Edu pn hanita


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Edu pn hanita

  1. 1. Teaching Creativity.... Text and photography © Marvin Bartel, Ed.D. updated July, 2008 author biography The above illustration is typical of a kindergarten child's uninhibited pre schematic drawing of herself. Most five year olds are totally confident that they can draw, sing, and dance. Tragically, within three or four years this child, if she is typical, will experience a crisis of confidence. She will no longer feel competent or creative. As teachers, we are often partly to blame for the diminished inclination to be creative as children become socialized and more intelligent. I write this as an art teacher for other art teachers. However, I think teachers in every area need to reflect on what they are doing that tends to foster or hinder the creative critical thinking that is so essential as a survival and success skill in today's world. Creative readers, whatever they teach, will recognize their own lessons and projects in this article. In the development of cognition, the ability to imagine is among the most advanced of all human traits. Why would any teacher want to ignore or even squelch the imagination. WHEN IS FREEDOM A BAD IDEA? Surprisingly, I see the least imaginative work being produced when a teacher gives instructions and says, “In this lesson you can use any topic you want to.” Or, “In this lesson you can work in any media you like.” Even in the case of students whose work seems quite imaginative and creative, if I know the student, I generally find that the work is merely a rehash of that student's previous success. We are naturally creatures of habit. Our natural way to learn is by imitation. Students imitate their own success and they imitate their peers. When allowed to do what we want to do, we are most likely to revert to whatever we previously found enjoyable and/or successful. This amounts to what I call, “another one of those” artworks. Sad as that is, the worst part is that the creative process is not being learned. Limitations can be a good thing to motivate creativity. Requirements in an assignment narrow the realm in which one is allowed to operate, making it easier to focus on a problem or an issue. We can find some useful teaching strategies by looking at how artists generate ideas. Many artists use a device called “changing habits of work”. An artist may be feeling like everything is becoming redundant and familiar. In order to force a new idea to the surface, an artist might reverse the order of work, change the medium, change the scale, forbid a certain common component in the work, and so on. These are limitations to jog or jump start the creative impulse. Creativity is latent within each of us, but for some of us, it needs to be awakened. One way to bring to to the surface is to force a change of thinking habits by not allowing a trite response. In creative teaching, assignment limitations provide a way to change the student's habits of work. When a student isn't allowed to repeat a familiar pathway into the work, additional creative effort is expended to succeed. So long as the difficulty level is reasonable, new learning happens. A new approach is learned. When I have a student who complains about the limitations of an assignment, I explain the learning theory as the
  2. 2. rationale for the limitations. If a student persists, I also tell them that I can accept student proposals that violate the limitations if they propose things that are at least as creative and as difficult as the thing I assign. They must also convince me that they are not simply repeating a previous successful pattern. I often use introductory practice related to the new requirements. These warm-ups build skill and confidence without showing examples. I avoid examples becuase, like showing answers in advance, it is most likely to reduce the need to prcatice creative thinking. Hands-on warm-ups can include experiments that lead to self-discovered results. Student teacher, Paul Kuharic, discusses a composition assignment created by a high school student. Students are restricted to using their own cut paper shapes to develop an original abstract composition. Compositions are to illustrate assigned design concepts discussed prior to the media work. In this photo Mr. Kuharic was student teaching art at Washington High School, South Bend, Indiana, USA IMITATION IS NATURAL - IS 1 IT NATURALLY GOOD? Judith Harris, in The Nurture Assumption, reviews lots of evidence taken in tribal societies. She concludes that imitation is our natural way to learn. Village children are given over to the care of slightly older children. By imitating slightly older children, they learn to survive and thrive. Many of us have experienced astounding successes by imitating a very successful example for an assignment or task. There can be lots of natural success when we imitate successful examples. This is why I am not surprised to see the popularity of copy work in art classes. However, when we examine imitation as a learning form for today's world, it may be an instinct that is no longer appropriate in the changing environment we live in today. It is a good way to learn traditional things, but is not a way to foster creativity. Imitation is not a way to learn critical thinking. Imitation and copy work is not a way to foster an innovative spirit in our students. It is urgent in today's world that our students become critical thinkers with strong values. Imitation as a learning style is very limited to accomplish this goal, and when we employ imitation in teaching, we must point out its limitations and we need to supplement it immediately with approaches that require innovation, problem solving, and a critical review process. When we learn by imitation, we tend to become complacent. Not only do our students fall into “another one of those” mentality, we as teachers often fall into “another one of those” projects, lessons, or units of instruction. We may say, “If copy work works well for Chuck Close, who works from photographs, it should work well for us.” Not all repetition and imitation is bad, but repetition and imitation is certainly not creative. Unfortunately, imitation is very habit forming. Many people, when faced with any kind quandry, immediatly look for an expert to imitate, to follow, or to copy. In too many casese, these people have developed problem solving habits that lack confidence in their own ability to bring any life experience or judgement to the situation. This tendency to follow like sheep allows policital leaders too much power to manipulate a majority of citizens to accomplish their own ends. History is
