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Cluster
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Cluster

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Basics of clustering. Its Configurations. OS Strategies. Middleware operations.

Basics of clustering. Its Configurations. OS Strategies. Middleware operations.

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  • 1. VISHWESHWARAYA TECHNOLOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, BELGAUM. Clusters Yasir H Wani M.Tech, VTU
  • 2. What is clustering?An approach to provide:• High Performance• High Availability Server Application
  • 3. Definition: “A cluster is a group of interconnected, whole computers working together as a unified computing resource that can create an illusion of being one single machine.”• Whole Computer? What the heck is that???• How would a cluster then look like?
  • 4. NASA 128-processor Beowulf cluster: Acluster built from 64 ordinary PCs.
  • 5. Benefits /Objectives/Design Requirements• Absolute Scalability• Incremental Scalability• High Availability• Superior price/performance (Google mantra!) But same is achieved if SMP is used! How is it different then? (We will see later)
  • 6. Cluster Configuration 1 • High speed link is used to exchange messages for coordination of cluster activity Figure: Standby Server with no shared disk)
  • 7. Cluster Configuration 2Shared disk • Use of RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks; originally Redundant Array Of Inexpensive Disks)
  • 8. Clustering Approaches 1: Passive Standby • One computer handle all the processing load • Other computer remains inactive (for backup) What about coordination? • Primary system periodically sends “ heart beat” message • Increased Availability, but same old Performance Not at all Clustering coz :- I. Not maintaining the image of Single System to outside world. II. “All are actively doing process” not followed.
  • 9. Clustering Approaches continued… 2: Separate Server • Each computer is a Separate Server • Private disk is maintained • High performance and high availability • Scheduling software needed to schedule tasks among sep. ser. • Load balancing provided (Q): How availability? Data is constantly copied among systems to maintain current state of data in all the systems. Disadv: Comes at cost of performance penalty.
  • 10. Shared Nothing Common disks partitioned into volumes & each system given a volume• Each volume is owned by a single computer• If a system fail, volume ownership changesShared DiskAll computers have access to all the systems• This requires some locking facility
  • 11. Operating System IssuesEnhancement to the single system OS• Failure management• Load Balancing• Parallelizing Computation a. Compiler time b. At Application layer via Message Passing c. Parametric Computing E.g. Simulation
  • 12. Cluster MiddlewareCluster middleware is a set of programs which provide SSICluster middleware Duties/Functional Components:• job management system• cluster monitoring system• parallel libraries• automatic client installation systems• cluster management tools• distributed and parallel file systems• global process space
  • 13. Cluster Computer Architecture
  • 14. References: 1) Cluster-Based Scalable Network Services -Armando Fox Steven D. Gribble Yatin Chawathe Eric A. BrewePaul Gauthier, University of California at Berkeley 2) Operating Systems- Internals and Design Principles(6th Edition) by William Stalling 3) http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/doc/clustering.pdf 4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_computing 5) http://www.cro-ngi.hr/en/technologies/cluster-technologies/

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