Green Outsourcing, Energy Efficient Data Centers and Sustainable Supply Chain Agreements

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Green Outsourcing, Energy Efficient Data Centers and Sustainable Supply Chain Agreements

  1. 1. Green Outsourcing, Energy Efficient Data Centers and Sustainable Supply Chain Agreements William A. Tanenbaum Chair, Technology, Intellectual Property & Outsourcing Group and GreenTech Group, New York
  2. 2. Which Is Greener? <ul><li>Paper or plastic bags? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic – if you reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Washed or dirty car? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand drier or paper towels? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric hand drying machine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movies from video store or online store? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print or online newspaper? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper, if reading for more than 30 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic beef or stock-yard beef? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock-yard beef </li></ul></ul>31900508 Based on Nov/Dec 2008 issue of Mother Jones, article by Ben Whitford/Wired mag.
  3. 3. A Word on the Word “Green” <ul><li>Substitute “energy efficiency” for “Green” to emphasize the cost-saving issues that are relevant </li></ul>31900508 31801198.PPT
  4. 4. What Corporate Goals Are Driving New Roles for IT and Outsourcing? <ul><li>Reduction of energy costs </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of corporate sustainability initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of carbon footprint and the need to pay for carbon credits </li></ul><ul><li>New Role: Green IT Business Process Management (Green IT BPM) </li></ul>31900508
  5. 5. Prediction <ul><li>Corporations will begin charging each of their internal business units for the cost of carbon credits and will impose a penalty (or allocate a cost) for a business unit’s failure to meet corporate GHG emissions reduction targets </li></ul>31900508
  6. 6. New Roles for IT <ul><li>Become responsible for electricity costs in data center and computer operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction: combination of IT and Facilities Management departments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corporations will implement “smart technology” to achieve sustainability goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT will take on responsibilities outside of traditional roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become part of general operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become a corporate strategic asset </li></ul></ul>31900508
  7. 7. New Roles for Sourcing and Outsourcing Teams <ul><li>Manage compliance with corporation’s sustainability requirements, including supply chain and providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology-enabled sustainability improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green IT BPM – implementation of technology to meet regulatory requirements or voluntary carbon cap practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT, Sourcing and Outsourcing will become part of corporate sustainability and carbon footprint reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of GHG Protocol formula </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Sourcing/Outsourcing = outside of corporation carbon footprint, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Sourcing/Outsourcing = within carbon footprint; outsourcing expertise used to reduce footprint </li></ul></ul></ul>31900508
  8. 8. New Role for Data Management and Mining <ul><li>Use of data to achieve energy efficiency, reduced emissions and sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Data as asset </li></ul><ul><li>Data as IP </li></ul><ul><li>Role for IP </li></ul>31900508
  9. 9. What to Do With Existing Outsourcing and Sourcing Contracts Now <ul><li>Review contracts for energy inefficient provisions, such as automatic pass-through of fuel surcharges </li></ul><ul><li>Renegotiate or replace contracts to provide more “sustainable” provisions </li></ul><ul><li>Contract requirements should reflect results of “energy audit” of company operations </li></ul>31900508
  10. 10. What to Do With Contracts Going Forward <ul><li>Identify energy efficiency and sustainability risks and requirements during development of sourcing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Include requirements in RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Assess provider ability and financial impact of requirements as part of down-select process </li></ul><ul><li>Due diligence – use well-defined checklists of energy considerations to ensure operational compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Sourcing management – conduct audits based on established written ground rules and specific performance measurements </li></ul>31900508
  11. 11. Impact of Measuring Emissions and Carbon Footprint <ul><li>EPA and other regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Once company measures or reports emissions, it knows them </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on SEC filings, financial statements, financial reserves </li></ul><ul><li>RPF have potentially similar impact </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring treatment of monitoring and reporting activities </li></ul><ul><li>Information from consultants and retaining third parties </li></ul><ul><li>Use of outside law firms </li></ul>31900508
