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  1. 1. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e (Comprehensive)CHAPTER 1REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. Why is all data stored in a computer in binary form?Binary is the format that the computer “understands,” not a programming language or a humanlanguage. All instructions between hardware and software in a computer are reduced to a simpleyes or no, a state of on or off. 2. What are the four primary functions of hardware?Input, processing, output, and storage 3. What are the two main input devices and two main output devices?The two main input devices are the keyboard and the mouse. The two main output devices are themonitor and the printer. 4. What three things do electronic hardware devices need in order to function?A method for the CPU to communicate with the device, software to instruct and control thedevice, and electricity to power the device 5. How many bits are in a byte?Eight 6. What is the purpose of an expansion slot on a motherboard?An expansion slot on a motherboard is used for an expansion card, which enables a device that isnot on the motherboard to communicate with the CPU. 7. Which component on the motherboard is used primarily for processing?
  2. 2. The CPU (central processing unit), also called the processor 8. Name three CPU manufacturers.Possible answers: Intel, AMD, Cyrix, IBM 9. What technology is most often used today to manufacture microchips?CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) 10. What are two other names for the system bus?Possible answers: memory bus, host bus, front side bus, external bus 11. What are two other names for the motherboard?Main board, system board 12. What are the two basic types of cables found inside a computer case and what are their basic functions?A data cable used for passing data between devices and a power cable used to supply power to adevice. 13. List three types of ports that are often found coming directly off the motherboard to be used by external devices.Possible answers: serial port, parallel port, USB port, network port, FireWire or 1394 port, mouseport, keyboard port, S/PDIF port, sound port, wireless LAN antenna port 14. What is the purpose of the S/PDIF port?The S/PDIF port connects to an external home theater audio system, providing digital output andthe best signal quality. 15. List three kinds of memory modules.SIMMs (single inline memory modules), DIMMs (dual inline memory modules), RIMMs 16. What is the difference between volatile and nonvolatile memory?
  3. 3. Volatile memory is temporary and needs a constant electrical charge to hold data. Nonvolatilememory is permanent and holds memory even when electricity is turned off. 17. Of the two types of storage in a system, which type is generally faster and holds data and instructions while the data is being processed? Which type of storage is generally slower, but more permanent?Primary storage, secondary storage 18. What technology standard provides for up to four devices on a system, including the hard drive as one of those devices? What are two common industry names loosely used to describe this standard?ATA (AT attachment), also called EIDE (enhanced integrated drive electronics) or IDE 19. What is the size of the data path on most system buses today?64 bits 20. What is the measurement of frequency of a system bus and CPU? Which is faster, the system bus or the CPU?Frequency is generally measured in Hz, MHz, or GHz. The CPU is faster than the system bus. 21. Name four types of buses that are likely to be on a motherboard today.Possible answers: PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect), AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port),ISA (Industry Standard Architecture), system bus, PCI Express 22. A power supply receives 120 volts of ___ power from a wall outlet and converts it to 3.3, 5, and 12 volts of ____ power.AC, DC
  4. 4. 23. ROM BIOS or firmware chips that can be upgraded without replacing the chips are called ________.Flash ROM 24. CMOS setup allows a technician to change configuration settings on a motherboard stored in ______.CMOS RAM 25. Name three examples of secondary storage devices.Some possible answers: CD drive, hard drive, floppy drive, DVD drive, Zip drive 26. A hertz is ________ cycle per second; a megahertz is ________ cycles per second, and a gigahertz is ________ cycles per second.One, one million, and one billion27. An AGP slot is normally used for a(n) _______ expansion card.Video28. How many sizes of PCI Express slots are currently manufactured for personal computers?Four29. Name the three purposes the motherboard ROM BIOS serves.The BIOS is used to manage simple devices (system BIOS), to start the computer (startup BIOS),and to change settings on the motherboard (CMOS setup).
  5. 5. 30. From where does CMOS RAM receive its power?CMOS RAM is powered by a trickle of electricity from a small battery located on themotherboard or computer case.THINKING CRITICALLY1. When selecting secondary storage devices for a new desktop PC, which is more important, a CD-ROM drive or a floppy drive? Why?A CD-ROM drive is more important, because most software today is distributed on CD.2. Based on what you have learned in this chapter, when working on a Word document, why is it important to save your work often? Explain your answer using the two terms, primary storage and secondary storage.It is important because data is temporarily stored in RAM or primary storage, which is volatile. Ifthe power is lost, all data in primary storage is lost. In order to secure the data, it must be copiedfrom primary storage to secondary storage, such as a hard drive or floppy disk, which isnonvolatile or permanent storage.3. Most buses are 16, 32, 64, or 128 bits wide. Why do you think these bus widths are multiples of eight?Because everything in a computer is stored and processed in binary, and 1 byte equals 8 bits4. Why would it be difficult to install four hard drives, one CD-ROM drive, and one DVD drive in a single low-end system?These types of drives are normally EIDE devices, and most low-end systems can only hold fourEIDE devices. Also, most computer cases do not have enough bays to hold this many drives.5. In this chapter, a light bulb is used to demonstrate the binary concept used for computer storage and communication. Give another example in everyday life to explain this binary concept.
  6. 6. Get creative.Possible answer: A water hydrant is either on or off. It is difficult to measure the amount of watercoming out of the hydrant, but not difficult to decide if the water is off or on.6. If the CMOS battery inside your computer system died, when you first turn on your system, will you expect the system to boot up normally to the operating system level? What information do you think the system would not have available for a successful boot?No, the system will not boot normally because the configuration information would not beavailable. This information includes the type of hard drive and floppy drive installed and the bootsequence.7. Why is it more accurate to describe the CPU and motherboard bus using the term frequency rather than speed? Explain your answer.It is more accurate to describe the CPU and motherboard with the term frequency than speedbecause the term speed implies there is a continuous motion or flow of data, whereas frequencysuggests a digital or binary flow of data. Frequency is more accurate because computertechnology is built using the binary on/off system.Chapter 2REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. List four major functions of an OS.It manages hardware; runs applications; provides an interface for users; and stores, retrieves, andmanipulates files. 2. Which operating system is only used on Apple Macintosh computers?Mac OS
  7. 7. 3. Which operating system was developed by Microsoft using core components of OS/2 and was meant to replace OS/2?Windows NT 4. What is the next Microsoft operating system for desktop computers to be released in 2007?Windows Vista 5. Which operating system often used for server applications is a scaled-down version of Unix?Linux 6. Why did many users choose not to upgrade to Windows Me?Users did not feel it was a significant upgrade from Windows 98. 7. What Microsoft OS is an upgrade of Windows 2000?Windows XP 8. What are three possible interfaces an OS provides to the user? Briefly explain the functions of each.Command-Driven – The user types in commands to tell the OS what operations to perform. Thistype of interface is like that of DOS commands and is often preferred by computer techs whoknow this DOS-like command.Menu-Driven – The OS allows the user to choose from a list of options in order to perform anygiven operation.Icon-Driven – Also known as GUI, the OS allows a user to choose from icons or pictures on thescreen in order to perform any given operation. Most operating systems today offer both a menu-driven as well as an icon-driven interface.
  8. 8. 9. Which file system is used by floppy disks?FAT 10. What are two file systems used by hard drives?FAT and NTFS 11. Real mode operates using a(n) ___-bit data path, and protected mode uses a(n) ____-bit data path.16, 32 12. Which Microsoft operating system(s) support 16-bit device drivers or 32-bit device drivers?Windows 95 or Windows 98 (DOS, Windows Me, and Windows NT/2000/XP do not.) 13. Real mode allows programs direct access to ____, but protected mode does not.hardware devices including memory 14. List three types of information that are kept in the Windows registry.OS configuration data, user settings, application settings 15. List four ways to launch an application from the Windows desktop.• By double-clicking a shortcut icon on the desktop• By clicking Start, pointing to Programs, and selecting the program from a list of installed software• By using the Run command from the Start menu• By double-clicking a filename in My Computer or Windows Explorer 16. Give two situations in which Windows keystroke shortcuts might be useful.Keyboard shortcuts are sometimes faster for experienced typists, and they are useful when themouse is not usable during some troubleshooting situations. 17. How do you access the Display Properties window? What are two settings you can change from this window?
  9. 9. Right-click anywhere on the desktop and select Properties from the shortcut menu or use theDisplay applet in Control Panel to access Display Properties. From this window, you can changethe background, screen saver, color scheme, icon settings, color range, screen resolution, screenrefresh rate, and drivers. 18. What Windows 2000/XP and Windows 9x utility allows you to update the device driver for a device?Device Manager 19. Users and applications depend on what to relate to all hardware components?Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all hardware components. 20. Every operating system has two main internal components. The ________ relates to the user and to applications and provides a command, menu, or icon interface, whereas, the ________ is responsible for interfacing with the hardware.Shell, kernel 21. What command can you enter in the Run dialog box to launch Device Manager?Devmgmt.msc 22. Applets in the Control Panel are stored as program files with what file extension?.cpl 23. What Windows 2000/XP tool can you use to view the number of partitions used by a hard drive?Disk Management 24. What command can you enter in the Run dialog box to launch the Windows 2000/XP System Information utility?Msinfo32.exe 25. Which Windows operating system(s) allow more than one user to be logged on simultaneously, each having his own open applications?