  3. 3. filled with tradgic examples of populations that have followed leaders without bothering to think through the ethics or the consequences of what they failed to imagine. DOES IMITATION TEACH SKILLS? I find that repetition has its merits for the sake of certain types of skills practice. However, we need to be clear with ourselves when we are promoting skills practice. Skill alone is not fostering creativity. Skills practice is very useful for the production of art, but skill by itself is not good art. By skill practice, I would include such things as learning to do observational drawing or raising a clay cylinder on the potter's wheel. Some art teachers use copywork, obvious imitation, because they think it develops skill. Imitation is instinctive and results in lots of "monkey see - monkey do" learning, but does nothing to encourage or require creative thinking. Imitation teaches other people's ideas and techniques. Imitation does not teach much thinking. If we want to use imitation to teach creativity, we must find ways to imitate the thinking habits of highly creative people. This by the way, is a great way to learn to stop imitating. Copywork issues Copywork is very common in some high school art classes. I have not met many art teachers that claimed they were teaching creativity when they had students busily copying pictures from magazines, although some claim the students are being creative because they are required to make some sort of modification. Copywork is often rationalized because it appears to be building skill. Furthermore, many students are enjoying it. Too often, I see copywork becoming a crutch. Copywork is a form of artistic selfpoisoning addiction. It develops dependency because the student notices that their other work looks inferior to their copywork. Copywork becomes a "feel good" addiction because is requires less effort than working form real observation or experience. The main skill being learned is, how to copy. Very little thinking is required and few real skills are learned. The part of the brain used for copywork is probably not the same as the part of the brain used to render a drawing from a real object or person. It is one step removed from being a passive spectator. The term "couch potato artist" comes to mind. I recently asked an art teacher how he taught drawing. He said he did some drawing up front and had the students draw the same things. Obviously, this art teacher is not an art teacher and has not learned how to teach children how to learn to observe. They are not learning the skills needed to observe from life and they are not learning creativity. They are learning to copy a teacher, which is not much different than learning to copy from another artist or from a photograph. Would it not be much better to use this class time for actual observation and rendition skill development? Good art teachers know how to teach real observation. Those who haven't bothered to learn how to teach observation skills might be called "pseudo" art teachers. Who needs them? It would be cheaper to hire a supply clerk to assign copywork. Several years ago I was honored to have a visiting Chinese Scholar in one of my college art classes. He is a university English teacher in China and was here as part of our exchange program as a way to improve his conversational English. After class one day we were talking about teaching drawing to children. He shared that in China the teacher taught drawing by drawing on the chalkboard to show the children how to draw each thing. He illustrated it with a stereotypcial cat symbol starting with a circle, adding triangle ears, ending with the whiskers and curved tail. I am sure that this is changing in
  4. 4. parts of China, but philosophically, a society that values conformity above indiviual creativity and choice making probably should teach drawing as a series of prescribed symbols rather than teaching actual observation, thinking, feeling, and interpretation skills. My own first grade teacher was quite competent in drawing from memory and imagination. She had been taught to create a large drawing with colored mural chalk. We were each asked to copy her picture with our crayons. Her pictures, as I recal them, reminded me of stereotypical calendar landscape scenes of places we dreamed of visiting. Copywork is very common as a learning method among self-taught artists. Their definition of art is somewhat simplistic. They are seduced by the look of art and do not understand the creative aspects of the process. They are producing within a very limited realm. To them, if it looks like art, it must be art. Untutored artists do not notice their own mistakes. They may feel that there are mistakes, but they cannot identify the mistakes. As a result, their work may be charming, naive, and quaint. It often looks creative by default. When these artists start working with a teacher their artwork often appears to get worse and worse. Many get totally frustrated and turn away from their "art". When they are taught to recognize their mistakes they loose the joy. See footnote 5 for some ideas to succeed with self-taught artists. Of course some self-taught artists do not copy. Some are very creative. Repeated practice is essential to learn skills. Practice makes things easier, builds confidence, and enhances quality. Similarly, review is essential to learn facts like artist names, the look of their style, vocabulary about art, and so on. These are important aspects of learning art, but they are not as useful in today's world as the ability to be critically aware, inspired, innovative, and responsive problem solvers. It may be gratifying and entertaining to reach a virtuoso level of performance, but without critical thinking and creative strategizing, it is a hollow victory. Image flooding issues Showing many examples at the beginning of an art lesson is called "image flooding". In theory, image flooding shows many good examples in fairly rapid succession. Typically, the images come from the teacher's collection of previous years' student work, from art books, slide collections, reproductions, the Internet, and so on. Teachers depend on the theory that students do not have time to take in enough information to copy. However, sometimes the examples are posted in the room as reference materials to help focus the students on the assignment. Additionally, many teachers, knowing that art is also supposed to be creative, tell the students not imitate or copy any of these works. They are careful to explain that they are showing examples to clarify the assignment, but not to be copied. On the surface, this seems like good teaching. These teachers often get excellent evaluations from their students and their students do fairly well in contests. Students like it because they can "see" what is expected and image flooding gets decent predictable products. There are several issues with image flooding? Some art teachers have become quite addicted to this seemingly natural way to show the "look" of the expected outcomes. Yet when pressed, they cannot explain any real rationale for the assignment. They cannot define the problems being presented. They are inarticulate. They may even say, "Art is non-verbal." Indeed, as Suzanne Langer contends, ". . . the import of an art symbol