  12. 12. Data Center Operations <ul><li>Data centers are often a corporation’s single largest source of energy consumption and, for some, the largest source of carbon emissions </li></ul><ul><li>EDS report called data centers the “SUVs” of high tech: accomplish much, but energy inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>If data centers were considered a separate industry, they would be the sixth largest electricity user (The 451 Group) </li></ul>31900508
  13. 13. Data Center Operations (2) <ul><li>Gartner: Power and cooling expenses will increase from 4-10% of IT budget to 50% in next 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>IT and communications industries = 2% of global emissions, almost equal to aviation </li></ul><ul><li>IDC: 50% of total cost of ownership of hardware is for power; expected to increase to 71% over next 4 years (a 54% increase) </li></ul>31900508
  14. 14. Definition of the Data Center Energy Problem <ul><li>Energy costs are significant for internal corporate and outsourced data centers and IT infrastructures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powering equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Inefficient” equipment operations, e.g., data servers “spinning” when no active operations are being performed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In “old days,” energy costs were assumed to be free </li></ul><ul><li>In current environment (pun intended), equipment costs have been reduced, putting focus on energy costs </li></ul>31900508
  15. 15. Data Center Energy Use <ul><li>In 2006, U.S. data centers used about 61 billion kWh—roughly 1.5% of the nation’s electricity </li></ul><ul><li>McKinsey study predicts that world’s data centers will produce more Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) than the airline industry by 2020 </li></ul>31900508
  16. 16. What Problems Does Using Green IT Solve? <ul><li>Reduces costs </li></ul><ul><li>Running out of room to expand? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes real estate costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduces technological efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Meets corporate sustainability goals </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces costs of purchasing offset credits </li></ul>31900508
  17. 17. Datacenter Conclusion <ul><li>Financial incentives alone are sufficient reason to reduce energy costs of data centers </li></ul>31900508 $ $ $ $ $ $
  18. 18. What Energy Efficient Technology and Methods Are Available? <ul><li>Server virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California PG&E and other utilities provide rebates for qualified virtualization projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMC report: health care provider moved from 120 small to 60 large drives; saved $700,000 in 1 year with no performance degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizes file storage and access by separating physical from logical location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tiering of different data to different speed drives </li></ul>31900508
  19. 19. Data Center Technologies (2) <ul><li>“ MAIDS” </li></ul><ul><li>Modernize wiring, interconnections (Fiber cable over Ethernet) </li></ul><ul><li>Data de-duplication </li></ul>31900508
  20. 20. Data Center Technologies (3) <ul><li>“ Hottest” technology is cooling technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EDS located data center in UK to take advantage of cold North Sea breezes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction vs. cooling of server-heated air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land-based, wave-powered data center, Islay, Scotland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-site co-generation of electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including use of renewable sources </li></ul></ul>31900508
  21. 21. Figure from Google Patent 31900508
  22. 22. Benefits of Technology and Outsourcing <ul><li>Results in lower maintenance and upkeep and faster upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>Results in lower manpower needs </li></ul><ul><li>Less manpower = fewer background checks = greater security </li></ul><ul><li>Greater data security (from technology perspective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But where does “the cloud” fit in? </li></ul></ul>31900508
  23. 23. Potential Problems Arising from Virtualization <ul><li>Virtualization of application servers vs. number of data servers needed </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization can conflict with current enterprise software licensing model of large software vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of virtualized servers makes the input and output of applications the current “bottleneck” </li></ul>31900508
  24. 24. Contract Practice Tips <ul><li>Where return on investment will occur within 1 or 2 years, make technology implementation part of base agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Where ROI will take longer, make subject to SOW, SLA, Project Plan, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify either specific performance level or specific technology to be deployed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use security improvement contract provisions as model for energy-use improvements </li></ul></ul>31900508
  25. 25. Driving Energy Efficiency Down Through Useable Contract Metrics <ul><li>EPEAT and DOE’s DC PRO software tool from Federal contracts and use them in private section sourcing and outsourcing agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPEAT = Electronic Protection Environmental Assessment Tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DC PRO = Data center software assessment tool to benchmark data center energy use and efficency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimizes contract negotiation time </li></ul>31900508
