Part 1: Beauty Botany


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Part 1: Beauty Botany

  1. 1. Part 1: BEAUTIFUL AND WONDERFUL BOTANY By An Admirer Of Nature
  2. 2. <ul><li>DEDICATED TO </li></ul><ul><li>THEOPHRASTUS ( 372 – 287 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>FATHER OF MODERN BOTANY </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>ALSO DEDICATED TO </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Linnaeus </li></ul><ul><li>FATHER OF BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Primitive drawing Sacred Egyptian garden </li></ul><ul><li>(Right, Date Palm) palm tree Thebes,1450 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egyptian Garden Transporting a tree </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Plant Kingdom - 400,000 Species </li></ul><ul><li>Green algae Red algae Brown algae Mosses & Liverworts </li></ul><ul><li>6000 4000 2000 25,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Ferns Club mosses Horsetails Conifers </li></ul><ul><li>12,000 400 36 500 </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Flowering plants 300,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>MONOCOTYLEDONS </li></ul><ul><li>(60,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Orchids (2000) Grasses (15,000) </li></ul><ul><li>DICOTYLEDONS </li></ul><ul><li>Daisies Roses Teas </li></ul><ul><li>Cacti Carrots </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>angiosperms : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>magnoliids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monocots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>commelinids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eudicots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core eudicots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rosids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eurosids I </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eurosids II </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>asterids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>euasterids I </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>euasterids I </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>WHAT A BEAUTY ! </li></ul><ul><li>WELWITSCHIA : Single pair of leaves in 1500 years </li></ul><ul><li>BRISTLECONE PINE : Oldest Living Plant (4800 years) </li></ul><ul><li>GIANT REDWOOD : 260 FEET HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>RAFFLESIA – THE LARGEST FLOWER ( 3’ DIA) </li></ul><ul><li>GIANT SAGUARO : TWO ELEPHANTS WEIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>GIANT WATER LILY : LEAVES 6’ DIA. & 5” RIM </li></ul><ul><li>CRANES BILL : INGENIOUS SEED PROPAGATION </li></ul><ul><li>PUYA RAIMANDII : A FLOWER SPIKE (10 METRES) </li></ul><ul><li>WATER HYACINTH : FASTEST GROWING PLANT </li></ul><ul><li>WOLFFIA : THE SMALLEST FLOWERING PLANT </li></ul><ul><li>DAFFODILS : WORDSWORTH’S FLOWER </li></ul><ul><li>CARNIVOROUS PLANTS </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>WELWITSCHIA </li></ul><ul><li>Welwitschia mirabilis DIOECIOUS, EVERGREEN, </li></ul><ul><li>DESERT GROWING & PERENNIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Welwitschia: Genus of one species 12’ 18” </li></ul><ul><li>Named after Friedrich Welwitsch (1806-1872) </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Angola & Namibia </li></ul><ul><li>Produces only single pair of leaves </li></ul><ul><li>All time record : 8 metres long and 2 metres wide </li></ul><ul><li>Life of the plant my exceed 1500 years </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Male cone Female cone Fertilized </li></ul><ul><li>Division: Gnetophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Gnetopsida </li></ul><ul><li>Order : Welwitschiales Female Male </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Welwitschiaceae </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Bristlecone Pine – Oldest Living Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Growing-1500 Years for 33 Feet </li></ul><ul><li>4800 Years old tree Exists </li></ul><ul><li>USA (ARIZONA) , New Mexico & </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado Pinus longaeva </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>A tree named Methuselah, discovered in 1957 and dated at 4,767 years. It is so old that it was growing when the Pyramids were being built, centuries before Abraham, tens of centuries before Christ. Milarch and his team came to take cuttings and seeds from the Methuselah Tree in hopes of cloning it for the national Champion Tree Project. Since 1996 more than 70 species of champion trees have been successfully cloned in nurseries </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>The male flowers, or catkins are red-purple in color. The female cones are ovoid, or egg-shaped, and dark purple to brown when mature. Each cone is 2.5 to 3.75 inches long and take 2 years to mature. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are in bundles of five </li></ul><ul><li>Genus of one species 20’ 30’ </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>BRISTLECONE PINE </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY: PINACEAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER: CONIFERALES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS: CONIFEROPSIDA </li></ul><ul><li>DIVISION: GYMNOSPERMAE </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Survival strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Needles can live twenty to thirty years and provide a stable photosynthetic capacity to sustain the tree over years of severe stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Another strategy for surviving is the gradual dieback of bark and the tissue that conducts water (xylem) when the tree is damaged because of fire, lightning, drought or damaging storms. This reduction of tissue that the crown has to supply with nutrients, balances the effect of any damage sustained. The surviving parts remain quite healthy. As an example, &quot;Pine Alpha&quot; at over 4000 years, is nearly four feet in diameter, yet has only a ten inch strip of living bark to support it. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions from bacteria, fungus or insects that prey upon most plants are unknown to the bristlecone due to their dense, highly resinous wood. The dry air common in the sub-alpine region can kill by desiccation , but also helps preserve the trees from rotting </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Bristlecones can remain standing for hundreds of years after death. They fall because the supporting roots finally decay or are undermined by erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest bristlecones live in the most exposed sites, with a considerable amount of space between each tree. The longevity of the bristlecone needles and the inability of other plants to grow in the dolomite soil make for little leaf litter or ground cover. This distance in between, combined with the lack of ground cover, is how a tree can sustain a lightning strike, catch fire, and not have the fire spread to surrounding trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the oldest trees have the ability to produce cones with viable seeds </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Giant Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Giant redwood </li></ul><ul><li>Sequoiadendron </li></ul><ul><li>giganteum </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Taxodiaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Order : Coniferales </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Coniferopsida </li></ul><ul><li>Division: Gymnospermae </li></ul><ul><li>California’s giant sequoias </li></ul><ul><li>on the western slopes </li></ul><ul><li>of Sierra Nevadas at </li></ul><ul><li>altitudes 4500’ to 8000’ </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Longevity: </li></ul><ul><li>up to 3000 years </li></ul><ul><li>(Next to Bristlecone Pine) </li></ul><ul><li>Bark thickness up to 2’ </li></ul><ul><li>Bark flavored with tannin </li></ul><ul><li>- prevents attack from </li></ul><ul><li>any species </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy and fibrous </li></ul><ul><li>(fireproof as asbestos) </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes and erosion </li></ul><ul><li>can upset </li></ul><ul><li>But its root covers three </li></ul><ul><li>to four acres of land </li></ul><ul><li>300 year old produces seeds </li></ul><ul><li>with kernels – the size of a </li></ul><ul><li>pin head 22 – 30’ 80 – 260’ </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Rafflesia - The Largest flower </li></ul><ul><li>27 species in this family </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Rafflesia arnoldi: Named after Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781- 1826) and Dr. Arnold </li></ul><ul><li>90 cm in diameter and weighs 8 Kg </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite- growing on roots of various </li></ul><ul><li>species of Cissus ( vines) </li></ul><ul><li>Dioecious (male and female flowers on different </li></ul><ul><li>plants </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Apetalous (flower </li></ul><ul><li>without petals) </li></ul><ul><li>Calyx of 5 spreading </li></ul><ul><li>fleshy lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Odour of carrion </li></ul><ul><li>Sumatra, Malaya and </li></ul><ul><li>Borneo </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Bud – one day before Two days after opening </li></ul><ul><li>After two days begins to decay </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Rafflesiaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Refflesiales </li></ul><ul><li>Sub Class: Rosidae </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Magnoliopside </li></ul><ul><li>Division: Magnoliophyta </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>GIANT SAGUARO OR SAGUARO CACTUS </li></ul><ul><li>Carnegiea gigantea </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Cactaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Cactales 10’ 52’ </li></ul><ul><li>Division: Lignosae </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Carnegiea gigantea </li></ul><ul><li>Thick 12-24 ribbed, </li></ul><ul><li>spiny green stem </li></ul><ul><li>Genus of one species </li></ul><ul><li>Requires full sun and </li></ul><ul><li>very well drained soil </li></ul><ul><li>Propagate by seed in </li></ul><ul><li>spring or summer </li></ul><ul><li>One plant weighs as much </li></ul><ul><li>two elephants and three </li></ul><ul><li>quarters of this is water </li></ul><ul><li>Desert areas in S.California, </li></ul><ul><li>Arizona and N.W. Mexico </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Age Height </li></ul><ul><li>10 years 4 cm </li></ul><ul><li>14 years 15 cm </li></ul><ul><li>35-45 years 180 cm </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 metres - Starts flowering </li></ul><ul><li>50 years 4.0 metres </li></ul><ul><li>65 years 6.0 metres - Develops first arm </li></ul><ul><li>85 years 7- 8 metres - Branched adult </li></ul>