  5. 5. cannot be paraphrased in discourse."4 (p 68) This is true enough. However, teaching art is very verbal. Langer is extremely verbal. Yet, teachers who fail to explain verbally what they are attempting to teach still think of themselves as art teachers. I am not saying it is impossible, but fostering creativity is hard to do unless the teacher understands the nature of artistic creativity well enough to be articulate about it. Therefore, teachers that use image flooding as a substitute for the clear articulation of issues and concepts will seldom succeed in fostering creativity. The nature of imitation is too powerful as an instinct, and too much the opposite of creativity. The instinct to imitate can easily overcome our instinct to imagine - which can take a lot more effort. The second issue I see with image flooding, is the lack of creative integrity that is fostered in the learner. As a student is easier for me to be just creative enough to make the teacher think I am being original. This teaches me to borrow and recombine things in devious ways so nobody will recognize who I am mimicking. In true creativity I would have to bring something into the mix from my own life experience. Image flooding does not require this and does not foster this. Image flooding shows me examples from other lives so I need not bother with my own life. In the end the art is also less mine and more other's. True creativity happens when intuitive imagination brings forth the previously unknown and unimagined. Clever combinations of imitated ideas might look creative, but are they? As a learner, I am even being deceived about the nature of creativity. The third issue I see with image flooding is that students who might otherwise be naturally creative will find it much harder to access their own rich store of subconscious experiential store of experiences and ideas. Even highly creative students can be insecure and very suggestive. Once we an see an image or an idea, it starts to cover up our own ideas that were trying to emerge. These outside images from other artists become insistent tunes impossible to shake. In this way image flooding actually drowns (suffocates) individual creativity before it has a chance to swim on its own. Teaching without image flooding If I refrain from showing exemplars, how do they know what I want? Hmm? An an art teacher, I now get to teach art. Part of teaching/learning art is learning the art of idea development, enhancement, and truth finding. When students are given instruction in idea development I do not have to show them examples from famous artists, I do not have to ask them to reinvent or cleverly disguise things that others have done - to make "another one of those". They can take real life experiences from their own lives. I can encourage them to develop these into art forms. Once students tackle an assignment creatively, they will naturally be curious to see what experts have done in the past related to the problem they have struggled to solve. When studying a master, they will not only be interested in seeing the end product, but they will be open to learn about the master's creative methods. We do not only study the look of the work, we try to figure out why the artist did it that way. In this kind of problem solving, students find historical evidence from research to confirm ideas about the creative methods used. If we want to foster student creativity, we can teach the art history as a review and reinforcement of the art lesson - not as a pattern for the art lesson. We can also teach art history as a discrete body of knowledge without using it as example work for a particular creative problem. While this may not directly practice creativity, it
  6. 6. still gives students knowledge about and appreciation for the creativity of other artists. It may still provide good information about creative processes and methods used by artists to achieve the artworks we are studying. For those interested in integrated learning, students can also be encouraged to begin with art about their own experiences related to a concept. After doing the artwork, they can study similar concepts in science projects, social issues, and so on. When working with kindergarten children in a religious education (Sunday School), I might start with a discussion of various ways they work as helpers in their families. Then basing their work on these experiences, they create drawings. This is followed by a story from a religious text that tells about how somebody was a helper in the story. I do not use art to review other subjects. This makes art into a mere tool to help remember something else. This is not creative and it would not be in keeping with my understanding of art. Of course other school subjects come into the artwork with integrity when students become knowledgeable and deeply concerned about issues related to other subjects. Some very creative social issue artwork could emerge when students experience things like prejudice, pollution, drug overdoses, drunk driving, and other things they and friends encounter. HOW TO TEACH WHEN WE DO NOT USE IMITATION? I believe we should show the great examples as part of the review process after the students have had a chance to apply their own creativity. HOW ARE CREATIVE IDEAS GENERATED? By not showing examples in advance, I as the teacher, am forced to think and articulate ideas and assignment goals better. I have to become a teacher, not merely an audio visual expert and supply clerk. I am obligated to provide preliminary practice sessions. They know what I want if the practice sessions give them methods used by creative people to develop their ideas. I need to explain goals in terms the students can understand. I need to ask questions to verify that they they are thinking and that they understand. For related thoughts, see Planning to Teach Art Lessons. Ultimately, every lesson is less product oriented and more for the purpose of learning the process of artistic creativity. --- to top of article Creatively productive people use a number of methods that teachers can learn from. Make lists and sketches Many make lists and sketches of possibilities. As an artist, I often use drawing as a way to “develop” an idea or solve a problem. I believe students can learn to do it also. Students should do focused "playing around" with an idea. Visually creative people use thumbnail sketches as their lists. These lists and sketches are extensive and often include options that are directly the opposite of a conventional solution. Students who can quickly make long lists are fluency gifted. Students who can make lists with items that are unique and unlike those of other students are gifted in flexibility. Sometimes we see who in my class has the most ideas that are not listed by anybody else. Giving them honorable mention points is a way to encourage them. Highly creative individuals keep tinkering with the ideas in their lists and sketches. Fine tuning is encouraged. When I give an assignment that starts with list making, I have them first work individually. Then I might ask them to form groups of three or four. Generally, I try to use grouping criteria to get as much diversity of skill, interest, and background as possible in