  26. 26. EPEAT: Is it a Green Computing Standard? <ul><li>“ EPEAT” = Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See www.epeat.net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed over two-year period by EPA and Green Electronics Council starting in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Green Electronics Council operates website product declaration system for manufacturers, a verification system designed to ensure accuracy and credibility, and a listing of registered products </li></ul>31900508
  27. 27. EPEAT Goals <ul><li>Improved energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate or substantially reduce hazardous metals such as mercury and lead </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to recycle </li></ul><ul><li>Longer useful life </li></ul>31900508
  28. 28. Bronze, Silver and Gold Classifications <ul><li>IEEE Standard 1680 consists of 23 required criteria and 28 optional criteria in 8 categories </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze (Good) = product meets all required criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Silver (Better) = product meets all required criteria plus at least 14 (1/2) optional criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Gold (Best) = product meets all required criteria plus at least 21 (3/4) optional criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Green Electronics Council reports that 109 million EPEAT products were sold in 2007 (27 manufacturers, 590 separate products) </li></ul>31900508
  29. 29. Department of Energy (DOE) Green IT Initiatives <ul><li>“ Save Energy Now” data center program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program (“ITP”) to reduce energy consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ DC [Data Center] Pro” software tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to assess data center efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/saveenergynow/printable_versions/partnering_data_centers.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site provides description of DOE program and how companies can sign up to participate </li></ul></ul>31900508
  30. 30. DOE “DC Pro” Software Tool <ul><li>Software assessment tool to measure data center energy use and efficiency as part of Save Energy Now program </li></ul><ul><li>Overview is available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/saveenergynow/pdfs/dc_pro-tools_suite_overview.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>DC Pro tool is available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/saveenergynow/partnering_data_centers.html </li></ul>31900508
  31. 31. Private Sector Use of DC Pro Tool <ul><li>Use to assess data center efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Determine “gaps” between actual and best practices and/or contract goals </li></ul><ul><li>Develop plan to close gap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of outsourcing, SLAs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use as objective measure of compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Time required to conduct DC Tool assessment </li></ul>31900508
  32. 32. Adopting EPEAT and DC Pro for Private Sector Outsourcing Agreements <ul><li>Contracts: Adopt Federal contract provisions to establish EPEAT requirement for applicable products </li></ul><ul><li>In online procurement systems, block non-EPEAT products from electronic catalogues in applicable categories or, alternatively, require special justification to order non-EPEAT product where EPEAT product is available </li></ul><ul><li>Require periodic reports of number of EPEAT products procured under long-term contracts or procurement systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for updating of procurement systems as new products are certified and new categories are certified </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate vendors’ EPEAT performance </li></ul>31900508
  33. 33. Getting to Energy Reduction: Combine IT With Facilities Management to Reduce Energy Costs <ul><li>Buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site location to optimize use of nature – look to LEEDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White roof, roof-top co-generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near power grid to optimize peak and off-peak power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near telecommunications node to enable high-speed remote access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near water requirements </li></ul></ul>31900508
  34. 34. Reevaluation of Business Models <ul><li>“ Just in time” inventory management systems can be energy in efficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing contracts date from time when fuel was inexpensive, fuel surcharges were automatically passed-through, and emissions were irrelevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy result - Many smaller shipments and more truck runs result in large carbon footprint and potential expense under cap and trade and emissions regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology viewed as a critical enabler of new practices to manage bulk rather than small shipments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of outsourcing – Logistics/Shipping companies’ technology and information management </li></ul></ul>31900508
  35. 35. Convergence of Energy Efficiency, Security and Anti-Terrorism Requirements <ul><li>Cargo shipping -- Address the following risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liability under government regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized entry to company real estate through shipping and modes of transportation </li></ul></ul>31900508
