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P 4


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P 4

  1. 1. Financial and Operating Leverage
  2. 2. Capital Structure Defined <ul><li>The term capital structure is used to represent the proportionate relationship between debt and equity. </li></ul><ul><li>The various means of financing represent the financial structure of an enterprise. The left-hand side of the balance sheet (liabilities plus equity) represents the financial structure of a company. Traditionally, short-term borrowings are excluded from the list of methods of financing the firm’s capital expenditure. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  3. 3. Questions while Making the Financing Decision <ul><li>How should the investment project be financed? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the way in which the investment projects are financed matter? </li></ul><ul><li>How does financing affect the shareholders’ risk, return and value? </li></ul><ul><li>Does there exist an optimum financing mix in terms of the maximum value to the firm’s shareholders? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the optimum financing mix be determined in practice for a company? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors in practice should a company consider in designing its financing policy? </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Less Variable / Marginal cost </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Less Fixed cost other than interest </li></ul><ul><li>Earnings before interest & tax (EBIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Less Interest or Fixed charges </li></ul><ul><li>Earnings before tax (EBT) </li></ul><ul><li>Less Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Earnings after tax (EAT) </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  5. 5. Meaning of Financial Leverage <ul><li>The use of the fixed-charges sources of funds, such as debt and preference capital along with the owners’ equity in the capital structure, is described as financial leverage or gearing or trading on equity. </li></ul><ul><li>The financial leverage employed by a company is intended to earn more return on the fixed-charge funds than their costs. The surplus (or deficit) will increase (or decrease) the return on the owners’ equity. The rate of return on the owners’ equity is levered above or below the rate of return on total assets. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  6. 6. Financial Leverage <ul><li>Financial Leverage = EBIT / EBT </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Financial Leverage = Percentage change in EPS by Percentage change in EBIT </li></ul><ul><li>This ratio indicates the effects on earnings by rise of fixed cost funds. It refers to the use of debt in the capital structure. Financial leverage arises when a firm deploys debt funds with fixed charge. The degree of financial leverage measures the responsiveness of EPS to the changes in EBIT. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  7. 7. Measures of Financial Leverage <ul><li>Debt ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Debt–equity ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Interest coverage </li></ul><ul><li>The first two measures of financial leverage can be expressed either in terms of book values or market values. These two measures are also known as measures of capital gearing. </li></ul><ul><li>The third measure of financial leverage, commonly known as coverage ratio. The reciprocal of interest coverage is a measure of the firm’s income gearing . </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  8. 8. Financial Leverage and the Shareholders’ Return <ul><li>The primary motive of a company in using financial leverage is to magnify the shareholders’ return under favourable economic conditions. The role of financial leverage in magnifying the return of the shareholders’ is based on the assumptions that the fixed-charges funds (such as the loan from financial institutions and banks or debentures) can be obtained at a cost lower than the firm’s rate of return on net assets (RONA or ROI). </li></ul><ul><li>EPS, ROE and ROI are the important figures for analysing the impact of financial leverage. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  9. 9. Effect of Leverage on ROE and EPS Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  10. 10. Operating Leverage <ul><li>Operating Leverage = Contribution / EBIT </li></ul><ul><li>When there is a change of 1% in sales, produces a more than 1% change in EBIT, there is a presence of operating leverage. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  11. 11. Operating Leverage <ul><li>Operating leverage affects a firm’s operating profit (EBIT). </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of operating leverage (DOL) is defined as the percentage change in the earnings before interest and taxes relative to a given percentage change in sales. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  12. 12. Combining Financial and Operating Leverages <ul><li>Operating leverage affects a firm’s operating profit (EBIT), while financial leverage affects profit after tax or the earnings per share. </li></ul><ul><li>The degrees of operating and financial leverages is combined to see the effect of total leverage on EPS associated with a given change in sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Leverage = Operating Leverage x Financial Leverage </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  13. 