E booklet about turkey


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E booklet about turkey

  1. 1. HISTORY OF OUR COUNTRY, TURKEY The history of Turkey tells of a 10,000 year-old civilisation. Anatolia is a melting pot where cultures from Sumer,Babylon and Assyria interacted for centuries with peoples such as the Hattis, Hittites and Hourrites. The result was aunique Anatolian civilisation which has long inspired the thoughts and legends of the West. The ancient Bronze Agewitnessed the establishment of the first independent city states. The Roman period of Anatolia began with the death of King Attalus III of Pergamon (Bergama) who willed hiscountry to the Romans because he had no direct heir. Anatolia then lived through a period of peace and prosperity,particularly in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. In the 11th century, under their leader Tugrul, the Seljuk Turks founded the dynasty of great Seljuks reigning in Iran,Iraq and Syria. In 1071, his nephew Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantines in Malazgirt, near Lake Van. The doors ofAnatolia were thus opened to the Turks, and Anatolia went through a profound transformation ethnically, politically,and in the religious, linguistic and cultural spheres. The Seljuk Sultanate in Anatolia continued until the beginning ofthe 14th century. Anatolia was crossed by the great routes linking the east and west, and many of the caravanseraisbuilt along these routes still stand today. In 1296, Osman declared himself the independent Sultan of the region of Söğüt near Bursa and founded theOttoman State. In 1453, under Mehmet the Conqueror, the Ottomans took Constantinople, a momentous event forthe whole world and a great feat of arms. But the banner of Ottoman success was to be raised much higher and by thelate l6th century the Ottomans were deep into Europe. In the following centuries, however, the Ottoman Empire lostits momentum, entered a period of stagnation and then gradually a period of decline. The final blow to the Empirecame with the First World War, during which The Ottoman Empire was on the losing side with Germany. At the end of the war in 1918, the Ottoman government, under the occupation of the Allied Forces, choose not tofurther resist a peace treaty embodying the partition of Turkey. In May 1919, the Greeks, who had been promised apart of Anatolia, landed at Izmir and started an invasion in Western Anatolia while France sought control over South-Eastern Anatolia, and the Great Britain do the same in Istanbul in particular regions of the Middle East.
  2. 2. ATATURK AND TURKEY Against this challenge, the Turkish nation engaged in a struggle to restore her territorial integrity and independence, torepulse foreign aggressors, to create a new state, to disassociate Turkey from the crumbling Ottoman dynasty, to eradicate anold and decrepit order and to build a modern country dedicated to political, social and economic progress. This was the visionof Atatürk, a general in the Ottoman army who had distinguished himself in the defence of Gallipoli (Çanakkale) against theNaval Forces of Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand. The Ottoman victory over the Allies at Gallipoli renewed Turkeysvisions for the empire Atatürk wanted a clean break with the past, to unite the nation in the quest for modernism and to liftTurkey to the level of European countries. On October 29 1923, the republic was proclaimed and Atatürk was elected president.Secularism was established by separating religious and state affairs. The Latin alphabet replaced the Arabic script and womenwere given the right to vote and to be elected as members of parliament. These reforms, as well as many others in all aspects ofsocial life, put Turkey on the track towards becoming a thoroughly modern country. When Ataturk died in 1938, he left a legacy of which the Turkish people today are proud. A nation that had regained confidence in itself after the independence war; a society determined to preserve the political, intellectual, cultural and social values he had bequeathed. The Turkish Republic has now been a member of the international community for over 80 years. During this period, great changes have occurred and many difficulties have been encountered. But the country remains firmly attached to the policies initiated by Ataturk. It has established a democratic multi- party political system, developed a vibrant civil society, and embarked on the path of industrialisation and market economy. It has consolidated its ties with the west and with the European Union through membership in NATO and the Council of Europe and Customs Union. These trends mark a radical change from the days of the Ottoman Empire. Yet there is also continuity. The Turks have inherited both from the Islamic past and their Ottoman past. They haveMustafa Kemal Ataturk also inherited from their western past, as well as forming a part of the Western present. All these heritages, Eastern and Western, Asian and European, are intermingled in the civilisation of modem Turkey. A symbol of this union is the two bridges that span the Istanbul Strait, linking the two continents with many pasts and one future.And Turkey is a candidate country negotiating with European Union for being a member of EU.