  10. 10. Windows XP 26. When using Linux, what is the purpose of an X Windows application?To provide a GUI shell for Linux 27. What command can you enter in the Run dialog box of Windows 2000/XP to launch the Disk Management utility?Diskmgmt.msc 28. A floppy drive is divided into tracks, which are divided into sectors. How large is each sector?512 bytes 29. What is the name of the file used by Windows 2000/XP to hold data and instructions in virtual memory?Pagefile.sys 30. Which of the two OS core components includes the Windows desktop? Which of the two OS core components includes the Windows memory manager?Shell, kernel 31. What is the purpose of the Boot Camp software on a Mac?To allow Windows to be installed as a dual boot alone with the Mac OS 32. What type of data is contained in files that have an .ini or .inf file extension?These file extensions generally relate to initialization files. This file, along with a registry,maintains information necessary for hardware/software configuration, user preferences, andapplication settings. 33. In Windows XP Device Manager, how do you uninstall a device?Right-click on the device and select Uninstall from the shortcut menu. 34. What is the Windows keyboard shortcut to move from one loaded application to another? To display the Start menu from the Windows desktop? To close the active application
  11. 11. window? To shutdown Windows when no applications are loaded?Alt + Tab, Win or Ctrl+Esc, Alt+F4, Alt+F4THINKING CRITICALLY 1. Is a mouse more likely to be controlled by a device driver or by system BIOS?By a device driver 2. Name one device that is likely to be controlled by system BIOS.Possible answers: floppy disk drive, hard drive, keyboard, video 3. If your printer is giving you trouble, what is the best way to obtain an update for the device driver?Download the latest driver from the device manufacturer’s Web site. 4. What Windows tool can you use to know how much RAM is installed on your system?Possible answers: System Properties, System Information 5. Why is 16-bit Windows software considered to be legacy software?16-bit Windows software is considered to be legacy software because it is software written forWindows 3.x and data is accessed at 16 bits at a time; whereas computers running Windows 95 orlater OSs use 32-bit or 64-bit programs written to be able to access 32 or 64 bits of data at a time.Chapter 3Reviewing the Basics 1. What is the difference between a hard boot and a soft boot?A hard boot usually involves restarting the computer by pressing the on/off switch. A soft boot isperformed from the operating system, such as by pressing the key combination Ctrl+Alt+Del orby choosing a Restart option from the Shut Down dialog box. 2. What are the four main parts of the boot process?• BIOS checks hardware through POST.• The ROM BIOS program searches for and loads an OS.
  12. 12. • The OS configures the system and completes its own loading.• The user executes application software. 3. What memory address is always assigned to the first instruction in the ROM BIOS startup program?FFFF0h 4. How does startup BIOS communicate errors during POST if video is not yet available?Beep codes 5. Name the program that is needed to locate the beginning of the OS on a drive.The MBR (master boot record) 6. List three types of information contained in a hard drive’s partition table.• How many partitions are present• Where each partition begins and ends• Which partition is the active partition 7. What is the name of the Windows NT/2000/XP boot loader program?Ntldr 8. How many startup disks are needed to boot Windows 2000 from a floppy disk?Four 9. When troubleshooting a failed boot, if you don’t see any lights or hear any noises, what hardware system do you first assume is at fault?The electrical system 10. When booting your computer and you see a blank screen, but hear a single beep, what can you assume worked with no errors?POST 11. When booting your computer and you see a blank screen, but hear a single beep, what component should you check first?
  13. 13. The monitor or monitor cable 12. Using the rule “trade good for suspected bad,” describe how to easily troubleshoot a video problem.Exchange the suspected bad monitor for one you know is good. If that does not help, tryexchanging the video card. 13. Give five possible questions that should be asked of a user who is experiencing computer problems.• Possible answers:• What procedure was taking place at the time?• What had just happened?• What recent changes did the user make?• When did the computer last work?• What has happened in the meantime?• What error messages did the user see? 14. What is the best way to document intermittent problems?Keep a log of when the problems appear and exactly what error messages occur. 15. Using Windows, list the steps to print a screen that shows an error message.• In Windows, the Print Screen key copies the displayed screen to the Clipboard.• Launch the Paint software accessory program and paste the contents of the Clipboard into the document. You might need to use the Zoom Out command on the document first. You can then print the document with the displayed screen, using Paint. You can also paste the contents of the Clipboard into a document created by a word-processing application such as Word. 16. What preventive maintenance measures need to be done inside the case at least once a year?• Make sure air vents are clear.
  14. 14. • Use compressed air to blow the dust out of the case, or use a vacuum to clean vents, power supply, and fan.• Ensure that chips and expansion cards are firmly seated. 17. List at least three tasks you should complete before moving or shipping a computer.• Back up the hard drive.• Remove any floppy disks, tape cartridges, or CDs from the drives.• Turn off power to the PC and all other devices.• Disconnect all power cords and external devices.• Label cables and cable connections.• Coil all external cords and secure them with twist ties or rubber bands.• Pack all components in their original boxes or in similar boxes with sufficient packing material. 18. How do you properly dispose of a battery pack from a notebook computer? A broken monitor? A toner cartridge from a laser printer?Battery pack from notebook computer: Return to original dealer or take to a recycling center.Broken monitor: Check with local county or environmental officials for laws about disposal. Taketo recycling center if available. In all cases, discharge monitor before disposing of it.Laser toner cartridge: Return to dealer or manufacturer to be recycled. 19. If you are unsure how to properly dispose of a can of contact cleaner, how can you find out the acceptable method of disposal?Check the MSDS of the cleaner. 20. What two tools can be used to remove dust from inside a computer case?Compressed air or anti-static vacuum cleaner 21. What are three types of ribbon cables you might find inside a PC?40-conductor IDE cable, 80-conductor IDE cable, 34-pin floppy drive cable
  15. 15. 22. Why is it important to not rock an expansion card from side to side as you remove it from its slot?You can widen the slot and weaken the connection. 23. What type of expansion card can have a retention mechanism at the bottom of the card to help stabilize it in the slot?A video card 24. Name three tools that you can use to protect a system against ESD as you work on it.Ground bracelet, ground mat, antistatic gloves 25. If you suspect that a USB port is faulty, what tool can you use to test the port?Loop-back plugTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. As a help-desk technician, list some good detective questions to ask if the user calls to say, “My PC won’t boot.”What is the nature of the problem? Does the problem occur before or after the boot? Does anerror message display? Does the system hang at certain times? Start from a cold boot and dowhatever you must do to cause the problem to occur. What are the specific steps you took toduplicate the problem? 2. Starting with the easiest procedures, list five things to check if your PC does not boot.• Make sure everything is plugged in and all cable connections are solid.• Boot into Safe Mode and eliminate customized configuration in the OS.• Boot from the recovery CD.• Eliminate any unnecessary hardware devices.• Disconnect the network card, CD-ROM drive, mouse, and maybe even the hard drive. 3. Someone calls saying he has attempted to install a modem, but the modem does not work. List the first four questions you ask.
  16. 16. Answers will vary. Here are some possible ones:• What operating system are you using?• Can you see the modem listed in Device Manager with no errors?• Is the modem an internal or external device?• Have you ever installed a modem before this one? 4. If a PC boots first to the hard drive before checking the floppy disk for an OS, how do you change this boot sequence so that it first looks on the floppy disk for an OS?Make the change in CMOS setup.Chapter 4REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. Volts are a measure of what characteristic of electricity?The potential difference in a circuit 2. What is the normal voltage of house electricity in the U.S.?110 volts to 120 volts 3. Hot wires in home wiring are normally colored ____ and ground wires in computers are normally colored _____.Black, black 4. What is the difference between a transformer and a rectifier? Which are found in a PC power supply?A rectifier is a device that converts alternating current to direct current. A transformer is a devicethat changes the ratio of current to voltage. A computer power supply functions as both. 5. What are the five voltages produced by an ATX or BTX power supply?+5, -5, +12, -12, and +3.3 6. What is the purpose of the 4-pin auxiliary connector on a motherboard?To provide extra voltage for a processor
  17. 17. 7. How many pins does the main power connector on a BTX board have?24 pins 8. When taking a computer apart, why is it important to not stack boards on top of each other?You could accidentally dislodge a chip. 9. Describe the purpose of the ground line in a house circuit. What is the electrical symbol for ground?The electricity on the hot line is seeking the path of least resistance, which is usually throughsome device that controls its current flow as it moves to the neutral line that goes back to thepower source. Sometimes there is an easier path than through any controlling device, and theelectricity follows that path, causing a short. This sudden increase in the flow of electricity canharm a person or a piece of equipment. The ground line keeps the uncontrolled flow of electricityfrom continuing indefinitely.The symbol for ground is a vertical line with three horizontal lines underneath it, as shown inFigure 4-5. 10. What is the basic electronic building block of an integrated circuit?The transistor 11. Why is a power supply dangerous even after the power is disconnected?Capacitors inside a PC power supply create the even flow of current needed by the PC.Capacitors maintain their charge long after current is no longer present, which is why the insideof a power supply can be dangerous even when power is disconnected. 12. What is the symbol for a diode?The symbol for a diode is a vertical and horizontal line with an arrow head at the point ofintersection of the two lines. See Figure 4-16. 13. What is a simple way to detect EMI?