  7. 7. each group. Using a group of diverse experts is known as synectics. Students may not be experts, but they are each encouraged to contribute from their unique experiences. I want them each to present their ideas to the group and ask for help adding features, new ideas, and so on. I want them to take each others listed ideas and add them to their own ideas to see if still more or better ideas develop. In today's world, most tasks require complex solutions that only collaborative efforts can achieve. Beginning in elementary grades students can learn to be collaboratively creative learners and teachers of each other. After significant effort to get long lists, fine-tuned ideas, and so on, they are asked to rank all ideas according to several criteria. Criteria depend on the project, but they might sort them from innovative to common, from simple to complex, from beautiful to ugly, from useful to non-functional, from durable to temporary, from precious to cheap, and so on. This link describes a class process for getting ideas for artwork using The Conversation Game. Consider opposites Research shows that highly creative people mention more opposites when taking a free association word test.2 This tells us that they have learned not waste time with the conventional solutions. They find successes when they look at things up side down, inside out, and from back to front.3 To understand beauty, it helps to experience ugly. Consider practice Build in lesson time to practice with materials so that beginning mistakes are not mistaken for creative ideas. Comfort and some mastery of processes and materials allows for more creative rendition of new ideas. Artists often find inspiration as they start manipulating the materials. It is natural to get visual ideas as we work with visual materials. Picasso said something to the effect that art is two percent inspiration - not knowing when inspiration would occur, it was important for him to be in the studio working. Direct involvement with materials and processes Practice with materials may lead directly to a creative final product. Many artists, do not believe in preplanning. They are inspired the process itself. The enjoy interacting with the materials and the visual and tactile experiences that emerge as they work. This approach is especially appropriate for certain styles like abstract expressionism where the action of material manipulation is often a major portion of the content and concept of the work. Think process rather than product Put more emphasis on process rather than product? When we show an end product in order to help explain something, we risk that students will not be challenged to think creatively. We may want them to be creative, but by our actions they believe we care more about the product than whether they learn how to think. Why should students be creative when we are showing answers rather than presenting problems? There are good ways to explain problems without showing answers. Color mixing can be used as creativity practice by asking students to experiment with colors. They can be led to discover how to combine colors form new colors. It can be learned as a problem finding and problem solving process. In contrast, many teachers post a color chart in the room to show how colors are made. Then they ask students to mix their own colors. Posting the answer does not give students the impression that creative thinking is expected. To teach process, we avoid posting charts that gives answer unless the students themselves have invented the charts. I might ask them to do experiments to figure out
  8. 8. how to mix a color that will match a color that they select on a spot on a still life object I have placed on a table in the room. I like to select things from the garden or produce market that have colors unlike any of the student's paints. Their paints for this might include only primaries and neutrals. Their experiments needs to consider hue, value, intensity, lighting, and color temperature. As in math, you could ask them to show each step in the search rather than just the answer. False starts and incorrect guesses are okay, but not correct. Real experiments often result in wrong answers at first. Each step could include a few notes about how it was done. In the end, a small color chip can be attached to the actual still life to see if it disappears. Unlike math, there are many ways to approach this problem. When math is involved in an art project, I like to see the same answer derived in at least two ways. This not only encourages creative thinking, it is better math. In a reverse of the above color matching process problem, students could experiment to create the most contrasting color to use as the background color. Now the end product becomes more subjective and individualized. Colors have several contrasts including hue, tone, temperature, and saturation. With an open option for how to produce contrast, students will make discoveries in some proportion to how much experimentation they are willing to do. In another vein, color experiments can be compared to look for relationship that evoke certain emotional effects such as anger, love, sweetness, tartness, and so on. In one process centered assignment I ask students to represent the relationships in their own family by using abstractly shaped pieces of painted paper that they paint and cut. When finished, another student unfamiliar with the family being represented has to attempt an interpretation. For the sake of privacy, the class is assured in advance that literal explanations would not be asked for or allowed. Since no families are perfect, a followup assignment can be a variation on the first where an imagined idealized family is composed by the same method. Some additional ideas on teaching students ways that artists generate their art ideas is included in The Secrets of Generating Art Ideas: An Inside Out Art Curriculum. Consider assessment and grading paradigms Openly reward unusual and innovative work. Even when it is crude, I try to acknowledge the innovative part of student work. If I want creativity, I have to be a bit stingy with high grades for derivative work just because it is skillful and has a professional look without any originality. My rubrics do not include: following directions, or neatness. Neatness is a style that may or may not be appropriate. Following directions may be important, but some of the most creative outcomes are produced by perceptive creativity that can see that some rules are less important than a good solution. Most of the greatest scientists and many of the greatest artists are those that found established rules to be wrong. W e can develop more games, assignments, and even tests and formal assessments that give points for unique responses while not counting points for answers that somebody else gives? Bonus points could be given for high quality, beauty, expressiveness, usefulness, artistic importance, correctness, truthfulness, and whatever else is deemed important. We need to stop giving so much credit for redundant facts that everybody already knows.
