The pigs! Important to mention that nobody recommends use of maize, NOT EVEN QPM, as a sole source of protein. These experiments provide supplemental minerals and vitamins, but used only maize (normal vs QPM) as the source of protein. Dr Abeena will talk much more about the nutritional aspects of QPM, but the potential benefit of QPM is obvious.
Thakur Tiwari - CIMMYT and CRP4: Development of Nutritionally Enriched Maize and Wheat Varieties
CIMMYT and CRP4:Development of Nutritionally Enriched Maize and Wheat Varieties
Introduction● Nutrition derived from plant based sources is cheaper, and accessible among diverse consumers- rural poor of developing countries● Rice, wheat and maize together provides the major portion of food calories of more than 4.5 billion people in developing countries MAIZE is the staple for about 900 million of poor consumers Wheat for 2.5 billion poor consumers● HarvestPlus (H+) and SI of CIMMYT Mega programs are dealing with human nutrition and are aligned with CRP4 (Agriculture Nutrition and Health).
Successful Innovation - QPMLysine & Tryptophan (% of total protein) Normal o2 QPM Lysine 2.6 4.2 4.1 Tryptophan 0.4 0.9 0.8 Source: cited by Vivek et al 2009
Human nutritionQPM is nutritionally superior than conventionalmaize in maize-based human dietsSeveral human nutrition studies conducted byAkuamoa-Boateng (2002) found:● that children fed with high lysine/tryptophan maize were healthier than those fed with normal maize porridge.● reduced stunting and better growth in children consuming high lysine/tryptophan maize.
Animal nutritionPig fed with the QPM based diet gained 256 g per day, while theanimal fed with common maize gained an average of only 21 gper day (J. Maner)
QPM and Africa● Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, etc.● Seed companies are engaged in QPM seed production and supply● Ministry of Agriculture (NARS partners), NGOs and Health Ministry – working together Connected with the WFP – in some countries● New germplasm rich in Zn, Fe, ProvitaminA are being developed, tested in African and some countries in South Asia like India.
SI7- Nutritional Enrichment of MaizeValue proposition• Using native maize genetic diversity and novel tools, develop and disseminate maize varieties that are biofortified for pro- vitamin A (VA), zinc, or essential amino acids (quality protein maize; QPM), thereby reducing 10-20% of the life-years that are lost annually to Vitamin A deficiency in five sub-Saharan African countries alone, and benefiting malnourished children who grow up on maize-based diets.Approaches• Germplasm with >15µg/g provitamin A, 50-100% higher lysine and tryptophan, and kernel-zinc >40 ppm; development of maize germplasm• Functional markers for screening and developing nutritionally enriched cultivars Source: Palacio, 2012
Donors for high oil content Type Kernel Kernel Heterotic % oil germplasm/maturity color type groupCML 446 Tropical/intermediate White Dent B 6.01CML 502 6.06CML 435 Tropical/intermediate Yellow A 6.06CML 358 Tropical/intermediate Yellow Semi-dent 6.14CML 366 Tropical/intermediate Yellow Semi-dent 6.17CML 399 Tropical/late White Flint A 6.24CML 490 Tropical/intermediate White Flint A 6.46CML 511 6.49CML 470 Early Yellow Flint 7.32Source: Palacio, 2012
Donors - high tryptophan and lysine Germplasm type / Grian Grain Heterotic maturity color type group % trpCML491 Tropical/Late White Flint A 0.09CML503 Tropical/Late White Flint BCLQRCWQ83 Tropical/Late White Dent ACLQRCWQ10 Tropical/Late White Flint BCML161 Tropical/Late Yellow Flint B 0.082CML165 Tropical/Late Yellow Dent A 0.083CML176 Subtropical White Dent 0.1CML144 Lowland/Late White Flint 0.08Source: Palacio, 2012
Donors QPM and Zn Germplasm Kernel Kernel Heteroti type color type c group QPM % trp Zn (ppm)CLQRCWQ26 Tropical White Yes 0.084 48.6CLQRCWQ38 Tropical White Yes 0.085 46CML491 Tropical White Flint A Yes 0.109 44CLQRCWQ97 Tropical White Yes 0.086 40.9CLQ6315 Tropical White Yes 0.11 40.9Source: Palacio, 2012
Summary● Development and release of competitive QPM cultivars have been achieved, however the adoption is still poor (less than 1% - around the world). Maintenance breeding is challenging.● Promising germplasm rich in Zn, Fe, ProvitaminA are available – commercial release is yet to be done.● Plan to introduce new germplasm with enhanced nutrition through international nurseries in Bangladesh.● Concerted effort is needed to develop and disseminate nutritionally enriched varieties in Bangladesh and in other countries.