  18. 18. On an inexpensive AM radio, turn the tuning dial away from a station into a low-frequency range.With the radio on, you can hear the static produced by EMI. Try putting the radio next to severalelectronic devices to detect the EMI they emit. 14. What is an unintended, high-current, closed connection between two points in a circuit called?A short, or short circuit 15. Which form factor uses a riser card on the edge of the motherboard?NLX 16. List four types of computer case form factors. What is the most popular type of form factor for PCs today?Possible answers: AT, ATX, BTX, LPX, NLX, and backplane form factors. The most popular isATX. 17. List three advantages an ATX system has over a Baby AT system.It makes it easier to add and remove components, provides greater support for I/O devices, andlowers costs. 18. List four computer symptoms that indicate a faulty power supply.• The PC sometimes halts during booting. After several tries, it boots successfully.• Error codes or beep codes occur during booting, but the errors come and go.• The computer stops or hangs for no reason. Sometimes it might even reboot itself.• Memory errors appear intermittently.• Data is written incorrectly to the hard drive.• The keyboard stops working at odd times.• The motherboard fails or is damaged.• The power supply overheats and becomes hot to the touch. 19. According to ACPI standards, the S1 mode causes what two devices to stop using power?
  19. 19. Hard drive and monitor 20. What is another name for the ACPI standard S4 mode?Hibernation 21. What power management standard is older than ACPI and has mostly been replaced by ACPI?APM 22. How can you easily tell if a computer is designed to comply with Green Standards?See whether it displays the green Energy Star logo onscreen when the PC is booting. 23. What unit of measure is used to describe the amount of work a surge suppressor can do before it stops protecting the circuit from an electrical surge?Joule 24. Why is it important to have an indicator light on a surge suppressor?It is important so you can tell when the surge suppressor is no longer providing protection againsta power surge. 25. What are the two main types of uninterruptible power supplies?Standby and inline 26. How does a smart UPS differ from one that is not smart?A smart UPS can be controlled by software from a computer to allow additional functionality. 27. If you are asked to identify the form factor of a motherboard, what are two criteria you can use to help you identify the board?Look for how the expansion slots are oriented in reference to the CPU and look for the type ofpower connector the board is using. 28. What are three motherboard form factors that can be used with a compact case?NLX, LPX, or mini-LPX 29. What is one thing you can regularly do to prevent a computer system from overheating?Remove the dust from the inside of the case.
  20. 20. 30. Which type of case form factor is best designed to keep a system cool?BTXTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. How much power is consumed by a load drawing 5 A with 120 V across it?600 watts 2. You suspect that a power supply is faulty, but you use a multimeter to measure its voltage output and find it to be acceptable. Why is it still possible that the power supply may be faulty?IT is because problems with power supplies are intermittent (they can come and go). 3. Someone asks you for help with a computer that hangs at odd times. You turn it on and work for about 15 minutes, and then the computer freezes and powers down. What do you do first?• Replace the surge protector.• Replace the power supply.• Turn the PC back on, go into CMOS setup, and check the temperature reading.• Install an additional fan.• Turn the PC back on, go into CMOS setup, and check the temperature reading. 4. When working on a computer, which of the following best protects against ESD? Why?• Always touch the computer case before touching a circuit board inside the case.• Always wear an antistatic bracelet clipped to the side of the case.• Always sit a computer on an antistatic mat when working on it.Chapter 5REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. If a motherboard has a slot 1, what processor(s) is it designed to support?Pentium II or Pentium III 2. What was the first Intel processor to contain external cache?
  21. 21. Pentium Pro 3. When is it appropriate to use a Celeron rather than a Pentium 4 in a computer system?The Celeron is appropriate for use in low-end multimedia PCs to reduce total cost. 4. Which is more powerful, the current Celeron or the current Xeon processor?Xeon 5. Who is the major competitor of Intel in the processor market?AMD 6. Why did the competitors of the Intel Pentium II choose to stay with Socket 7 rather than use slot 1 for their competing processors?Because Intel patented slot 1 7. What components inside a computer case keep a processor cool?Fans, heat sinks, coolers 8. Describe the difference between a PGA socket and an SPGA socket.In a PGA (pin grid array) socket, pins are aligned in uniform rows around the socket. In an SPGA(staggered pin grid array) socket, the pins are staggered over the socket to squeeze more pins intoa smaller space. 9. Name a processor that requires dual voltage. How are the two voltages used?Pentium MMX, Cyrix M2, and AMD K6 processors all use dual voltage. These processors useone voltage for external operations and another for internal operations. 10. Name a processor that uses Socket A..AMD Athlon and AMD Duron 11. What are the four speeds of the most popular motherboards currently available on the market that support Intel processors?1066 MHz, 800 MHz, 533 MHz, and 400 MHz 12. Name three manufacturers of motherboard chip sets.
  22. 22. Intel, SiS, ALi Inc., Standard Microsystems Corp., United Microelectronics Corp., VIATechnologies Inc. combined with AMD Inc. 13. Beginning with the Intel i800 chip sets, what are the two main chips of the chip set called?North Bridge and South Bridge 14. What is the name for the bus that connects L2 cache to the processor inside the Pentium II processor housing?back-side bus, or cache bus 15. What is the word size of the Pentium family of processors?32 16. What is the data path size of the Front Side Bus of the Pentium family of processors?64 17. If a Pentium 4 Extreme Edition uses two ALU units inside the processor housing, how many ALU units does the Pentium D have?4 18. Why is a land socket preferred to a pin socket?Because the pins in a pin socket can be bent during installation 19. Explain the difference between the locations of discrete L2 cache and Advanced Transfer Cache.Discrete L2 cache is stored on a separate die inside the processor housing. Advanced TransferCache is stored on the same die as the processor core. 20. Which instruction set is used by the Itanium processors?EPIC 21. Which group of Intel processors uses a 32-bit word size and a 64-bit word size?Xeon
  23. 23. 22. Which Windows personal computing operating system(s) support Intel Hyper-Threading Technology?Windows XP 23. Name an AMD processor that uses dual-core processing.Athlon 64 X2 Dual-Core processor or the Opteron 24. What processor manufacturer once targeted the desktop processor market, but is now more focused on processors used for personal electronics?VIA 25. What is the latest socket used by Intel desktop processors?LGA775 land socketTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. When overclocking a system, what two problems are most likely to occur? a. “Low memory” errors b. An unstable system that causes intermittent errors c. Loss of hard drive space used by the overclocking virtual memory file d. Overheating (b) An unstable system that causes intermittent errors, and (d) Overheating 2. What must software developers do to take advantage of a 64-bit processor such as the Itanium?The software does not need to be rewritten, but it does need to be recompiled by the softwarecompiler (such as the COBOL or Visual Basic compiler) so that the software relates to the OSusing 64-bit access rather than the older 32-bit access. 3. You upgrade a Windows 98 system by upgrading a Pentium 4 processor to a Pentium4 Extreme Edition with HT. Now users complain to you that Windows hangs a lot and gives errors. What do you do first? a. Reinstall Windows 98. b. Upgrade Windows 98 to Windows XP.
  24. 24. c. Check CMOS setup to verify that hyper-threading is disabled. d. Check CMOS setup to verify that hyper-threading is enabled.The first thing you do is (c) Check CMOS setup to verify that hyper-threading is disabled. It’simportant to check the simple things first.Chapter 6REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. What are three main categories of form factors used for motherboards?AT, ATX, BTX 2. How many power cords connect to a Baby AT motherboard?Two 3. On the Enhanced ATX motherboard that supports PCI Express, how many pins does the P1 power connector have?24 4. What are the names of the two power connectors used on the AT motherboard form factors?P8 and P9 5. What is the name of the one power connector on the ATX motherboard form factor?P1 6. How many pins does the regular ATX power connector to the motherboard have? How many pins does the Enhanced ATX power connector to the motherboard have?20, 24 7. What are the three versions of the BTX form factor for motherboards?BTX, Micro BTX, Pico BTX 8. Name 10 components that are contained on a motherboard.
  25. 25. Processor, chip set, system clock, ROM BIOS, CMOS configuration chip, CMOS battery, RAM,RAM cache, system bus with expansion slots, jumpers and DIP switches, ports that are directlyon the board, power supply connections 9. What are two data bus widths used by the conventional PCI bus?32 bits, 64 bits 10. When people speak of bus size, to what are they specifically referring?The width of the data path on the bus, which can be 8, 16, 32, 64, or more bits. 11. What are the four speeds of the most popular motherboards currently available on the market that support Intel processors?1066 MHz, 800 MHz, 533 MHz, and 400 MHz 12. Name the three most popular manufacturers of system BIOS programs.AMI BIOS, Award BIOS, Compaq, Dell, IBM, Micro Firmware (BIOS upgrades), PhoenixBIOS, Unicore (BIOS upgrades) 13. Which is faster, a PCI Express x16 bus or the latest AGP bus?PCI Express x16 is about 4 times faster than the latest AGP bus 14. What is one reason to flash BIOS?To add new features made available by the BIOS manufacturer or to attempt to solve problemswith the motherboard 15. What is the easiest way to obtain the latest software to upgrade BIOS?Go to the Web site of the BIOS or motherboard manufacturer. 16. When examining a PCI expansion card, how can you tell what voltage(s) the card can use?The notches on the card connector are keyed to voltage requirements. A single notch near theback plate of the card is keyed to 3.3V. A notch near the end of the card indicates a 5V card andnotches in both positions indicate a universal card that can use either a 5V or 3.3V PCI slot. 17. What are the four categories of cargo that are carried over a bus?