  9. 9. Consider the tone and nature of responses to student ideas Students often need encouragement and reassurance. They get ideas and begin to doubt their own ideas. Students who ask about a new idea need encouragement. I say to try it see what happens - even when I think the idea will fail. I might enthusiastically say, “It would certainly be worth a try. If it doesn't work you will still learn from it and you may even get a better idea.” I might offer a story about a similar option or a variation on their idea that can be used for comparison, but generally it is best to get them to follow their own hunches. Consider the familiar avoid exotic content Use common everyday experiences and issues that students are very familiar as content assignments for art. Familiar content allows for more challenging artistic processes. Exotic or strange content promotes more copywork of "references" because students are forced to use preexisting pictures instead of direct experience and observations. The ideas that grow out of experiences can be substantially more meaningful. Experiences are different for every student. Each student has unique family rituals, customs, heritage, etc. Creativity flourishes when we are intimately acquainted with our content. My most creative work happens when I am open to my immediate surroundings. Consider answering questions with questions Many students come the art teacher and ask for suggestions related to their work. How can art teachers avoid becoming the “know it all” that takes ownership of the student's artwork? What are some thinking questions we can ask? How can we reassure them that there are several ways to do it? Art is a search. Art with integrity grows from an honest search. Students will become more creative if they can feel they are the true owners of their work. We can even hope that students will learn how these questions are formulated. It may eventually be possible for the teacher to ask, "What are the questions?" The student will say, "Oh. Yes. I know what to try." Consider answering questions with questions about experimentation Art and science have many commonalities, but the one I often fail to use is probably the most basic and important of all - the scientific method. The scientific method says that questions must be answered experimentally and the results are repeatable. Art students have often asked me to give them a suggestion to improve a work in progress. Many times my ego and my pompous personality have simply prompted me to blurt out an answer. I have given my recommendation without even thinking that this was actually a teachable moment. My students learned dependency. Too often I have been the dependency facilitator. Had I been thinking scientifically, I might have ask the student to design a small experiment. Yes, the scientific method takes more time in the short run, but if a student learns that they can design experiments to solve their own problems, they have learned not only the scientific method, they have learned one of the important components of artistic thinking and artistic behavior. Ultimately, time is saved because students have learned to figure out how to answer their own questions. They are empowered. Teaching habits are powerful and subtle. Answering questions in the studio class gives me such a feeling of power and is such a hard habit to break. As an artist, I am generally more clever than the student - what an ego trip! During the Dark Ages science was a set of teacher answers. Progress was made when the scientific method began using
  10. 10. questions and experiments to check on old answers and discover new answers. We came out of the dark ages when real and careful observation replaced copywork. In science, nothing is assumed to be true because a teacher says so. Too often my art class was taught using Dark Ages dogmatism. Example Art teachers ask me why should we teach students to reinvent the wheel. Good question. Is the making of wheels more important than the ability to invent the wheel? For educators interested in the formation of the mind, learning how to think always trumps knowing an answer. The color wheel may be important, but it took my caveman mind two decades of teaching to figure out that it is much more important for students to invent the color wheel than for them to copy it. Now I never show a color wheel before students have experimentally learned to manipulate and observe color concepts. Caution Be careful with the transition if you have been a very "giving" teacher that loves to give advice and suggestions. Students will wonder why you are suddenly not as forthcoming with easy answers. Some may resent having to think and make more choices. Your new willingness to teach thinking is generous, but can be misinterpreted as "selfishness with information". Reassure them that the best way is a way that comes from their own efforts? Help them design experiments so they can find the solutions themselves instead becoming dependent on an expert (the teacher)? Understand that as a teacher, it may feel less powerful not to give a wise answer and magical solution for every compositional question. In the end we know it is most powerful to be able to empower others. top of article ARE SKILLS A PREREQUISITE TO THINKING AND CREATIVITY? Many teachers have argued that skills and knowledge are essential prerequisites for the production of art. This belief leads to lots of “another one of those” art assignments with no requirement for innovation. I believe it is much better to include both innovation criteria as well as skill and knowledge criteria. This can sometimes be done concurrently and sometime alternately. It may be helpful if students are told when they are simply working at “rehearsal” and when they are being asked to “perform” creatively. Most four and five year olds are naturally creative, but very immature in their skills development. At this age we all understand that it would be ludicrous for us to insist that they be proficient in skill before they are allowed to be expressive. So, at what age do children loose their right to be expressive? Unfortunately, it happens without us trying. Typically, many third graders experience a “crisis of confidence”. It happens in art if nobody has helped them develop any observational skills. Without instruction, only a small percentage of children are naturally motivated to practice drawing enough to master observational accuracy. Art teachers are of different minds as what is needed when children begin to notice that they have little or no drawing ability. Unfortunately, some teachers say, “Don't worry, I can't draw either.” Instead of teaching the importance of drawing, they devalue it. They give art assignments that look like art, but require no particular ability. They imitate, they copy, they follows step-by-step assembly instructions, and so on. These teachers are actually mere supply clerks. Along the same lines, some art teachers show formulas from books on “how to draw a tree, a face, or a human figure”. These methods do not teaching drawing competency. They teach dependency. Few children complain because they
