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General introduction and good start to go more granular in Bio-Informatics field.

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  1. 1. Abhiroop Ghatak ghatak.20@gmail.com04/17/12 1
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  3. 3. Bioinformatics (Molecular) bio – informatics: bioinformatics is conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules (in the sense of physical chemistry) and applying "informatics techniques" (derived from disciplines such as applied mathematics ,computer science and statistics) to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale. In short, bioinformatics is a management information system for molecular biology and has many practical applications.04/17/12 3
  4. 4.  Computational biology and bioinformatics are multidisciplinary fields, involving researchers from different areas of specialty, including (but in no means limited to) statistics, computer science, physics, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and mathematics. The goal of these two fields is as follows:• Bioinformatics: Typically refers to the field concerned with the collection and storage of biological information. All matters concerned with biological databases are considered bioinformatics.• Computational biology: Refers to the aspect of developing algorithms and statistical models necessary to analyze biological data through the aid of computers.04/17/12 4
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  6. 6. Image source: whatGenome.html04/17/12 6
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  8. 8.  Bioinformatics is associated typically with massive databases of gene and protein sequence and structure/function information databases. New sequences, new structures or protein/gene function that are discovered are searched, (compared) against what is already known, (gathered), and deposited into the databases. (These searches are done by remote computer access using various bioinformatics tools.)04/17/12 8
  9. 9. Molecular Biology InformationRedundancy and Multiplicity Different sequences have the same structure. One organism has many similar genes A single gene may have multiple functions Genomic sequence redundancy due to the genetic code04/17/12 9
  10. 10. General Types of informatics” techniques inBioinformatics Text String Comparison  Text Search  1D Alignment  Significance Statistics Finding Patterns  AI / Machine Learning  Clustering  Datamining Databases  Building, Querying  Object DB04/17/12 10
  11. 11. Contd… Physical Simulation  Electrostatics  Numerical Algorithms  Simulation Geometry  Robotics  Graphics (Surfaces, Volumes)  Comparison and 3D Matching  (Visision, recognition04/17/12 11
  12. 12. What is done in Bioinformatics? Analysis and interpretation of various types of biological data including: nucleotide and amino acid sequences, protein domains, and protein structures. Development of new algorithms and statistics with which to assess biological information, such as relationships among members of large data sets. Development and implementation of tools that enable efficient access and management of different types of information, such as various databases, integrated mapping information.04/17/12 12
  13. 13. Aims of bioinformatics Improve content and utility of databases. Develop better tools for data generation, capture, and annotation. Develop and improve tools and databases for comprehensive functional studies. Develop and improve tools for representing and analyzing sequence similarity and variation. Create mechanisms to support effective approaches for producing robust, exportable software that can be widely shared.04/17/12 13
  14. 14. Why Is Bioinformatics So Important?The rationale for applying computational approaches to facilitate the understanding of various biological processes includes: a more global perspective in experimental design the ability to capitalize on the emerging technology of database-mining - the process by which testable hypotheses are generated regarding the function or structure of a gene or protein of interest by identifying similar sequences in better characterized organisms Although a human disease may not be found in exactly the same form in animals, there may be sufficient data for an animal model that allow researchers to make inferences about the process in humans.04/17/12 14
  15. 15. Biological problems that computerscan help with: I cloned a gene - is it a known gene? Does the sequence match? Is the sequence any good? Does it look like anything else in the database? Which family does it belong to? How can I find more family members? I have an orphan receptor, how can I find its legend? How can I find out which other proteins my sequence interacts with? I have linkage to a specific region on chromosome x, how do I find genes in that region? I have an RNA or protein sequence with poor expression and Id like to know its structure and/or function is?04/17/12 15
  16. 16. Major research areas1. Computational evolutionary biology2. Sequence analysis3. Genome annotation Genome annotation is the process of attaching biological information to sequences. It consists of two main steps:  identifying elements on the genome, a process called Gene Finding, and  attaching biological information to these elements.4. Analysis of regulation Regulation is the complex orchestration of events starting with an extra cellular signal such as a hormone and leading to an increase or decrease in the activity of one or more proteins.n In cancer Analysis of mutationsn Comparative genomics04/17/12 16
  17. 17. Application of Bioinformatics Gene therapy Personalized medicine Improve nutritional quality Alternative energy sources The reality of bio weapon creation04/17/12 17
  18. 18. Major ReSearch Labs The Bioinformatics Research Center (BRC) at North Carolina State University. The Bioinformatics Research Group (BiRG) at Wright State University Bioinformatics @ The University of Manchester,UK. Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry ,Yale University,New Haven, USA.04/17/12 18
  19. 19.  For additional information visit index.html  04/17/12 19