  26. 26. Electrical power, control signals, memory addresses, and data 18. What bus is expected to replace AGP to support the video card in a system?PCI Express 19. What is the name of the BIOS program that edits the values in CMOS RAM?CMOS setup 20. Describe how you can access the CMOS setup program.By pressing certain keys (depending on the specific computer and CMOS program) during theboot processTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. Why does a motherboard sometimes support more than one system bus speed?So that it can support different processors running at different speeds 2. Why don’t all buses on a motherboard operate at the same speed?It is because not all devices to which the buses are connected transmit data at the same speed. Thespeeds of different hardware components are evolving at different rates. 3. When you turn off a computer at night, it loses the date, and you must reenter it each morning. What is the problem and how do you solve it?The CMOS battery is dead and needs replacing. 4. Why do you think the trend is to store configuration information on a motherboard in CMOS setup rather than by using jumpers or switches?Possible answers:• Because changing setup using jumpers or switches requires opening the computer case, and CMOS setup is easier to change• Because there are many more settings on today’s newer motherboards that would require too many jumpers and switches
  27. 27. 5. When troubleshooting a motherboard, you discover the modem port no longer works. What is the best and least expensive solution to this problem? a. Replace the motherboard b. Disable the modem port and install a modem card in an expansion slot. c. Use an external modem that connects to the serial or USB port. d. Return the motherboard to the factory for repair.All the above solutions might be possible. The least expensive and simplest solution is b. Disablethe modem port and install a modem card in an expansion slot. 6. A computer freezes at odd times. At first you suspect the power supply or overheating, but you have eliminated overheating and replaced the power supply without solving the problem. What do you do next? a. Replace the processor. b. Replace the motherboard. c. Reinstall Windows. d.Replace the memory modules. e.Flash BIOSTry the simple things first: Flash BIOSChapter 7REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. Name two ways that a SIMM and a DIMM are alike. Name two ways they are different.Both are rated by their speed and the amount of memory they hold, both store DRAM, and bothhave used EDO and FPM in the past. SIMMs hold smaller amounts of memory (from 256K to 16MB) than DIMMs (8 MB to 1 GB). SIMMs have a single connected pin on the edge connectorand DIMMs have individual pins or connectors on each side of the edge connector. SIMMs mustbe installed in pairs and DIMMs can be installed individually.
  28. 28. 2. How many pins are on a SDRAM DIMM? On a DDR DIMM? On a SIMM? On a RIMM?For DIMM, 168, 184, or 240; for SIMM, 30 or 72; for RIMM, 184 or 232 3. Which is likely to be more expensive, a 512-MB DIMM or a 512-MB RIMM? Why?A RIMM is more expensive, because Rambus holds the patent on the RIMM technology androyalties must be paid by the module manufacturer. 4. How many notches are on a DDR SDRAM module?One 5. What prevents a DDR DIMM from being installed in a DDR2 DIMM slot on a motherboard?The position of the one notch on the DIMM module 6. What component must be installed in every empty memory slot on a motherboard using Rambus technology?C-RIMM 7. What types of memory can be used on a 100-MHz motherboard?SDRAM and DDR SDRAM 8. Looking at an SDRAM DIMM, how can you know for certain the voltage needed by the module?Look at the notch on the right side of the module. 9. How many 30-pin SIMMs are installed in one bank?Four 10. How many 72-pin SIMMs are installed in one bank?Two 11. What are two speeds of RIMMs?800 MHz, 1066 MHz, 1200 MHz
  29. 29. 12. List at least four things you can do if you receive memory errors during a memory upgrade.Possible answers are:• Check that you have the right memory modules supported by your motherboard.• Check that you have installed the right module size, as stated in the motherboard documentation. Verify each module that was already installed or newly installed.• Remove and reinstall the module. Make sure it is seated in the socket at the same height as other modules.• Remove the newly installed memory and check whether the error message disappears. Try the memory in different sockets. Try installing the new memory without the old installed. If the new memory works without the old, then the problem is that the modules are not compatible.• Clean the module edge connectors with a soft cloth or contact cleaner. Blow or vacuum dust from the memory sockets.• Try flashing your BIOS. Perhaps BIOS is having problems with the new memory, which can be solved by a BIOS upgrade. 13. What might be a symptom in Windows of unreliable memory on a motherboard?A general protection fault or other memory error or the system freezes or hangs. 14. List at least four things you can do if you receive memory errors during normal operation when you have not recently upgraded memory.Possible answers:1. Run a current version of antivirus software to check for viruses.2. Run diagnostic software such as PC Technician or Memtest86 test memory.3. Are the memory modules properly seated? Remove and reinstall each one. For a DIMM module, try a different memory slot.
  30. 30. 4. Look for bent pins or chips installed the wrong way on cache memory.5. Replace memory modules one at a time. For example, if the system only recognizes six out of eight megabytes of RAM, swap the last two SIMM modules. Did the amount of recognized RAM change? You might be able to solve the problem just by reseating the modules.6. Sometimes a problem can result from a bad socket or a broken trace (a fine-printed wire or circuit) on the motherboard. If so, you might have to replace the entire motherboard.7. The problem might be with the OS or applications. Download the latest patch for the software from the manufacturer’s Web site.8. If you have just installed new hardware, the hardware device might be giving an error, which is interpreted by the OS as a memory error. Try uninstalling the new hardware.9. A Windows error that occurs randomly and contains “exception fault 0E at >>0137:BFF9z5d0” or similar text probably indicates a memory error. Test, reseat, or replace RAM. 15. If your motherboard calls for 60-ns memory, can you substitute 70-ns memory? Why or why not?The smaller the number, the faster the memory. You should not use memory slower than therecommended memory speed. 16. When buying memory, what can you look for that might indicate that the memory is remanufactured?If the date stamps on the chip are more than one year old, the memory is probably used. 17. Which memory module standard (RIMM or DIMM) is an open standard? Which standard is a copyrighted standard?DIMM, RIMM 18. What is the data path size of a SIMM? A current DIMM?32, 64
  31. 31. 19. What are the two current data path sizes of RIMMs?16, 32 20. What improvements did DDR make over regular SDRAM?Data is processed twice in one clock beat, doubling the speed of regular SDRAM 21. When a DIMM has chips on both sides of the module, do the pins on one side of the module work independently or dependent to pins on the other side of the module?Pins on each side work independently. 22. Which is faster, CL3 memory or CL5 memory?CL3 is faster than CL5 memory. 23. You are looking to purchase two DIMMs running at 400 MHz. You find DIMMs advertised at PC4000 and PC3200. Which do you purchase?PC3200 24. You need to find out how much RAM is installed in a system. What command do you enter in the Run dialog box to launch the System Information utility?Msinfo32 25. Although ECC memory costs more than non-ECC memory, why would you choose to use it?ECC memory is more reliable than non-ECC memory.THINKING CRITICALLY 1. If your motherboard supports DIMM memory, will RIMM memory still work on the board?No, you can only use the type of memory module the board is designed to support. 2. If your motherboard supports ECC SDRAM memory, can you substitute SDRAM memory that does not support ECC? If your motherboard supports buffered SDRAM memory, can you substitute unbuffered SDRAM modules?
  32. 32. You can substitute non-ECC memory on an ECC board, and the error-checking feature will beshown disabled in CMOS. You cannot use unbuffered SDRAM on a motherboard that supportsbuffered memory, because the notches on buffered DIMMs are in different positions than forunbuffered DIMMs. 3. You have just upgraded memory on a computer from 64 MB to 128 MB by adding one DIMM. When you first turn on the PC, the memory count shows only 64 MB. Which of the following is most likely the source of the problem? What can you do to fix it? a. Windows is giving an error because it likely became corrupted while the PC was disassembled. b. The new DIMM you installed is faulty. c. The new DIMM is not properly seated. d. The DIMM is installed in the wrong slot.The new DIMM is not properly seated. Turn off the PC and reseat the DIMM. Check that theDIMM is standing in the slot at the same height of the other DIMMs installed. 4. Your motherboard supports dual channeling and you currently have two slots used in Channel A on the board. You want to install an additional 512MB of RAM. Will your system run faster if you install two 256 MB DIMMs or one 512 MB DIMM? Explain your answer.The system will run faster if you install two DIMMs because dual channeling can be used if bothChannel B slots are filled. Dual channeling is faster than single channeling.Chapter 8REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. Name four ATA standards for interfacing with hard drives.Possible answers: IDE/ATA, ATA-2, Fast ATA, Parallel ATA, EIDE, ATA-3, ATA/ATAPI-4,Ultra ATA, Fast ATA-2, Ultra DMA, DMA/33, ATA/ATAPI-5, Ultra ATA/66, Ultra DMA/66,ATA/ATAPI-6, Ultra ATA/100, Ultra DMA/100, ATA/ATAPI-7, Ultra ATA/133, Serial ATA
  33. 33. 2. What are the two data transfer modes used by hard drives?PIO and DMA 3. What are the two types of parallel ATA data cables used with hard drives?80-conductor cable and 40-conductor cable 4. What is the name of the ATA standard that uses a serial data cable?Serial ATA 5. What are the two most popular spindle speeds measured in RPMs currently used for hard drives?5400 and 7200 6. How does serial ATA help keep a computer case cool better than parallel ATA?Because serial ATA cables are thinner, they do not hinder air flow as much as wider parallel ATAcables. 7. If a hard drive has three platters, how many heads does it have?Six 8. Given that there are 512 bytes per sector, calculate the hard drive storage for the following: heads = 32, tracks (cylinders) = 1,024, sectors/track = 63.1,056,964,608 bytes 9. What are three modes that system BIOS can use to relate to hard drives?CHS mode, ECHS mode (large mode), or LBA mode 10. Which mode must be used for a 10-GB hard drive?LBA mode 11. What is the ATA standard that changed the number of bits used to address data on a hard drive?ATA/ATAPI-6 12. How does block mode give faster access to a hard drive? How can you disable block mode?