  11. 11. naturally enjoy imitation and they are mildly rewarded by pretty products. There is no way for them to know that good art teaching could help them with methods that actually teach them how they could learn to draw anything by helping them practice standard observations methods. IS CREATIVITY, DRAWING, AND TALENT CONNECTED? Too many children as well as adults confuse drawing and creativity. Many people with a poor self-image in regard to drawing, also feel that they are not artistic. They feel they are not talented. They might also feel they are not creative. Being able to draw does not automatically make one creative and does not make one an artist any more than the ability to use a camera makes a photographer into an artist. Drawing is a skill. Drawing, just like photography can be done artistically and it can be done creatively, but not all drawing is art and not all drawing is creative. So while there is a close connection between drawing, art, and creativity, it is not always connected. The ability to draw a likeness may seem to be a natural gift or talent for some, but it is actually acquired by practice. Like anything else, some acquire this skill faster and easier than others, but everybody learns it through practice. Nearly everybody can learn to play piano with a good teacher and faithful practice. Nearly everybody can learn to read and write with a good teacher and with faithful practice. The same is true for drawing. These are skills that are easier for some and harder for others. The ones who learn easier and without a teacher in our culture are thought to be talented, but they still learn by practice. We now know that observation drawing can be learned by anybody at nearly any age. Drawing is not dependent on talent, but for many, drawing is dependent on knowing how drawing is learned. Natural propensity is not essential for drawing any more than it is for reading. Many elementary classroom teachers, if asked by a child for help with a drawing, will be told, "Don't worry about it, I can't draw either." Would that same teacher say every say, "Don't worry about it, I can't read either."In our culture we have become absolutely dependent on reading, but only marginally dependent on the ability to draw. This cultural bias that fails to see the basic need to learn drawing helps produce substandard creative thinking ability in the general population. IS DRAWING NEEDED FOR CREATIVITY? You can survive without knowing how to read, but reading is extremely helpful. You can be creative without knowing how to draw, but drawing is extremely helpful when doing creative work. Researchers have found that careful visual observation drawing is done in the right hemisphere of the brain where intuitive and creative thinking occurs. Rational thinking, on the other hand, happens in the left hemisphere of the brain where the trite schematic drawings are stored in the brain (childlike stick figures, triangle nose images, etc.). This may indicate that observation drawing practice develops the intuitive part of the brain. This may be true, but if not, their are other basic reasons to learn drawing in order to be more creative. Drawing is an extremely useful, if not essential tool used in creative thinking. Drawing is very helpful to most students and adults in the development of all kinds of creative ideas and in problem solving. Imagination means visualization. Learning to draw develops the portion of the brain that visualizes. Visualizing is used in all kinds of creative planning activities including charting, graphing, mapping, planning structures, planning
  12. 12. communities, and design of every kind. Creative workers employ drawing and visualization to check out many scenarios before they make decisions. While planning a creative project, drawings are constantly being modified and refined. Creative planners have learned to expect the drawing process to bring out many new ideas that would have been missed otherwise. Drawings allow creative collaborations with non-drawing participants whose creativity is facilitated by the drawings. Drawing for a creative worker is a dynamic conversation with the plan and the other stakeholders. The drawing talks to the designers and the designers responds with new variations until the best possible outcome is realized. I once visited Don Reitz in Wisconsin after he had added an sizable addition to his house. Don was on the art faculty at the University of Wisconsin. He is a very creative potter and sculptor whose work is very expressive, but I do not believe he draws things before making them. The clay itself is his drawing material. He does very expressive work by responding directly to the material. Drawing first on paper would probably deflate his enthusiasm for the actual creative work. When he decided to have workers build an addition to his house, he decided to try the same approach. When the excavator came, they walked around, looked at the site, and decided where to dig, and so on. Everything worked out fairly well with a nice two story addition to his house. However, fairly late in the project they could not find a good place for a staircase between the two floors. To solve this, he had a fairly small spiral kit installed. Had he used drawings, he may have noticed this in time to create a more elegant solution that would allow easier and safer transport of furniture to the upper level. Drawing is not merely a medium of creative planning. Just like clay is the immediate, expressive, and vital "drawing" medium for Don Reitz, drawing on paper can also be a vital, expressive, and creative end product for may artists. When art teachers teach children how to learn observation drawing, they are facilitating creative thinking in many other areas of their lives. When we teach expressive drawing, we are engaged in actual creative thinking and acting. Children need to learn both. Every scribbling child is being expressive almost without knowing it. Observation skill practice can begin fairly young, and at least by grade one. Expressive work should also continue to be nurtured. Without deliberate drawing instruction, only a small percentage of children learn to draw because most children lack the instinct to keep drawing on their own as soon as their critical sensitivities outpace their observation drawing skills. Only a few people would learn to read and write without teachers. Most would give up without teachers or parents to coach this learning. In such a culture, we might say they that most people lack the talent to read and write. That in fact is the culture we now have in many communities in regard to observation drawing. Children do not learn how to learn drawing because they do not have art teachers or they have art teachers who do not know how to teach drawing. In the US about 40 percent of the elementary schools do not have art teachers. This important mind development is missed and much creativity is missed when this tool is abandoned during our development. Art teachers need to help children begin to make visual comparisons and represent them in their drawings. I use lots of open questions that remind children to observe more carefully. I do not draw in front of the students because it encourages them to copy my drawing and they still do not learn to observe. I go over to the thing being observed and
  13. 13. carefully point out how to notice things. I ask them to practice drawing in the air while observing before committing pencil to paper. Students are asked to notice contour, size, texture, value gradations, proportions, and every kind of relationship in the thing, person, or animal observed. I ask them to use a pencil at arm's length as a sighting device to compare sizes, angles, and so on. I often encourage the use of touch, and include smell, taste, and sound as motivation and when experiencing the world. I avoid copy work, formulas, and drawing tricks. I do not give answers, but encourage experimentation and exploration to find answers. I provide aides to observation including viewfinders to frame compositions and pencil blinders (a square of tag board with the pencil through it) to to hide the paper and encourage looking at the thing being observed. When mistakes are obvious to the student, I encourage another line before erasing the mistake. "Don't nix it until you fix it." Sometimes three or four tries are needed, but this is learning. The purpose of practice is to make it easy and to make it better. RITUALIZE IT Drawing is learned with regular practice. A few minutes of drawing practice time becomes a classroom ritual for every art class session. Art is much more than drawing, but there is probably nothing more basic than drawing. Observation and expressive drawing are the descriptive and expressive reading and writing of the brain's visual development. The brain's visual development is basic to the brain's facility to imagine, to do visual scenario making, and to be creative. Therefore, teaching observation and expressive drawing is a basic part of teaching creativity. IS ART LEARNED FROM RULES or FORMULAS? Drawing is but one part of art. But even in drawing, creative art teachers realize that drawing is not a series of learned rules about standard subject matter. Creative artists are not concerned that a cow from certain angle can be drawn by combining five triangles in a clever way. Much of good drawing is actually the product of seeing and observational ability. It is a mental acuity learned through practice. Instead of learning rules, copying standard images and proportions, students need to be shown how