  3. 3. CADRAE (SEDIR) ISLAND - CLEOPATRA BEACH This island is located between Mediterranean andAegean Sea.Beside this island’s nature beauty,there is alsoHellenistic and Roman periods of ancient theather and theremains of the ancient port.It is famous by the interestingsand and the sea which has got the every tone of blue.Thereis a well-known legend about this island; Thousands of years ago Antonius Caesar has offered tomarry Cleopatra.When she accepted,Antonius became veryhappy and prepared the island for theirhoneymoon.Cleopatra and Antonius swam here and thesands have been brought by the ships from North Africa byAntonius.It’s been said that this type of sand can only beseen in Egypt.Each grain of sand is a perfect sphere andwhen you put it into mineral water,it will multiply byitself.Also if you look closer,you can see them movingslowly.For this reason the beach is heavily protected by thegovernment.
  4. 4. DERINKUYU UNDERGROUND CITY There are so many undergroundcities at Cappadocia area of Turkey.Noone can know how manyunderground cities there are. Thebiggest and deepest is DerinkuyuUnderground City. There are eight floorsand extend at a depth of approximately85 m.Between the third and fourthlevels is a vertical staircase. Thispassage way leads to a cruciform churchon the lowest level. First built by thePhrygians in the 8th–7th centuriesB.C .The city could be closed from insidewith large stone doors. Withstorerooms and wells that made longstays possible, the city had air shaftswhich are up to 100 feet (30 m) deep.Derinkuyu is the largest excavatedunderground city in Turkey. Thecomplex has a total 11 floors. Each floorcould be closed off separately. The citywas connected with other undergroundcities through miles of long tunnels. Thecity could accommodate between20,000 and 50,000 people.
  5. 5. GARDEN OF RELIGIONS Garden of Religions, where there are three places of worship; Amosque, a church and a synagogue in Belek near Antalya,welcomes people from all over the world. This is the onlyplace where there are three religions together after Jerusalem. It isflooded with light and radiate comfort and feeling of security.“There is only one god. We are indeed all brothers and sisters” saysthe person ,who happily invites visitors to join him on a guided tour.
  6. 6. KAÇKAR MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK Turkey forms a natural bridge between thecontinents of Asia, Africa and Europe. In particular,the country occupies a unique geographical positionat the crossroads between Central Asia and MiddleEast. The Kaçkar Mountain National Park, created in1994, covers 51,500 hectares and is situated in theEast Black Sea Region in the north-eastern corner ofTurkey.The Kaçkar Mountain National Park includesthe highest and longest Mountain chain of the EastBlack Sea Mountains with the Kaçkar (3,932 m) as thehighest peak. The mountain massif of the Kaçkar alsorepresents one of the most highly glaciated areas ofthe Turkish mountains. Today, there are five largeglaciers in the Park, which contributes to thebiological diversity of the East Black SeaMountains.There are 11 villages and 44 plateaus orsummer pastures and seasonal herders living in theEast Black Sea Region use the national park as apastureland. Tourism activities provide a significantcontribution to the rural economy
  7. 7. KIZ KULESI ( LEANDER’S TOWER) Leander’s Tower is one theIstanbul Strait oppositeSalacak. The tower was builtin the 12th century during theByzantine Period. It was occasionally used asa prison but it was actuallyintended as a light house forshipping.The present shape ofthe tower was realised duringthe reign of Sultan Mehmetthe Conqueror and laterSultan Mahmut II.
  8. 8. MARDIN Mardin located between Dicle River and Firat Riveris one of the oldest city of Mesopotamia Area on theupper Mesopotamia and the settlement in the areastart before 4500 B.C. and was first established onthe top of a mountain in the area. Those artifacts , constructions and architecturesleft from Subari, Sumer / Sumerians, Akad, Babil /Babylon, Mitanni, Asur, Persian, Byzantine, Seljuks,Arabs, Artuklu and Ottoman Empire that Mardinserved and the artifacts left from those empires andkingdoms makes the city as an open air museum forthe visitors. The rich archeological pieces andmaterials, architectural and historical values makesthe Mardin a poem city on eastern Anatolia. Beside the tombs , mosques and monasteries andchurches constructed in the name of different beliefsthe city was also on the road of the Ancient Silk Roadtherefore there are plenty of Caravansaries and Hansin the area.Traditional Mardin Houses are thearchitecture to represent the shape of the whole city.
  9. 9. ULUDAG MOUNTAIN (BURSA) Uludağ is a mountain in BursaProvince, Turkey, with an altitude of2,543 m (8,343 ft). It is a popular centerfor winter sports such as skiing, and anational park of rich flora and fauna.Summer activities, such as trekking andcamping, also are popular.