  34. 34. Block mode enables multiple transfers of data on a single software interrupt. You can disableblock mode in CMOS setup. 13. When installing a hard drive and a CD-ROM drive on the same IDE channel, which do you configure as the master and which as the slave?The hard drive is the master and the CD-ROM is the slave. 14. What are three ATA hard drive interface standards that do not use a 40-conductor hard drive cable?ATA/ATAPI-4, ATA/ATAPI-5, ATA/ATAPI-6, ATA/ATAPI-7 15. Generally, which transfer mode is faster, DMA or PIO?DMA 16. When two drives are connected to the same data cable connected to an IDE channel, how does BIOS know which drive controls the channel?One drive is marked as master either by a jumper or DIP switch settings on the devices or byusing a special cable-select data cable. 17. If a motherboard has two parallel ATA connections, how many EIDE devices can the system support?Four 18. If a hard drive is too small to physically fit snugly into the drive bay, what can you do?Use a universal bay kit to fit the drive securely into the bay. 19. How can you tell which side of a hard drive’s data cable connects to pin 1 on the drive?You can tell by looking at the edge color on the data cable. Pin 1 should be closest to the powerconnection. 20. If your BIOS does not support a large-capacity drive that you want to install, what five choices do you have?Let the BIOS see the drive as a smaller drive.Upgrade the BIOS.
  35. 35. Upgrade the entire motherboard.Use software that interfaces between the older BIOS and the large-capacity drive.Use a controller card that provides the BIOS to substitute for system BIOS. 21. Which ATA standard allows for serial ATA and Serial Attached SCSI to coexist in the same system?AATA/ATAPI-7 22. What is the name of the power connector used with floppy drives?A Berg connector 23. How many pins does a floppy drive cable have?34 24. What was the underlying cause that prevented hard drives from breaking the 137-GB size barrier until the ATA/ATAPI-6 standard was released?The number of bits the OS and hard drive controller used to pass addresses to data on the drive 25. Why does a serial ATA drive sometimes have two power connectors on the drive?It sometimes has two power connectors to accommodate two different types of power connectorsfrom the power supply. Only use one connector. 26. What is the name of the expansion card in a SCSI system that controls the SCSI bus?The host adapter 27. Why is it not necessary to inform CMOS setup about the installation of a new hard drive?Because setup automatically detects installed hard drives 28. Which has a faster interface to the system, an external serial ATA hard drive or an external FireWire hard drive?External serial ATA hard drive 29. On a floppy disk, how many bits are used for each entry in the FAT?12 30. How can you tell if your motherboard chip set supports Ultra DMA mode?
  36. 36. By looking in CMOS setup or the motherboard documentationTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. You install a hard drive and then turn on the PC for the first time. You access CMOS setup and see that the drive is not recognized. Which of the following do you do next? a. Turn off the PC, open the case, and verify that memory modules on the motherboard have not become loose. b. Turn off the PC, open the case, and verify that the data cable and power cable are connected correctly and jumpers on the drive are set correctly. c. Verify that BIOS autodetection is enabled. d. Reboot the PC and enter CMOS setup again to see if it now recognizes the drive.c. Verify that BIOS autodetection is enabled. 2. Every motherboard built today that includes serial ATA connectors has at least one parallel ATA connector on the board. What is the most important reason this parallel ATA is present? a. The hard drive used for booting the OS must use a parallel ATA connector. b. The IDE controller will not work without at least one parallel ATA connector. c. It is so the board can accommodate older hard drives using the parallel ATA connector. d. The parallel ATA connector is needed for EIDE drives such as a CD or DVD drivec. It is so the board can accommodate older hard drives using the parallel ATA connector.d. The parallel ATA connector is needed for EIDE drives such as a CD or DVD drive. 3. You want to set up your desktop system to have a total hard drive space of 150 GB, but your system does not support drives larger than 120 GB. Which of the following do you do? a. Buy a new motherboard that will support drives larger than 120 GB.
  37. 37. b. Use two hard drives in your system that together total 150 GB. c. Flash BIOS so that your system will support a 150-GB drive. d. Use a special IDE controller card that will support a 150-GB drive.Use two hard drives in your system that together total 150 GB. It would be an unnecessarilyexpensive solution to purchase the hardware to support drives larger than 137 GB.Chapter 9Reviewing the Basics 1. Identify three things that may cause monitor flicker.Poor cable connections, accumulated magnetic fields, electrical noise, vertical scan frequencybelow 60 Hz, screen resolution set too high 2. Describe what to do if you have just spilled soda pop on your keyboard.Replace the keyboard. You might be able to salvage the keyboard by thoroughly rinsing it inrunning water. 3. Explain how to check that chips on a video card are properly seated in their sockets.Remove the card from the expansion slot and then use a screwdriver to press down firmly on eachcorner of each socketed chip on the card. 4. When troubleshooting problems with a monitor in Windows XP, why would you enter Safe Mode?To allow the OS to select a generic display driver and low resolution 5. Describe how to boot Windows XP into Safe Mode.Press F8 during startup to display the startup menu. Then use the arrow keys to select Safe Modefrom the startup menu. 6. Why would an external modem cost more than an internal modem?Because an external modem has the added cost of an external case, power source, and data cable 7. Name three possible ways a scanner might interface with a motherboard.
  38. 38. Through a SCSI port, a USB port, or through FireWire 8. By definition, what system resources does COM1 use? COM2? COM3? COM4?COM1—IRQ 4, memory addresses 03F8-3FFCOM2—IRQ 3, memory addresses 02F8-2FFCOM3—IRQ 4, memory addresses 03E8-3EFCOM4—IRQ 3, memory addresses 02E8-2EF 9. What is the display resolution for standard VGA settings?640 x 480 10. What is the maximum length of a serial cable?50 feet 11. To what does RS-232 refer?It refers to Reference Standard 232 revision c. This is the standard for the serial port, which issometimes called the RS-232 port. 12. How many pins are on a typical serial port?9 13. What is the name of a barcode reader that is a gun-type reader that can be handheld and is often used at a checkout counter?CCD scanner 14. What is the purpose of a keyboard wedge?A keyboard wedge is used so that a keyboard and barcode reader can share a keyboard port. 15. What is the name of the technology within the chipset that controls the speed of serial ports?UART 16. Why might you choose to use ECP mode for your parallel port rather than EPP mode?If you need greater speed 17. When might you need to disable ECP mode for a parallel port?
  39. 39. If you are having problems with resource conflicts 18. How would you disable a serial port on a motherboard?Use CMOS setup 19. What Windows OSs support USB? Include the OS version numbers where that information is important.Windows 95 OSR 2.1 was the first Microsoft OS to support USB, although Windows 98 offersmuch improved USB support. In addition to Windows 95 with the USB update and Windows 98,Windows 2000 and Windows XP support USB, but Windows NT does not. 20. What is the maximum speed of Original USB? Of Hi-Speed USB?12 Mbps, 480 Mbps 21. What is the maximum length of a USB Hi-Speed cable?Five meters 22. What are two other names for FireWire? What is the highest data throughput approved for FireWire?i.Link and IEEE 1394; data throughput is 3.2 Gbps 23. When selecting a motherboard, why would you prefer to use PCI Express for the video card rather than AGP?Because PCI Express x1 is faster than AGP 24. What is the most important disadvantage of using biometric devices to authenticate a person to have access to a system?The danger of false negatives or false positives 25. What criteria affect how much video RAM is needed for a video card to hold one frame buffer?Screen resolution, color depth, and enhancements to color information (alpha blending) 26. Give three examples of monitor screen sizes. How are monitor screen sizes measured?
  40. 40. There are 14-, 15-, 17-, and 21-inch screen sizes. Screen size describes the diagonal length of thescreen surface. 27. What are two advantages of setting an LCD monitor to run in its native resolution?Faster response time and sharper display 28. What type of CRT monitor can offer a variety of refresh rates?Multiscan 29. How many pins are used in the IEEE 1394 connector that supports the IEEE 1394b standard?Nine 30. How many keyed notches does an AGP universal slot have?None 31. What makes a device an ergonomic device?If it is designed for safe and comfortable interaction between human beings and machines 32. How many pins are there on a DIN connector and a PS/2 connector for a keyboard?Five pins on a DIN connector; six pins on the smaller PS/2 connector 33. What three colors are used to build all colors on a color monitor screen?Red, green, and blue 34. Which gives better image quality, a .25-mm dot pitch monitor or a .28-mm dot pitch monitor? Why?A .25 does because the smaller the pitch, the sharper the image. 35. If a mouse begins to be difficult to operate, what simple thing can you do to help?Remove the cover to the mouse ball and the mouse ball itself, and clean the rollers with a cottonswab dipped in a very small amount of liquid soap.Thinking Critically 1. You plug a new scanner into a USB port on your Windows XP system. When you first turn on the scanner, what should you expect to see?
