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  • The size range for body copy in a book or magazine article should be between 8pt and 14pt. In general, 9pt and 10pt are the most practical choices
  • Body copy should always be set in upper- and lower-case because the irregular shapes are rich with cues that improve legibility. Upper case (capital) letters are uniform in height and lack diversity of form, which impairs reading. upper-case text also consumes about a third more space than the equivalent in lower-case.
  • Where leading is set to the same point size of the copy, it is referred to as "set solid." Although text set solid is often entirely legible, large blocks of copy set solid are tiring to read. Where possible, you should add at least 2 points of leading to your body copy. For example, for 9pt type choose 11pt leading. Leading of more than this amount is often aesthetically pleasing if your design can accommodate it.If leading is set below the type size, ascenders and descenders crash, which looks unsightly and affects legibility
  • Some other formatting considerations are color, shade, space above and/or below paragraph headings and the use of graphic elements within the typographic structure.
  • Font new edit

    1. 1. Typography
    2. 2. The anatomy of typography
    3. 3. 1. Serif2. Mean line3. Ascender Meanline4. Cap height5. X-Height
    4. 4. 6. Point Size7. Baseline8. Set Width9. Decender Baseline
    5. 5. Type Families• All licensed, commercial fonts are available in a number of styles and weights: usually roman (sometimes known as plain or book), italic (sometimes called oblique), bold and bold italic.• For flexible working, its best to choose a broad type family rather than use many different fonts.
    6. 6. A Sans-Serif Fonts • It contains many intermediary weights: light, book, medium, bold, and extra bold. It also contains several condensed versions for more slender type• Gothic Serif
    7. 7. A Serif Fonts• The serif font below, New Bodoni DT, also has many weight variants.
    8. 8. Antique Fonts• Antique fonts have a long history and can be used to evoke a period feel.
    9. 9. Decorative Fonts• Decorative fonts include highly decorated and really eccentric fonts, often with very specific uses and rarely appropriate for more than three words at a time.
    10. 10. Script Fonts• Script fonts, which resemble handwriting, can be subdivided into traditional scripts that look as though they were produced by a quill pen and those that mimic modern styles of handwriting.
    11. 11. Symbol Fonts• Symbol fonts are composed of graphic icons to provide embellishments to text. These are sometimes created to complement a specific font
    12. 12. Non-Commercial Fonts• A problem with non- commercial fonts, such as those decorative fonts that have free usage or are Internet downloads, is that they often have only one weight and are therefore of limited use.• Another problem is that font sizes may not be standardized. For example, a 12 point version of a display font may be much smaller than 12 points for traditional fonts
    13. 13. ••
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Styling & Formatting
    16. 16. Type Size• A point (pt) is the usual measurement for type and is equal to 1/72 of an inch.• Type that is smaller than 7pt is difficult to read and type that is smaller than 3pt is utterly illegible.
    17. 17. Serif or Sans Serif?• A serif font is easier to read over long passages (blocks of text) than a sans serif font. It is therefore often chosen for designs incorporating high quantities of body copy, such as novels and newspapers. However, a sans serif font is frequently perceived as being more modern.
    18. 18. Leading• Leading is the vertical space separating baselines in text and is traditionally measured in points. The term is derived from the days of setting type in hot metal, when strips of lead were used to add space between lines.
    19. 19. LeadingFont size: 14pt; leading: 18pt. Font size: 14pt; leading: 16pt.Font size: 14pt; leading: 14pt(set solid). Font size: 14pt; leading: 12pt.
    20. 20. Spacing
    21. 21. • Text Spacing
    22. 22. Measure• Measure means t he width of the text column. It is also a critical factor in the legibility of type. A wide measure can be tiring to read because the eye cannot easily scan from the end of one line to the start of the next.• A short measure can also disrupt readability and can lead to unsightly line breaks. The optimum line length for body copy is 60-70 characters.
    23. 23. Measure
    24. 24. Alignment• Alignment refers to the arrangement of lines of text in relation to the page margins.• Ranged left (ragged right), in which the text is aligned to the left-hand margin, is most common, legible and aesthetically pleasing. The majority of your text should be aligned left unless you have a sound reason to do otherwise.
    25. 25. Alignment• Ranged right (ragged left) is hard to read at speed because the eye struggles to find the start of each new line. However, it can be stylish for short blocks of text.
    26. 26. Alignment• Centered text, in which text is centered on each line, should be used sparingly. While appropriate for display type and headings, it should not be used for body copy.
    27. 27. Alignment• Justified text, ranging to both left and right margins, can be a neat solution. However, it can create excessive spaces between words and may require hyphenation.
    28. 28. Paragraph Formatting• Text styles are not simply defined by font and weight; paragraph styling or "formatting" also has a part to play. For example, you will also have to decide whether to include a line space before each new paragraph or whether to simply indent the first line of each.
    29. 29. Heading Hierarchies• The titles and headings are your display text and you may elect to treat them entirely different from body text, although all headings within a piece should belong to a single type family, with depth and contrast arising from changes in size and weight.
    30. 30. Text as Image
    31. 31. Text as Image