  10. 10. HISTORY OF OUR REGION MEDITERRANEAN AND OUR CITY ANTALYA In Antiquity, the coastal region where Antalya is located was known as ‘Pamphylia’ and prehistoricartefacts have been found here that date back to the Paleolithic Era.From 560 to 546 BC, the region wasdominated by the Lydians, and then by the Persians until Alexander the great subdued Anatolia in 334-333 BC.King Attalos of Pergamum founded the city of ‘Attaleia’ in the 2nd century BC. Attaleia wasindependent for a short time following the fall of the kingdom of Pergamum in 133 BC, but the fell intothe hands of pirates. It was later in corparated into the Roman Empire in 77 BC. An important sea port,Attaleia hosted such figures as Pompeius in 67 BC, and Hadrian in 130 AD. The possession of the citywas juggled between the Seljuks and Byzantines from the 7th century onward until GıyaseddinKeyhüsrev made the city a part of the Seljuk Empire in 1207.Eventually Antalya was added to theOttoman Empire by Yıldırım Beyazıt in 1391.The city significantly advanced in architecture and cultureduring both the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. In 1919 Italians occupied Antalya because of the Mondros Treaty but then in 1921 they left Antalya.In1923 Republic of Turkey was founded and now Antalya is one of the wonderful city of Turkey. The city was subsequently visited by many individuals and travellers of historical importance fromQueen Cleopatra and Hadrian to Alaaddin Keykubat and Atatürk –Attalos regarded the region as“heaven on earth” while Atatürk descibed it as “ the most beautiful place in the world”. Evliya Çelebiinforms us that foreigners expressed their astonishment with the exclamation “Ah Adalya” referring tothe name Antalya had then.Nowadays Antalya is known as “the pearl of the Mediterranean and TurkishRiviera” being one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.
  11. 11. HADRIAN’S GATE ANTALYA It is one of the best-preserved historicstructures in Antalya.The gate was built in 130AD in honour of the Roman EmperorHadrian.It is made of white marble except forthe columns and decorated with reliefs andengravings.
  12. 12. KARAIN CAVE Karain Cave is located 30 km northwest ofAntalya.Besides its attractive naturalfeatures, it is also remarkable as one of theoldest human settlements in Anatolia.Archaeological excavations conducted in thecave have unearthed artefacts from the earlyMiddle and late Stone ages and Chalcolithicand Bronze ages as well as traces of latereras. It was used in later periods as a temple.That’s why Karain Cave has a primeimportance in history.
  13. 13. LOWER DUDEN WATERFALL-ANTALYA The Düden river reaches the sea and itsdrop height is greater than the upper fall,dropping from a height almost 40 metres tocreate a gigantic water spray and cloud ofmist over the sea.
  14. 14. OLYMPOS Phaselis is in the west part of Antalya and is between Kemer andAdrasan. After passing Phaselis on the Antalya-Kumluca highway, signpostsleading to Olympos and Cirali will be seen and Olympos can be reached byfollowing either route. Cirali is the name of the village near Olympos, whichwas a port city established in the 2nd century and which continued toflourish until the 15th century A.D. The famous myth of Bellerophontes issaid to have taken place here. The antique city is on two sides of a beautifulvalley. A sandy beach is found where the town and the valley meet the sea,into which a mountain stream flows. An hours walk from Olympos bringsyou to the natural phenomenon of Cirali. Known by the local inhabitants asthe " burning mountain " (Yanartas), it is a result of escaping natural gas,whose flames have been shooting heavenwards for centuries.
  15. 15. YIVLI MINARET MOSQUE-ANTALYA It is the oldest example of a multi-domedmosque with its Yivli Minaret in Anatolia. This13th century Seljuk edifice is one of the earliestIslamic structures in Antalya.The minaret has 8vertical grooves in the body and has become asymbol of modern Antalya.
  16. 16. TURKISH CUISINE Turkish cuisine is renowned as one of the worlds best. It is considered to be one of the three main cuisines of the world because of the variety of its recipes, its use of natural ingredients, its flavours and tastes which appeal to all palates and its influence throughout Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. The cuisine originated in central Asia, the first home of the Turks, and then evolved with the contributions of the inland and Mediterranean cultures with which Turks interacted after their arrival in Anatolia. Turkish cuisine is in a sense a bridge between far-Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, with the accent always on enhancing the natural taste and flavour of the ingredients. There is no one dominant element in Turkish cuisine, like sauces in French and pasta in Italian cuisines.