  41. 41. a. You see a message displayed by the scanner software telling you to reboot your system.b. You see the Found New Hardware Wizard launch.c. Your system automatically reboots.d. You see an error message from the USB controller.The Found New Hardware Wizard launches. 2. You install the software bundled with your digital camera to download pictures from your camera to your system using a serial port. Next you plug up the camera to the port using a serial cable and turn on your camera. You attempt to use the software to download pictures, but the software does not recognize the camera is present. What do you do next?a. Return the camera and purchase one that uses a USB port for downloading.b. Reinstall the bundled software.c. Access CMOS setup and verify that the serial port is enabled.d. Use Device Manager to verify that the OS recognizes the serial port.e. Replace the serial cable.Follow the troubleshooting rule: Do the simple things first. Therefore, the first thing to do is touse Device Manager to verify that the OS recognizes the serial port. 3. You turn on your Windows 2000 computer and see the system display POST messages. Then the screen turns blue with no text. Which of the following items could be the source of the problem? a. The video card b. The monitor c. Windows d. WordPerfect software installed on the systemWindows could be the problem, but not the other three items.
  42. 42. Chapter 10REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. What must be true before MMX, SSE, SSE2, and 3DNow! technology can improve multimedia performance on a PC?The applications and hardware devices must be designed to use the technology. 2. What is the significance of the multi-session feature on a CD drive?The drive can read a disc that has been created in multiple sessions rather than having beenwritten all at once. 3. Name three ways a CD drive can interface with a motherboard.With an EIDE interface, sharing an IDE connection, a cable, or both with a hard drive. Thesedrives use the ATAPI standard.Using a SCSI interface with a SCSI host adapterFor portable drives, with an external port (such as a USB, FireWire, or SCSI port) on your PC 4. Which side of a CD contains data?The bright, bottom side (not the side with the label) 5. If a CD drive and a hard drive are sharing the same data cable in a computer system, what type of connection is the CD drive using? Which of the two drives should be set to master? Which to slave?The CD drive is using an EIDE connection. The hard drive should be set to master and the CDdrive to slave. 6. What unit of measure is used to express the sampling rate of a sound card?Hertz (Hz) 7. Why must sound and video input into a PC be converted from analog to digital?
  43. 43. Analog data is smooth and continuous, whereas digital data, such as the binary data used incomputers, has distinct gradations. The process of producing digital data by measuring data at aseries of representative points is called sampling. 8. What is the sampling rate (in Hz) of music CDs?44,100 Hz 9. How many samples can be stored in 8 bits?256 10. What would be a quick, short test to see if a sound card was successfully installed?Play a music CD. 11. In a system that uses a CD drive, the audio wire connects the _____ to the _____.CD drive, sound card 12. Why would you want to re-tension a backup tape?Re-tensioning fast-forwards and rewinds the tape to eliminate any loose spots. Some backupsoftware requires this. 13. Which holds more data, a Microdrive or a Zip drive?A Microdrive 14. How is the direction of data flow different for data transfers for MP3 players and digital cameras?MP3 files are downloaded from the PC to the MP3 player, in contrast to a digital camera, forwhich data is transferred or uploaded from the camera to the PC. 15. What is the significance of Sound Blaster compatibility for a sound card?A Sound Blaster-compatible card can understand the commands sent to it that have been writtenfor Sound Blaster. 16. When using a single speaker, which port on a sound card is used to send sound out?The front speaker port, which is generally the center port and is often green
  44. 44. 17. What is the difference between MPEG, JPEG, and MP3? Explain for what each one is used.MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group) is a standard for data compression for motion pictures,video, and audio. JPEG is a standard for data compression for photographs and graphics. MP3 isa popular version of MPEG that is used for data compression for audio. 18. Name at least four features you should look for when buying a video capture card.• A FireWire interface• Data transfer rates• Capture resolution and color-depth capabilities• Ability to transfer data back to the digital camcorder or VCR• Stereo audio jacks• Video-editing software bundled with the card 19. When connecting cords to the rear of a sound card and the card has a blue, red, yellow, and black port, which port is most likely to be used for the microphone?Red port 20. In the question above, which port is likely to be used for sound input from a DVD player sitting beside the computer?Blue port 21. What are the three ways that data on a DVD can be decoded?• Decoder software is installed on the hard drive.• A decoder card is installed in an expansion slot.• A decoder is part of the firmware on a video capture card. 22. What is the most popular way an internal DVD drive interfaces with a motherboard?EIDE connection 23. What is the difference between CD, CD-R, and CD-RW drives?
  45. 45. A CD-ROM is read-only. A CD-R is recordable once. A CD-RW is rewriteable, meaning that youcan write new data over old data. 24. Rank these storage methods in order of their storage capacity: DVD, floppy disk, CD, tape.From least to greatest: floppy disk, CD-ROM, DVD, tape 25. How many unique speakers can Surround Sound 7.1 support?Up to 8 speakers 26. Which type of flash memory device is typically used on a Sony digital camera?Memory Stick 27. What is currently the most popular memory device used in digital camera?Secure Digital (SD) cards 28. Of the flash memory device used in digital cameras, which uses the latest technology and holds the most data?xD-Picture Card 29. Current DVD recordable drives for personal computers can write only 8.5 GB of data on a DVD. How many layers and how many sides or surfaces of the disc are used for the data?Data is written in two layers to one side or surface of the disc. 30. Which version of RAID is supported by Windows XP? Does this RAID version provide fault tolerance?RAID 0 (striped), NoTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. You have just installed a new sound card and its drivers and connected the speakers and amplifier. You insert a music CD into the drive to test the drive. Windows Media Player launches and says it is playing the CD, but you don’t hear music. What do you do first? a. Check the volume controls on the speaker amplifier.
  46. 46. b. Check the connections of the amplifier and speakers to the card. c. Check Device Manager for errors with the sound card. d. Verify that the amplifier has power.Do the simple thing first: Check the volume controls on the speaker amplifier. 2. You have just upgraded your computer from Windows 98 to Windows XP. Now your system has no sound. What are the first two things you do? a. Check Device Manager to see if the sound card is recognized and has no errors. b. Reinstall Windows 98. c. Use Device Manager to uninstall the sound card. d. Identify your sound card by opening the case and looking on the card for manufacturer and model. e. Identify your sound card by finding the documentation and driver CD that came with the card. f. Download Windows XP drivers for the sound card from the sound card manufacturer’s Web site.Check Device Manager to see if the sound card is recognized and has no errors. Then identifyyour sound card by finding the documentation and driver CD that came with the card. 3. You have just installed a new DVD drive and its drivers, but the drive does not work. You check the power and data cables and feel comfortable that the hardware installation is correct. You then decide to reload the device drivers. What is the first thing you do? a. Open the Control Panel and launch the Add New Hardware Wizard. b. Open Device Manager and choose Update Driver. c. Remove the data cable from the DVD drive so Windows will no longer recognize the driveand allow you to reinstall the drivers. d. Open Device Manager and uninstall the drive.Open Device Manager and uninstall the drive.
  47. 47. 4. Which method of fault tolerance is the least expensive per MB of storage, disk duplexing or disk striping with parity? Explain your answer.Disk duplexing requires writing the same data twice and requires an extra controller. Diskstriping with parity only writes the data once and requires only one controller. Although the parityinformation in disk striping with parity does take up some space, it does not take up as muchspace as the duplicate data in disk duplexing. Therefore, disk duplexing is more expensive. 5. Does RAID 0 provide fault tolerance? Explain your answer.RAID 0 does not provide fault tolerance because a single logical drive is spread over two or morephysical hard drives. If one fails, the data cannot be recovered from the others. RAID 0 isdesigned to increase performance, not provide fault tolerance.Chapter 11REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. Name the five versions of Windows XP.Windows XP Home EditionWindows XP ProfessionalWindows XP Media Center EditionWindows XP Tablet PC EditionWindows XP Professional x64 Edition 2. When installing Windows XP Service Pack 2 on a notebook computer, why is it important to use an AC adapter rather than a battery during the installation?So that the notebook doesn’t power down part way through the installation due to a low battery 3. When you are trying to determine if your Windows 2000 computer can support Windows XP, list the steps to know how much RAM is currently installed.Right-click the My Computer icon and select Properties from the menu. Click the General tab.RAM is displayed on this tab.