  36. 36. Regulations Applicable to Cargo <ul><li>SAFE Port Act </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Security Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Transportation </li></ul>31900508
  37. 37. How to Use Green IT Business Process Management (Green IT BPM) <ul><ul><li>Add “smart” and “location-aware” technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realtime monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realtime exception reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realtime dispatch of emergency response and security personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticating proper employee access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring actual vs. scheduled shipment arrivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tacking location of key items </li></ul></ul>31900508
  38. 38. “ Smart Grid” Technology to Increase Energy Efficiency <ul><li>“ Smart” grid technology has a company-based as well as utility-based component </li></ul><ul><li>IT-enabled optimization to maximize equipment use and off-peak power use </li></ul><ul><li>Example of IT BMP </li></ul><ul><li>Over the horizon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truck fleet as “RESUs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling energy storage units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer and contribute power to grid or company power system </li></ul></ul></ul>31900508
  39. 39. Calculating True ROI <ul><li>Payment period for switching to “smart” lighting systems </li></ul><ul><li>Has the company considered all costs under local union rules? </li></ul>31900508
  40. 40. Making Supply Chains Sustainable <ul><li>Business drivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce emissions liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above combined in redesigning packaging and logistics of shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impose compliance with corporate sustainability policy on supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer company conducts energy audits of suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid negative publicity from supplier activity </li></ul></ul>31900508
  41. 41. Supply Chain Sustainability Agreements <ul><li>Leverage your company’s global expertise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU recycling regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT and data management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing certification and verification </li></ul><ul><li>GHG Protocol = measure carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope 1 = direct emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope 2 = indirect, purchased electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope 3 = more or less suppliers/outsource providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbon Disclosure Project rating </li></ul>31900508
  42. 42. Walmart’s Sustainability Supplier Assessment Questions <ul><li>See http://walmartstores.com/Sustainability/9292.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>4 major areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and GHG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using materials efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibly sourced raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing facilities and employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Walmart questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are weighted in Walmart’s scoring methodology, and phased in, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores are: Below Target, On Target, Above Target </li></ul></ul>31900508
  43. 43. Energy and Climate Questions (30%) <ul><li>Purpose: Reduce energy costs and GHG emission </li></ul><ul><li>Measure GHG? </li></ul><ul><li>Report GHG to Carbon Disclosure Project? </li></ul><ul><li>What were total annual GHG emissions? </li></ul><ul><li>Does supplier have and, if so, what are GHG reduction targets? </li></ul>31900508
  44. 44. Using Materials Efficiently (30%) <ul><li>Purpose: Reduce waste and enhance quality </li></ul><ul><li>Walmart uses a Packaging Scorecard </li></ul><ul><li>Solid waste from facilities producing products for Walmart </li></ul><ul><li>Are there reduction targets? What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Total water use </li></ul><ul><li>Are there reduction targets? What are they? </li></ul>31900508
  45. 45. Responsibly Sourced Raw Materials (20%) <ul><li>High quality, responsibly sourced materials </li></ul><ul><li>Are there sustainable purchasing guidelines for supplier’s suppliers that govern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental compliance, employment practices, ingredient safety? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are there third party certifications for products sold to Walmart? </li></ul>31900508
  46. 46. Facilities and People (20%) <ul><li>Does supplier know location of facilities producing products? </li></ul><ul><li>Does supplier evaluate quality of production before retaining manufacturing subcontractor? </li></ul><ul><li>Does supplier manage local law and Buyer’s Code of Conduct labor law compliance at manufacturing level? </li></ul><ul><li>Does supplier work with manufacturing subcontractor to correct defects and implement improvements? </li></ul><ul><li>Does supplier invest in community development activities in subcontractor’s community? </li></ul>31900508