  17. 17. KARNIYARIK (Stuffed Eggplants) Ingredients:•6 thin and long medium-size eggplants•salt•sunflower oil , for frying•2 onions , chopped•14 ounces ground beef or 14 ounces lam•1 tablespoon tomato paste.•2 large tomatoes•1 teaspoon ground cinnamon•1/2 teaspoon ground allspice• black pepper•1/3 cup chopped flat leaf parsley•1 cup tomato juice Preparation: Trim the caps but leave the stems on the eggplants. Peel 1/2-inch-wide strips off of the skins lengthwise, leaving alternate 1/2-inchstrips of peel. Soak the eggplants in water mixed with 1 tbsp of salt for 30 minutes, then drain and dry them. Fry them very briefly in hotshallow oil, 2 or 3 in the skillet at a time, turning to brown them lightly all over. Drain them on paper towels. For the filling, fry the onion in another pan in 2 or 3 tbsp of oil until it is soft. Add the meat and cook for about 5 minutes, crushing itwith a fork and turning it over until it changes color. Add the tomato paste and one of the tomatoes, peeled and chopped, and thecinnamon, allspice, salt, pepper, and chopped parsley. Stir well and simmer for about 10 minutes, until the liquid is reduced. Place the eggplants side by side in a single layer in a baking dish. With a sharp pointed knife, make a slit in each one, length wise, alongone of the bare strips on the top until about 1 inch from each end. Carefully open the slits and, with a dessertspoon, press against theflesh on the insides to make a hallow pocket. Fill each of the eggplants with some of the filling, and place a slice of the remaining tomato on top. Pout the tomato juice into the dish,cover with foil, and bake in an oven preheated to 350F for about 40 minutes, or until eggplants are soft.
  18. 18. KOFTE (MEATBALL) Ingredients 750 grams minced meat (lamb/mutton or beef, a mixture works well)2 small onions, finely chopped or grated2 slices of dry bread (without the crust)1 whole egg1 bunch of parsley1 teaspoon cumin3 teaspoons salt Preparation Soak the slices of bread in water, until they’re properly sopping. Squeeze out excess water, and crumble the bread over the meatin a big bowl. (The bread can be omitted if you wish to avoid it). Then add in all the other ingredients, and knead well. Scoop up eggsized pieces of the mixture, and roll them in your hand to shape them into short stubby fingers. Fry on a medium heat until nicelybrown. Serve hot with fresh bread, raw onions, salad or chillies. PIYAZ Steep a couple of mugs of white beans overnight. The day after, boil them for 40-50 mins. Put them in a shallow bowl and sprinkle with vinegar. Cut an onion into half-moons and add to the beans. Roughly chop half a bunch of parsley, chop a red pepper into cubes andadd these to the beans also. Now you can make the dressing - this is what makes piyaz taste sospecial! You can play about with this to suit your taste. Pour about half a mug of vinegar, 1 tbsp of tahini, 2 tbsp of olive oil anda pinch of salt and pepper into a jar, stick the lid on and give it a good shake. Pour over the beans and carefully mix everything togetherDecorate yourpiyaz to make it look pretty - hard boiled eggs are an essential part of the dish.Use cherry tomatoes and black olives. Piyaz is the ultimate when served with köfte.