  48. 48. 4. Which version of Windows XP must be installed on a system that is using the Intel Itanium processor? Why?Windows XP Professional 64x Edition, because the Itanium is a 64-bit processor. 5. How many processors in a system can Windows XP support?Two 6. How much free space on a partition does Windows XP require for installation? How much does it require for acceptable operation?1.5 GB, 2 GB 7. How much memory is required to install Windows XP? How much is recommended to run applications under Windows XP?64 MB, at least 128 MB 8. How long do you have to activate Windows XP? What happens if you don’t?You have up to 30 days after installation to activate Windows XP, after which the system willrefuse to boot. 9. What is the first Microsoft product to use product activation?Microsoft Office XP 10. What is the path for the report file created when you run the Windows XP Readiness Analyzer?C:Windowscompat.txt 11. What is the difference between joining a workgroup and joining a domain?In a workgroup, each user account is set up on the local computer independent of other accountson other PCs, and there is no centralized control of resources. In a domain, user accounts andsystem resources are controlled by a centralized domain controller. 12. What layer of Windows 2000/XP is most responsible for interacting with hardware?The HAL (hardware abstraction layer)
  49. 49. 13. What is one reason that interaction with hardware is limited to only one or two components of Windows 2000/XP?Limiting hardware interaction with OS components enables Windows NT/2000/XP to be portedeasily to different hardware platforms and increases OS integrity by providing more control overresources and better performance. 14. What are the two modes of the Windows 2000/XP architecture?User mode and kernel mode 15. Which of these two modes contains the NTVDM?User mode 16. What is the name of the folder on the Windows 2000/XP CD where the installation files are stored?i386 17. Before you install Windows 2000/XP, how can you determine if the OS supports all the hardware on your PC?The best way is to search the Microsoft Web site. Or check manufacturer web sites for Windows2000/XP drivers. 18. What is one reason to use a clean install rather than an upgrade when migrating from Windows 98 to Windows 2000?Their registries are not compatible. You do not get the benefit of a fresh start. 19. What file systems does Windows 98 support? Windows XP?FAT16, FAT32FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS 20. What is the file system that is common to DOS, Windows 9x, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP?FAT16
  50. 50. 21. Windows 2000 assumes a BIOS manufactured after what date is a good BIOS?January 1, 1999 22. Which of the two Windows 2000 setup programs is a 32-bit program? A 16-bit program?Winnt32.exe, Winnt.exe 23. Windows XP is installed using a system partition and a boot partition. Which of these partitions must be the active partition of the hard drive?The system partition 24. In a Windows 2000/XP workgroup, where is access to an individual workstation on the network controlled?In a workgroup, access to an individual workstation is controlled from that workstation. 25. In a Windows 2000/XP domain, where is access to an individual workstation on the network controlled?In a domain, access to an individual workstation can be controlled from the centralized domainserver. 26. What is required before Windows 2000/XP can provide full power management functionality?The system BIOS must be ACPI-compliant. 27. Name three manufacturers responsible for the initial development of ACPI.Intel, Microsoft, and Toshiba 28. If you are installing Windows 2000 on a new hard drive and your system cannot boot from a CD, how do you begin the installation?Create a set of Windows 2000 setup disks on another computer to boot the PC and begin theinstallation.
  51. 51. 29. If you install Windows 2000 on an 8-GB hard drive, use a single partition for the drive, and choose not to use the NTFS file system, what file system will Windows 2000 automatically use?FAT32 30. What is the command to create a set of Windows 2000 boot disks?Makeboot 31. If your BIOS is not ACPI-compliant, what should you do before you install Windows 2000?Flash your BIOS to make it ACPI-compliant. 32. If an administrator is concerned about security on a system, which file system is appropriate?NTFS 33. Can you perform an upgrade of Windows 2000 from a remote computer on the network? Explain your answer.You cannot perform an upgrade of Windows 2000 from a remote computer, because to performan upgrade, you must begin the installation while you are in the current OS.THINKING CRITICALLY 1. You are planning an upgrade from Windows 98 to Windows XP. Your system uses a modem card that you don’t find listed on the Microsoft Windows XP list of compatible devices. What do you do next? a. Abandon the upgrade and continue to use Windows 98. b. Check the Web site of the modem manufacturer for a Windows XP driver. c. Buy a new modem card.
  52. 52. d. Install a dual boot for Windows 98 and Windows XP and only use the modem when you have Windows 98 loaded.Although any of the listed options will work, the best next step is to check the Web site of themodem manufacturer for a Windows XP driver. 2. You have just installed Windows XP and now attempt to install your favorite game that worked fine under Windows 98. When you attempt the installation, you get an error. What is your best next step? a. Purchase a new version of your game, one that is compatible with Windows XP. b. Download any service packs or patches to Windows XP. c. Reinstall Windows 98.The best choice is to download any service packs or patches to Windows XP. These fixes mightsolve your problem. 3. If you find out that one of your applications is not supported by Windows XP and you still want to use XP, what can you do to solve this incompatibility problem?Upgrade the application or install XP as a dual boot so the application can still work under the oldOS. 4. Is it possible to install Windows XP on a system that does not have a CD-ROM drive or other optical drive? Explain your answer.Yes, it is possible to install Windows XP on a system that already has an OS installed and isconnected to a network. You can copy files on the Windows CD to the PC’s hard drive fromacross the network and then run the Setup program from the hard drive.Chapter 12REVIEWING THE BASICS
  53. 53. 1. What does %SystemRoot% mean?Indicates the Windows 2000/XP folder on the boot partition, usually C:Windows or C:Winnt 2. What is the normal path and the filename of the Windows 2000/XP virtual memory file?C:pagefile.sys 3. In what folder does Windows 2000 store a backup of the registry when backing up the system state?The %SystemRoot%repairRegBack folder 4. What is the command to install the Windows 2000/XP Support Tools?D:SupportToolsSetup.exe (substituting the drive letter of the CD-ROM drive for D in thecommand line, if necessary) 5. What type of user account must you be using to install a hardware device that is using drivers that are not digitally signed by Microsoft?An account with administrative privileges 6. What Windows utility can you use to help you decide if the system needs more RAM?Task Manager 7. What tool can you use to create a console containing Device Manager and Event Viewer?MMC (Microsoft Management Console) 8. What is the file extension assigned to a console file?.msc 9. Name one snap-in contained in a Computer Management console.Event Viewer, System Information, Device Manager, Disk Management, Disk Defragmenter,Services Console 10. What is the program filename for System File Checker?Sfc.exe 11. List three ways to access the Task Manager.• Press the Ctrl, Alt, and Delete keys simultaneously. If the Windows Security window opens,
  54. 54. click the Task Manager button.• Right-click a blank area on the taskbar and select Task Manager from the shortcut menu.• Press the Ctrl, Shift, and Esc keys simultaneously. 12. List the steps used to end an application when it refuses to respond to keystrokes or the mouse action.Open Task Manager, select the application, and click the End Task button at the bottom of theTask Manager window. 13. What are the three logs kept by Event Viewer?Application, security, and system 14. In what folder do you put a console file that you want displayed when you are logged on as an administrator and then click Start, Programs, and Administrative Tools?C:Documents and SettingsusernameStart MenuProgramsAdministrative Tools 15. Before clearing the Event Viewer log, explain how you can save the log for later viewing.In Event Viewer, execute one of the two commands to clear the log. Before clearing the log,Event Viewer gives you a chance to save it. 16. By default, Windows 2000/XP makes the paging file how large compared to the amount of RAM installed?1.5 times the amount of RAM 17. What Windows utility lists all the applications set to load at Windows startup?Msconfig or the System Configuration Utility 18. What Windows utility can you use to list all the currently running applications?Task Manager 19. In what folder does Windows File Protection store an extra copy of system files?C:WindowsSystem32Dllcache 20. What SFC command sets the system to scan system files at the next reboot?sfc /scanonce
  55. 55. 21. What SFC command sets the system to scan system files at every reboot?sfc /scanboot 22. What two files are used to build the HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT key of the registry?Software hive and the Usrclass.dat file 23. What two files are used to build the HKEY_USERS key of the registry?Ntuser.dat and Usrclass.dat 24. What Windows XP program file is used to edit the registry?Regedit.exe 25. What registry key is used to record installed software?HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionUninstall 26. In what folder do you install a program so that it starts up each time any user logs onto the system?C:Documents and SettingsAll UsersStart MenuProgramsStartup 27. Looking at a program filename and file extension, how can you tell if the program is a MMC snap-in or a command-line program?The file extension .msc indicates a snap-in and the file extension .exe indicates a command-lineprogram. 28. Which Windows registry subtree gets its information from the four registry files, Sam, Security, Software, and System?HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE 29. In Windows 2000/XP, a file that contains part of the Windows registry is called a(n) ______.Hive 30. To which registry key does the HKEY_CURRENT_USER key point for information?HKEY_USERS
  56. 56. 31. What two components are created when you back up a system using the Automated System Recovery process?A backup of the entire volume on which Windows is installed and an ASR floppy diskTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. You installed a hardware device that does not work. Then you updated the device drivers. Now Windows gives an error when it first starts up. What do you do first? a. Use System Restore to undo the installation. b. Use Automated System Recovery to undo the installation. c. Use Driver Rollback to undo the driver update. d. Use Device Manager to uninstall the device.Try the least drastic task first: Use Driver Rollback to undo the driver update. 2. You need to install a customized console on 10 computers. What is the best way to do that? a. When installing the console on the first computer, write down each step to make it easier todo the same chore on the other nine. b. Create the console on one computer and copy the .mmc file to the other nine. c. Create the console on one computer and copy the .msc file to the other nine. d. Create the console on one computer and copy the .msc file to the other nine.d. Create the console on one computer and copy the .msc file to the other nine. 3. Can an application or device driver specify if it will use physical memory or the swap file for its data? Why or why not?