  47. 47. Remanufacturing <ul><li>Reuse of key manufactured systems from products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce use of raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates energy to manufacture and ship </li></ul></ul>31900508
  48. 48. Legal Issue: How Will “New” Be Defined? <ul><li>“ New” will be equivalent to scope of warranty to repair or replace </li></ul>31900508
  49. 49. The Patent Exhaustion Doctrine <ul><li>Purchaser’s price paid to patent owners includes patent license fees </li></ul><ul><li>Purchaser’s customers (or transferees) do not have to pay additional patent license royalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put another way: Patent owner (also called “patentee”) cannot recover license fees from purchaser’s transferee in a patent infringement suit </li></ul></ul>31900508
  50. 50. Key Issue Under Case Law <ul><li>“ Refurbishment” used as general (and neutral) term (see Jazz Photo Corp. v. Dynatec Int’l, 264 F.3d 1095 (Fed. Cir. 2001)(Judge Newman)) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Permissible repair ” vs. “prohibited reconstruction ” (see id.) </li></ul><ul><li>Repair generally deemed less than making a new article (product) </li></ul><ul><li>Make like new vs. make a new product </li></ul><ul><li>Must consider scope of patent claims to made determination, especially when product consists of multiple components </li></ul>31900508
  51. 51. General Conclusion From Case Law <ul><li>Not many cases </li></ul><ul><li>Many are older </li></ul><ul><li>Historically, cases have taken expansive view of scope of permissible repair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query: Will advanced technology remanufacturing result in change in case law? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General conclusion: prohibited reconstruction generally required finding that new article (in a patent sense) was created vs. only a portion of claimed invention </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction: Expansion of remanufacturing will lead to new round of cases </li></ul>31900508
  52. 52. Looking Ahead <ul><li>Predict use of more expansive contractual provisions, from both licensees and licensors to clarify scope of rights </li></ul><ul><li>What result when refurbishment includes enhanced or “new” technology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if permissible repair of “old” patent, use of “new” technology may require licensee for that patentee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patentees will argue that provider of enhanced technology is liable for inducing or contributory infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Role of outsourcing? Territoriality defense? </li></ul>31900508
  53. 53. Allocate Carbon Rights in Commercial Agreements <ul><li>Commercial agreements evolved from having no IP provisions to commonly having IP provisions </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, commercial agreements should expressly allocate carbon ownership and right to trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreements should make clear which party owns and has the right to sell carbon rights </li></ul></ul>31900508
  54. 54. Predictions <ul><li>Prediction: Companies will outsource providers to comply with their sustainability policies </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction: Providers will face inconsistent policies </li></ul>31900508
  55. 55. Questions and Answers <ul><li>William A. Tanenbaum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kaye Scholer LLP, New York Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>31900508
  56. 56. <ul><li>William A. Tanenbaum is the international chair of Kaye Scholer’s Technology, Intellectual Property & Outsourcing Group, a partner in the GreenTech Group and resident in the firm’s New York office. Chambers identifies him as an “internationally recognized intellectual property, technology and outsourcing lawyer” and concluded that he “has built one of New York City’s most outstanding transactional IT law practices.” It awarded him “Recommended” ratings in both “Technology and IT Outsourcing” and “Business Process Outsourcing,” and named him as a “Notable Practitioner” at the national level in Business Process Outsourcing. He was voted one of the world’s top 250 IP strategists (ISM client survey) and he was selected as one of the country’s top 25 pre-eminent IT practitioners in the Best of the Best USA 2009. He regularly advises clients on strategic intellectual property concerns, privacy, data security, data transfer, information life cycle management and competitive intelligence matters, in both transactional and litigation contexts. </li></ul>William A. Tanenbaum 31900508
  57. 57. William A. Tanenbaum (continued) <ul><li>Mr. Tanenbaum is the founder and co-chair of PLI’s annual Outsourcing Conference, the founder and co-chair of its Green Technology conference, and a regular lecturer at industry outsourcing conferences. He chairs Kaye Scholer’s GreenTech breakfast seminar series and presents a monthly series of webcasts on Green law topics. He is a past President of the International Technology Law Association (formerly the Computer Law Association) and is listed in Who’s Who in America, the International Who’s Who of Business Lawyers, the Guide to the World’s Leading Litigation Experts and the Guide to the World’s Leading Patent Law Experts. He is the privacy and data protection columnist for the New York Law Journal, co-author of a book on privacy law and has been quoted in The Economist magazine as an expert on IP law. His articles have been used at Harvard and other law schools. He graduated from Brown University (degree with highest honors and Phi Beta Kappa) and Cornell Law School. </li></ul>31900508

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