  19. 19. Vine Leave Wraps with Olive OilIngredientsVine leaves - 150 gramsWater 2 2/3 cups Preparation:Salt 3 teaspoons Wash the vine leaves and remove the coarse stems. Put the water and aOnion 6 big 600 grams teaspoon of salt in a pot. Bring to boil and add half of the leaves. Simmer them forOlive oil ¾ cup 4-5 minutes, turning over once. Simmer the other half in similar fashion. MeasurePine nuts 2 tablespoon the cooking liquid and complete it to 2 3/4 cups and set aside.Rice 1 1/3 cup Peel the onions, wash and chop finely, place in pot together with oil and nuts,Sugar 2 teaspoons cover and sauté for 20 minutes over low heat, stirring occasionally. Stir a few time with the lid removed so that the nuts are browned. Wash and drain the rice andCurrants 2 tablespoons add to the pot and stir a couple of times. Add the remaining salt, sugar and the 1 ¾Parsley 1 small size bunch 40 grams cups of the hot cooking liquid, stir and sprinkle with currants. Simmer it on firstDill 1 small size bunch 30 grams medium and then low heat for 10-15 minutes, until all the liquid is reduced. WashFresh mint 10-15 leaves 10 grams the parsley and the dill and remove the stems and chop finely. Add them to theCinnamon ¾ teaspoon cooked rice together with mint, spices and the lemon juice and leave covered forBlack pepper ¾ teaspoon 10 minutes. Place the vine leaves so that the side with veins face inside whenAll spice ½ teaspoon wrapped. Place the prepared filling to one side, fold the side edges over he fillingLemon juice 2 tablespoons and then wrap it. Cover the bottom of a shallow saucepan with vine leaves and theLemon 1 medium size (100 grams) removed parsley and dill stems and place the wrapped vine leaves over them. Place a heat-proof flat plate over the leave wraps (dolmas). Heat the remaining boiling liquid and add to the pan slowly, pouring from the edge of the dolmas. Cover and simmer over low heat for 50 minutes. Transfer to a serving dish when cool, and garnish with lemon slices.
  20. 20. KUNEFE Ingredients:•Sugar ½ Cup•Water ¾ Cup•Lemon juice 2 teaspoon•Pistachionuts (chopped) ¾ Cup•Margarine 1 Spoon•Kadayİf (Shredded pastry) – 500 gr Preparation: Combine sugar and water in a saucepan. Stir over low heat until sugaris dissolved. Boil gently for 5 minutes. Add lemon juice; stir. Boil for 1minute. Set aside. Combine kadayıf shreds and melted butter in a pan.Break. Kadayif shreds in butter blending well with tips of finger. Divideinto half. Spread one half in a slightly greased baking pan 25x35 cm ( 9x9inch). Pres with finger slightly. Sprinkle with crushed or ground nuts. Pressagain using a spoon. Repeat same with remaining half, pressing firmly thistime. Bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes or until golden Brown.Remove from oven. Let stand for 2 minutes. Pour warm syrup over. Coverand let stand until syrup is absorbed. Cut into 5-6 cm squares. Arrange ona serving plate. Serve warm or cold.
  21. 21. ASHURE (NOAH’S ARK PUDDING) Preparation: Wash the barley thoroughly. Measure 4 cups of water inIngredients: a pot and bring to boil in high heat. Immediately add the 1 cup barley barley and cook for 10 minutes. Stir occasionally. Turn •1 cup white kidney beans the heat off and leave the barley (in this water) overnight. •1 cup chickpeas or garbanzos Repeat the same procedure for the chickpeas and white •1 cup rice (short-grain) kidney beans leaving them overnight in the same water •1 cup raisins they were boiled in. •1 cup sugar Measure 4 cups of water in (each) three separate pots. •10 cups water Boil the barley, white kidney beans and chickpeas until •10 pcs dried apricots (diced) cooked. Discard the water they were cooked in and •10 pcs dried figs (diced) leave to drain. •1 tbsp orange rind Remove the skins of the white kidney beans and •1 tsp cinnamon chickpeas. •1 tsp vanilla extract In a big pot (this will be your main pot), put in 10 cups of •1 tsp lemon juice (optional) water. Garnish : Add the barley, white kidney beans, chickpeas, rice, •walnuts (crushed) orange rind and bring to a boil for about 10 -15 minutes •dried figs (diced & previously soaked in warm water) over high heat. •dried apricots (diced & previously soaked in warm water) Stir and add the sugar, raisins, dried apricots, dried figs, and the rest of the ingredients while reducing the temperature to medium heat. You may also add water from time to time if its necessary since the barley absorbs a lot of water. Stir occasionally. Continue boiling for another 15-20 minutes or until fully cooked. Turn off the heat and leave the pot to rest for about half an hour. Pour into small bowls and garnish with diced dried figs & apricots, chopped walnuts, and fresh pomegranate seeds (optional). Afiyet Olsun! (Its the Turkish way of saying, "Have a good appetite!")
  22. 22. "Bu proje T.C. Avrupa Birliği Bakanlığı, AB Eğitim ve Gençlik Programları Merkezi Başkanlığınca (Ulusal Ajans http://www.ua.gov.tr)yürütülen Hayatboyu Öğrenme Programı kapsamında ve Avrupa Komisyonundan sağlanan hibeyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ancak burada yeralan görüşlerden Ulusal Ajans veya Avrupa Komisyonu sorumlu tutulamaz."