13. Combining Financial and Operating Leverages <ul><li>The degree of combined leverage (DCL) is given by the following equation: </li></ul><ul><li>another way of expressing the degree of combined leverage is as follows: </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  14. 14. Financial Leverage and the Shareholders’ Risk <ul><li>The variability of EBIT and EPS distinguish between two types of risk— operating risk and financial risk . </li></ul><ul><li>Operating risk can be defined as the variability of EBIT (or return on total assets). The environment—internal and external—in which a firm operates determines the variability of EBIT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The variability of EBIT has two components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variability of sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variability of expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The variability of EPS caused by the use of financial leverage is called financial risk . </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><li>The following figures relate to two companies: </li></ul><ul><li>Particulars Kabutaru Ltd. Rutabuka Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Rs.500 Rs.1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Variable cost Rs.200 Rs.300 </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed cost Rs.150 Rs.400 </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Rs.50 Rs.100 </li></ul><ul><li>Values given above are in lakhs. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  16. 16. <ul><li>You are required to calculate – </li></ul><ul><li>(a) operating, financial and combined leverages of the two companies, </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) comment on the relative position of the companies in respect of the risk. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  17. 17. <ul><li>Operating Leverage: </li></ul><ul><li>Kabutaru Ltd.= 2; Rutabuka Ltd.= 2.33 </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Leverage: </li></ul><ul><li>Kabutaru Ltd.= 1.5; Rutabuka Ltd.= 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Leverage: </li></ul><ul><li>Kabutaru Ltd.= 3; Rutabuka Ltd.= 3.5 </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  18. 18. <ul><li>The operating leverage is higher for Rutabuka Ltd. and therefore it is subject to greater degree of business risk (operating risk) than Kabutaru Ltd. The EBIT will tend to vary more with sales in Rutabuka Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>The financial leverage of both the companies stand at 1.5 times. It conveys that interest burden is proportionately same, and also financial risk is similar for both the companies. </li></ul><ul><li>The combined leverage of Rutabuka Ltd. is higher and its overall risk is more as compared to Kabutaru Ltd. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Example 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the following information for ROG Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>EBIT Rs.1,120 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>EBT Rs.320 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed cost Rs.700 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the % change in EPS, if sales increased by 5%. </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  20. 20. <ul><li>Contribution = EBIT + Fixed cost = Rs.1,820 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Leverage = Contribution / EBIT = 1.625 </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Leverage = EBIT / EBT = 3.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Leverage = OL x FL = 5.687 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Leverage = % change in EPS / </li></ul><ul><li>% change in Sales </li></ul><ul><li>5.687 = % change in EPS / 5 </li></ul><ul><li>% change in EPS = 5.687 x 5 = 28.44 </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  21. 21. <ul><li>Example 3: </li></ul><ul><li>The following figures are available for Success Ltd. : </li></ul><ul><li>Net sales: Rs.15 crores (08-09); Rs.20 crores (09-10) </li></ul><ul><li>EBIT as % of net sales: 14% (08-09); 16% (09-10) </li></ul><ul><li>Debt @ 15% Rs. 5 crores (08-09); Rs.8 crores (09-10) </li></ul><ul><li>11%Preference share capital: Rs.2 crores </li></ul><ul><li>The applicable Income-tax rate to be taken at 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Number of equity shares outstanding: 8 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate: DOL, DFL & DCL </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  22. 22. <ul><li>08-09 09-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Net sales 15.00 20.00 </li></ul><ul><li>EBIT 2.10 3.20 </li></ul><ul><li>Interest 0.75 1.20 </li></ul><ul><li>EBT 1.35 2.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Tax 0.54 0.80 </li></ul><ul><li>EAT 0.81 1.20 </li></ul><ul><li>Pref. Div. 0.22 0.22 </li></ul><ul><li>EAtoESH 0.59 0.98 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Eq. shares 0.08 0.08 </li></ul><ul><li>EPS 7.375 12.25 </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  23. 23. <ul><li>% change in net sales = ((20 – 15) / 15 ) x 100 </li></ul><ul><li>= 33.33 </li></ul><ul><li>% change in EBIT = ((3.2 – 2.1) / 2.1 ) x 100 </li></ul><ul><li>= 52.38 </li></ul><ul><li>% change in EPS =(( 12.25- 7.375) / 7.375) x 100 </li></ul><ul><li>= 66.10 </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)
  24. 24. <ul><li>DOL = 52.38 / 33.33 = 1.572 </li></ul><ul><li>DFL = 66.10 / 52.38 = 1.262 </li></ul><ul><li>DCL = 66.10 / 33.33 = 1.983 </li></ul>Prof. Amit Kanjilal (09845028721)