artists actually look at their world and the things, animals, and people in it. Teachers need to walk over to the thing being observed and explain how to look at it--not show some standard way that it should look in a drawing. I do not demonstrate drawing because I do not want students to learn to copy my drawing. I go the thing being drawn and move my finger according to the way I see the thing. I show how to measure to get honest proportions from observations--not from other people's pictures. Drawing is learned by learning to observe proportions by visually measuring from actual people, animals and objects – not by copying pictures that other observers have created. Drawing is learned by noticing tonal changes as lighting changes. Drawing is learned by learning to see the relative size, clarity, and brightness of near and distant objects. Expressive drawing, painting, sculpture, and so on grows out of intense and extensive experimentation with materials and processes, by working slowly and deliberately, by working fast and spontaneously, by combining the methods, and then attending to the results, not by learning any rules of drawing. Imaginative drawing is learned by making many lists or thumbnail sketches of ideas that grow out of experiences – not by copying
  14. 14. another artist's surrealistic images. Creativity is learned when learners find out that their risks bring rewards. Formulas imply a safe answer. They encourage sticking with safe systems rather than taking the risk to learn how to learn a new ability. In the US, even the National Standards of Art Education do not list observational drawing as an essential ability or standard. Observation drawing is apparently seen as optional for those who enjoy it. What would happen if writing and reading were considered optional for those who enjoy learning to write and to read? “That's okay, I can't read either” is not commonly heard in the classroom. Too many children shy away from art or find little joy in it because they suffer under the illusion that they are not talented. This is because they have never been exposed to a few simple methods used to practice observation drawing and overcome their childish methods of rendition. Observation drawing teaches us that we can truly trust the truth of our own observations more that what others tell us about truth. Drawing from memories and experiences is a second source of inspiration for drawing. Preschool children who have progressed beyond the scribbling stage, nearly always draw from their experiences. Teachers and parents can encourage and enrich creative self expression and creative thinking habits of young children by asking them relevant open questions (questions with multiple correct answers) while they are drawing. If we want to encourage creative thinking, these kind of questions never suggest or dictate, but they help and encourage children to think of more ideas to include in their work. More of what they know becomes visible in their drawings. The work is also more creative and richer when the experiences themselves have been enriched. For example, if a child has visited a zoo with a caregiver who actively discusses the animals with the child, she is apt to make much more creative artwork related to this experience than another child who visited the same zoo with a passive caregiver. Drawing from the imagination is a third and particularly creative source of inspiration for drawing and other other artwork . Young children have a strong instinct to imagine which seems to decrease rapidly as they go through school. We cannot say for certain why the imagination seems to decrease so much as children age. We do believe that constant pressure to have come up with one right answer, to copy things in workbooks, color in other people's pictures, and similar activities all conspire to discourage creative and imaginative divergent thinking and problems solving. Learning of experiment with art materials in order to see how they create their effects is a good way to encourage creative and imaginative thinking and counteract some of the stultifying influences of becoming cultured and trained to conform. Drawing and other artwork is inspired by three sources that enhance our creativity. They are observation, experience, and imagination. Lesson that are based on rules, copywork, examples, and demonstrations are less apt to encourage creativity. This is not to say that there are constraints. Good teaching has many constraints and limitations in order focus thinking and ensure creativity. Should Art Teachers Teach the Visual Elements and Principles of Composition Some teachers feel that the visual elements and the principles of design are the basic structure of art. It is thought that if we teach the basic structure, art will happen. That was
  15. 15. a modern art idea developed during the 1930's. Hmm? I'm sorry, but art has turned out to be a bit messier than that. I do believe the elements and principles still have some utility for artists. However, they are too limiting and simplistic. They fail to acknowledge content, symbol, meaning, and untraditional ways of being artistic. Every artwork is different and there is no simple system that covers everything not yet imagined. If there are any final equations, computer programs, verbal pronouncements, or whatever, that give a final definition to art we will have witnessed the final implosion of truth, beauty, and imagination. In the meantime, there is little harm in working at definitions and tentative rules so long as we also agree to live with uncertainty and change. Rather than teaching the elements and principles as predetermined truth, a teacher interested in fostering creative thinking might be well advised to ask students to experiment in ways they might postulate and arrive at compositional principles on their own. Just as education is better when we learn invention than how to make previously invented products, it is better to learn principle finding and verification rather than learning principles determined by dead experts at another time and place. It is very creative to ask students to define a set of principles that can be used to assess their own work. It is creative to ask students to figure out how the old standard elements and principles might have been determined? As in life, if there are rules, they are more likely to be things like: pay attention, make comparisons, verify, be skeptical, look before you leap, and so on. The traditional design principles can guide, but not determine the process, and they certainly do not determine the art product.- top of article Teach creativity by giving TIME FOR THE CREATIVE PROCESS Assign HOMEWORK OF THE MIND As an artist I spend lots of time contemplating next projects - sometimes months or years before doing the project. For me, some sketching is a good way to focus the issues and get this process started. Additionally, much of this brain work seems to be subliminal. My mind can be working on things behind the scenes. Every part of daily experience has potential for an art project. This kind of homework is no work. When I actually start working I have a gathered lots of new insights - some recorded and some without knowing it. As an artist, I am not merely a knowledge worker, but a mind worker. It is not merely what I know, it is what I can now do with what I know. In organizing the sequence of mind training and creativity training lessons, are there ways to ritualize and focus advance preparation, discussions, questions, and sketching sessions that promote thinking, looking, more sketching, dreaming, and idea development for lessons that are coming in the future. Are there ways to encourage and reward the keeping track of art ideas that come to mind at unexpected times? When I leave my studio my hands-on work is interrupted. I may even leave because I am experiencing a block, but my mind keeps working - my homework is continuing with the expectation that my mind will inform me of the next move. Good teachers prepare their students so that when their students leave the classroom their minds are prepared for homework that is no work. They expect to get ideas at unexpected times. This is homework that is no work in the traditional sense. Good teachers understand the surreal powers of subconscious minds, of imagination, and of creative thinking habits.