  57. 57. Windows 2000/XP does not allow installed software to specify physical memory or virtualmemory, but instead uses the VMM to interface between the application or driver and thephysical or virtual memory that it controls. This enables the OS to exercise more control overmemory resources and prevent conflicts. 4. You are attempting to upload images from your digital camera to your Windows XP system using a USB connection, but you get errors. Select the appropriate task or tasks to solve the problem. a. Update Windows XP with service packs or patches b. Reinstall the digital camera software c. Reboot your system d. Verify the camera is turned onAll the items listed are valid tasks.Chapter 13REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. What are the two basic differences between the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard and the USMT utility?The User State Migration Tool (USMT) tool is a command-line tool and the Files and SettingsTransfer Wizard is a GUI tool.The USMT is designed to be used on a domain and the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard isdesigned to be used in a workgroup. 2. What are the two commands in the USMT?Scanstate and Loadstate 3. When is the local user profile created?When the user first logs onto the system. 4. How are a roaming profile and a mandatory profile the same? How are they different?
  58. 58. A roaming profile and a mandatory profile are the same in that they follow users from onecomputer to another in a workgroup. They are different in that a user can change a roamingprofile that applies only to this one user, but a mandatory profile is the same for a group of usersand cannot be changed by the user. 5. What are two important criteria that make for a good password?The password is not easy to guess and it contains numbers, letters, and non-alphanumericcharacters. 6. What can a user do to keep from having the administrator reset a forgotten password?Create a forgotten password floppy disk that can be used if the password is forgotten. 7. Which user group has more rights, Power Users or Administrators?Administrator 8. When using Group Policy on a computer in a workgroup, which type of configuration do you use?Computer configuration 9. What do you implement to control how much disk space a user can take up?Disk quotas 10. What is the difference between a cross-linked cluster and a lost cluster? What can cause them?More than one file points to a cross-linked cluster, and no file in the FAT or MFT points to lostclusters. Both can occur when the mapping in the FAT or MFT becomes corrupted. 11. What Windows 2000/XP utility program checks for cross-linked and lost clusters?Chkdsk.exe 12. What file system is necessary to use if a volume is to be compressed under Windows 2000?NTFS 13. What is the difference between an incremental backup and a differential backup?
  59. 59. An incremental backup backs up only files that have changed or have been created since the lastbackup, whether that backup was full or incremental. A differential backup backs up all filessince the last full backup, regardless of whether other differential backups have been made since.Another difference is that incremental backups mark files as having been backed up, anddifferential backups do not. 14. What must you do before you can use the Windows Backup utility on a Windows XP Home Edition PC?Install the utility from the Windows XP setup CD. 15. Why should you create a disaster recovery plan? What type of information would you include in it?A disaster recovery plan can help you determine the impact of a disaster, when the last backupwas made, and how to recover from the disaster. Include information on backup schedules, howto perform recovery procedures, and the name, type, date, time, and contents of the last backup. 16. List three third-party utility programs used to support hard drives.Norton Utilities, SpinRite, PartitionMagic, GetDataBack, PowerMax 17. When Windows XP is first installed, what two built-in user accounts are also installed?The administrator account and the guest account 18. If you want to log onto a Windows XP system using the administrator account, what keys do you first press?Ctrl-Alt-Del 19. How do you change the way a user can log onto Windows XP?From Control Panel, open the User Accounts applet. Click Change the way users log on or off.Make your selections and then click Apply Options to close the dialog box. 20. The _______ command erases files or groups of files.Del or Erase
  60. 60. 21. What command is used to create a subdirectory? To change the current directory? To remove a subdirectory?MD, CD, RD 22. The ______ command displays or changes the read-only, archive, system, and hidden characteristics of files.Attrib 23. What is the command to check drive C for errors, repair these file system errors, and recover data from bad sectors?Chkdsk C: /R 24. What is the command to move data on drive C so that all clusters of a file are in contiguous locations on the drive?Defrag C: 25. What is the command to format drive D, using the NTFS file system?Format D: /FS:NTFSTHINKING CRITICALLY 1. Your Windows XP system locks up occasionally. What are some probable causes and solutions? Note: This question combines skills learned in this and other chapters. a. The hard drive has errors. Run ____ to correct file system errors. b. An application might not be compatible with Windows XP. To find out if you have applications installed that are not certified by Microsoft for Windows XP, run the ____ utility. c. The hard drive might be full. To find out, use _______ . d. The system might have a virus. To eliminate that possibility, use __________.Chkdsk
  61. 61. SigverigWindows Explorer, disk Properties windowAnti-virus software 2. You have an important FoxPro database stored on your hard drive. The drive has been giving bad sector errors for several weeks. You kept meaning to back up the data, but have not gotten around to it. Now you attempt to access the database and FoxPro tells you it cannot open the file. What do you try first? Second? Third? a. Reenter all the data and promise yourself you’ll be more faithful about backups. b. Use SpinRite software to attempt to recover the file. c. Use Chkdsk to recover data from bad sectors. d. Change the file extension of the database file to .txt and tell FoxPro to attempt to openthe file as an ASCII text file.Use Chkdsk to repair the drive. If this does not work, change the file extension of the databasefile to .txt and tell FoxPro to attempt to open the file as an ASCII text file. If this does not work,then try to use SpinRite software to recover the file. If that does not work, then reenter the data. 3. A virus has attacked your hard drive and now when you start up Windows, instead of seeing a Windows desktop, the system freezes and you see a blue screen of death (an error message on a blue background). You have extremely important document files on the drive that you cannot afford to loose. What do you do first? a. Try a data recovery service even though it is very expensive.b. Remove the hard drive fromthe computer case and install it in another computer. c. Try GetDataBack to recover the data d. Use Windows utilities to attempt to fix the Windows boot problem.Since recovering the data is certainly the top priority, you do not want to do anything to riskdoing further damage to this data. The choice that is least likely to affect the data is to remove the
  62. 62. hard drive from this computer case and install it in another computer. Then boot into Windowsand try copying the data from the bad hard drive to the good drive.Chapter 14REVIEWING THE BASICS 1. In the Windows 2000/XP boot process, what file reads and loads the boot menu?Ntldr 2. Where is the Boot.ini file stored?Root directory of the system partition (usually C:) 3. What does %SystemRoot% mean?Indicates the Windows 2000/XP folder on the boot partition, usually C:Windows 4. Under what circumstances would you use the Enable VGA Mode option on the Advanced Options menu?When the video setting has problems that prevent you from seeing well enough to fix it 5. What key do you press to display the Advanced Options menu during startup?F8 6. When you look at a Windows desktop, how can you tell if the system has been booted into Safe Mode?“Safe Mode” is displayed in all four corners of the screen. 7. What is the purpose of Safe Mode with networking under the Advanced Options menu?This mode is used when there is a problem with the boot process that requires access to thenetwork to solve, or when the Windows 2000/XP installation files are loaded from the networkand access to those files is required. 8. What is the name of the log file that Windows 2000/XP uses when booting in Safe Mode?Ntbtlog.txt
  63. 63. 9. List the steps to load the Recovery Console when using the four Windows 2000 rescue disks.Insert the first of the four setup disks and restart the PC. You are directed to insert each of thefour disks in turn, and then the Setup screen appears.Type R to select the “To repair a Windows 2000 installation” option. The Windows 2000 RepairOptions window opens. Type C to select the Recovery Console.The Windows 2000 Recovery Console window opens. The Recovery Console looked at the harddrive and determined that only a single Windows 2000 installation was on the drive installed inthe C:Winnt folder. (The Winnt folder might be on a different drive on your machine.) Press 1and then press Enter to select that installation.Enter the Administrator password and press Enter. If you do not know the password, you cannotuse the console.You now have a command prompt. You can use a limited group of DOS-like commands at thispoint to recover a failed system. 10. Which Windows 2000/XP folder contains one subfolder for every user account?C:Documents and Settings 11. What two subfolders in the C:Windowssystem32 folder contain files needed for Windows startup?config and drivers 12. What Recovery Console command is used to extract a file from a .cab file?Expand 13. Which option on the Windows XP Advanced Options menu is not available on the Windows 2000 menu?Disable automatic restart on system failure 14. Which Recovery Console command can be used to examine the partitions on a hard drive for errors?
  64. 64. Diskpart 15. On the Windows setup CD, what type of file uses an underscore as the last character in the file extension?A compressed file 16. Under what circumstances is the Administrator password not required when launching the Recovery Console?If the registry is so corrupted that it cannot read the Administrator password in order to validate it,you are not asked for the password, but you are limited as to what you can do in the RecoveryConsole. 17. What is the purpose of the Systemroot command under the Recovery Console?Sets the current directory to the directory where Windows 2000/XP is installed 18. Under the Recovery Console, what is the command to rewrite the Master Boot Program?Fixmbr 19. What is the command to install the Recovery Console on the boot loader menu?winnt32 /cmdcons 20. Before you can perform the Windows 2000 Emergency Repair Process, what disk must you have? What is contained on the disk?The ERD (Emergency Repair Disk), which contains enough data to restore the system to the statein which it was in immediately after the Windows 2000 installation 21. When would you use System File Checker? What is the command to execute it?The SFC is used to verify that the system is using correct versions of all protected system files.The command to execute it is Sfc or Sfc.exe. Use it when you suspect the system has corruptedsystem files. 22. What is the program filename for System File Checker?Sfc.exe