  16. 16. Flow Sensor  A flow sensor is a device for sensing the rate of flow of material.  Material may be solid liquid or gas.  Flow rate is measured by weighting the amount of material on a platform of length L flow (kg/min or lb/min) weight of material on section of length L (kg or lb) conveyor speed (m/min, or ft/min) length of weighting platform Q W R L     WR Q L 
  17. 17. Application of different mechanical sensor
  18. 18. Application OF Pressure Sensor  Manometer a traditional pressure sensor. Manometers can be used both as a gauge sensor with one side vented to atmosphere and as differential sensors with pressure applied to both legs. Pressure sensor are also use in aneroid barometer and bourdon tube.  Microphones are a particular type of MEMS pressure sensor designed to transduce acoustic signals into electrical output. example hearing aid
  19. 19. Bourdon tube U tube manometer
  20. 20. Pressure sensor application in auto parts sensor Auto parts applications
  21. 21. Application of force and torque sensor  A force-sensing resistor is a material whose resistance changes when a force or pressure is applied. They are also known as forcesensitive resistor.  Torquemeter is a device for measuring and recording the torque on a rotating system, such as an engine, crankshaft, gearbox etc  In control systems when motion feedback is employed.  In process testing, monitoring and diagnostics applications.  In measurement of power transmitted through a rotating device.  In controlling complex non-linear mechanical systems.
  22. 22. torquemeter Force sensitive resister
  23. 23. Application of inertial sensor  Accelerometer In industrial application, the design of accelerometer is based on Newton’s Law and Hooke’s Law of Spring ma  kx spring constant in N/m spring extension in m mass in kg acceleration in m/s  Inertial sensors are used for military applications such as inertial guidance and smart ammunition.  Accelerometers can be used to measure vibration on cars, machines, buildings, process control systems and safety installations. 2 k x m a     
  24. 24. accelerometer
  25. 25. Application of flow sensor  flow sensors are based on sensors which measure the transfer of heat caused by the moving medium. This principle is common for microsensors to measure flow.  Velocimetry Velocimetry is the measurement of the velocity of fluids. For measuring velocity and length on moving surfaces, laser surface velocimeters are used. velocimeter
  26. 26. THANK YOU

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