  16. 16. The creative process includes preparation, incubation, insight, elaboration, and evaluation. Classrooms that include preparation, incubation, and insight might need to juggle two or three projects at once. What are the class rituals and concept questions that get the wheels turning so that dreams and imaginations are ignited. I have often been tempted to use shortcuts such as showing examples of other art to get quick inspiration and information as a substitute for relevant self-referential thinking. But what are the ways to define artistic challenges in ways that to give the students the courage to develop and express their own ideas? This takes time. It means practice sessions, question session, and list making rituals.This means setting aside time that is days or weeks in advance of the actual production to get students focused and thinking. It means programming their minds to do the subconscious incubation homework that helps bring insight to the table when the production starts. We know that homework works best when we develop rituals of accountability and when we make a point of rewarding successes. What are the classroom rituals that give credit and honor to the students when they show evidence of subliminal ideas that have been recorded and brought to class and infused in their creative work? How often do we take class time to investigate the sources of our own creative ideas? SELF ASSESSMENT AS CREATIVE TEACHING? As a teacher, how often do I teach “another one of those” lessons? Can I justify it because I am still learning how to teach? As a creative teacher, it is my responsibility to review the results of a lesson or a unit. As I assess the results, it is my responsibility to imagine other ways the lesson could have been taught. It may be a year before I teach a similar unit again, will I remember what needs to be changed? Will I remember to start mentioning it sooner so that my students' subconscious minds start their homework sooner? A creative teacher needs a good system to record ideas for next year? I am thankful for computers to make this easier. For a number of years I had college art students who were required to observe some of the best art teachers in the public schools in our area. My students had to journal their observations. Even though they saw very impressive methods, I required that their notes and ideas include alternative ways of teaching a similar lesson. Also, their journal must include some critical thinking about the pros and cons of “another way” of teaching what they observe. It is fairly easy for apprentice teachers to learn by imitating their model teachers. However, creative teachers go beyond imitating their role models. They go beyond their mentors. They do this by virtue of critical review of their own teaching – by carefully reviewing what happens and then searching for alternative things to try. Creative teachers make mistakes, but but they also search for ways to overcome mistakes. Each time they try something, they review the outcomes and try to imagine ways to make improvements. If I am an uncreative teacher, it may be because I do not feel that I make mistakes. I know I am teaching in the same way I was taught. My instinct to imitate says I am doing okay. I may admit to some bad outcomes, but in my uncreative mind I blame my students for the bad outcomes. I say, “Nobody can teach correctly for every student in a class and certainly I should not be held responsible for an unmotivated or ‘mentally challenged’ student. Students have to do their part.” If I tend to make excuses for what should be changed in my teaching, I will not be a creative teacher. On the other hand, if I have a habit of looking for new alternative methods, I am likely to be a creative teacher.
  17. 17. Considering colleagues and bosses Unfortunately, studies show that many school administrators do not rate highly creative teachers as their best teachers. Along with the propensity to be creative, these teachers may be less predictable, and maybe in some cases be less amenable to school policies. Creative people are not only more fluent and flexible. They are also more skeptical and may be less respectful of authority. They may be more impulsive, more brash, more daring, and may be lacking in some social skills. From this, we need to be warned that not everybody will appreciate our creative efforts so much that they will overlook our personality faults. The more creative we are, the more important it is for us to be good communicators and graceful colleagues. ----end of essay--The author invites your comments and questions. Contact the author If you are an art teachers interested in doing some research on creativity, on learning to draw, or on the relationship of art and learning to think, or some other issue, send me a note. Click here for a list of issues of particular interest to the author. 1 Harris, Judith. The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do. 1998. Simon and Schuster, New York. 2 Kotulak, Ronald. "Word Test Used to Spot Creative Geniuses." Chicago Tribune, October 2, 1983, page 1. This article describes research by Albert Rothenberg. 3 Rothenberg, Albert. "Creative Contradictions" Psychology Today, June, 1979. Pages 5579. This article describes Rothenberg's theory of the way in which creative people can solve problems and produce innovations by seeing the logic of simultaneous opposites. 4 Langer, Suzzane K. Problems of Art. 1957. Charles Schribner's Sons, New York. ------------5 A few art teachers succeed with self-taught artists because they understand how fragile many self-taught artists are. These teachers put the first emphasis on learning new observation skills. They use blind contour drawing and humor. They encourage linemaking for fun like a music teacher might play noise games as a warm up. These teachers do not worry about pointing out mistakes. When the students begin to notice their own mistakes, the teacher knows how to use questions that help help students learn to see and eventually answer their own questions. When these teachers see bad habits, they know how to raise questions that get the students to notice things. The questions can be phrased in ways that are face saving for the student. A teacher can fein ignorance, by saying, "I can't quite see what you intend here. Do you want me to see it coming forward or going back? What am I missing?" These teachers teach creativity because their students move from being dependent to being independent learners that think about what they see - not merely copy. They learned how artists solve visual problems.