KHAWAR SHAHZAD ME113009 MALIK HASSAN ME113122UMER RIAZ AHMED ME113013
• History of Turkey started from• WHERE? For History of that land we will see what?
Latin name is Asia Minor. It encompasses the central uplands of modern Turkey from the coastal plain of the Aegean Sea east to the mountains on the Armenian border and from the narrow coast of the Black Sea south to the Taurus mountains.
It is found in several archaeological sites located in the central and eastern part of the region. Some of the earliest peoples are shrouded in mystery, the remnants of Hattian and Hittite culture provides us examples of the daily lives of its citizens and their trade. After the fall of the Hittites, the new states of Phrygia and Lydia stood strong on the western coast as Greek civilization began to flourish. Threat from a Persian kingdom prevented them from past success.
As Persia grew, their system of local control in Anatolia allowed many port cities to grow and to become very wealthy. Their governors did revolt from time to time, but it did not really pose a serious threat. Alexander the Great, wrested control of the whole region from Persia in successive battles and achieved marked victories over his Persian. Control of Anatolia was strengthened by Rome. Local control allowed to Govern and provided military protection. During the reign of Constantine the Great, a new eastern empire was established referred to by historians as the Byzantine Empire.
This is known as the Constantine1 was first Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 to convert to Christianity. Constantine built a new imperial residence in place of Byzantium which would later be the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for over one thousand years. He is thought of as the founder of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Constantinesucceeded initially due to its vast wealth and judicious rulers, but soon suffered from widespread neglect and a new empire borne from the earlier Mongol advance, the Turks. The armies of the Seljuk and Ilkhanate gradually overran the vital trading centers under scope of Byzantine influence. The Ottoman Turks, under the command of Sultan Mehmet II, finally destroyed the Byzantine Empire when they conquered Constantinople in 1453.
The Ottoman Empire in Anatolia allowed other religions to maintain themselves long after 1453, and built upon their success by enlarging their territories, from North Africa to Europe beyond Thrace. Wars with Russia and other peoples in revolt prevented the Ottomans from taking advantage of their powerful position, and declined under ineffective leadership. Even their highly skilled army, the janissaries, were eventually disbanded after an attempted revolt.
Reforms designed to improve the economy backfired as burdensome taxes and levies turned away profitable trade and desperation allowed the Empire to be sucked into World War I on the side of Germany and Austria. Following their defeat in the war, the Ottoman Empire was carved up and was now limited to Anatolia, but Greek aims in the region caused new tensions that boiled over into full-scale war. It was this war that allowed Mustafa Kemal Atatürk to make Anatolia into the new Republic of Turkey by defeating the Greeks and abolishing the Ottoman government for good in 1922.
From the rule of Augustus onwards up until that of Constantine I, Anatolia enjoyed relative peace that allowed itself to grow as a region. The emperor Augustus removed all debts owed to the Roman Empire. Roads were built to connect the larger cities in order to improve trade and transportation, and the abundance of high outputs in agricultural pursuits made more money for everyone involved.
Settlement was encouraged, and local governors did not place a heavy burden upon the people with regards to taxation. The wealth gained from the peace and prosperity prevented great tragedy as powerful earthquakes tore through the region, and help was given from the Roman government and other parties.
By the middle of the 3rd century, everything that had been built by peace was being threatened by a new enemy, the Goths.
The constant instability of the Roman Empire as a whole gradually made it more and more difficult to control. Upon the ascension of the emperor Constantine in 330, he made a bold decision by removing himself from Rome and into a new capital. Located in the old city of Byzantium, now known as Constantinople after the emperor It was strengthened and improved in order to assure more defense of the whole region.
Itwas added the Constantines favor of Christianity.
Migrationof Turks in Anatolia started in the eleventh century. In the following centuries, the local population were slowly assimilated with the Turkish people, however the majority of the DNA of the inhabitants of modern turkey has been found to have been from the native Anatolian population rather than central Asian Turkic tribes.
Theconquest of Anatolia by Turkic peoples and the rise of the Great Seljuk Empire began in the 11th century.
TheByzantine–Arab Wars were a series of wars between the Arab Caliphates and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 12th centuries AD.
Arab Conquests of Roman Syria : 633 – 638 Arab Conquests of North Africa : 639 – 698 Arabs attacks on Anatolia
FIRST WORLD WAR First world war was started on 28 July 1914 and end on 11 November 1918. In this war there was two major blocks.
FIRST BLOCK Wilhelm II Central Powers KarlI• Germany Mimed V• Austria Enver Pasha• Hungry Mustafa Kemal• Ottoman Empire Ataturk• Bulgaria Franz Joseph I and others
SECOND BLOCK COMMANDERS ALLIED POWERS Raymond Poincaré• France Georges Clemenceau British Empire Ferdinand Foch Russia (1914–17) H. H. Asquith Italy (1915–18) David Lloyd George United States (1917–18) Douglas Haig Romania (1916–18) Nicholas II Japan Nicholas Nikolaevich Serbia Antonio Salandra Belgium Vittorio Orlando Greece (1917–18) Luigi Cadorna Portugal (1916–18) Woodrow Wilson Montenegro (1914–16) John J. Pershing and others and others
MAJOR IMPERIAL POWERS• At the end of the war, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—had been militarily and politically defeated and ceased to exist.
ATATURK Ataturk is the national hero of Turkey. He was born in the year 1881 in Thessaloniki. His background was military, and he served in various posts in the Ottoman army during the first world war.
When the War ended the armies of the allied forces occupied nearly all corners of the country including Istanbul. Sultan and many of the people saw a hopeful future in the acceptance of either the British or American mandate. Ataturk, however, had a very different vision. He left Istanbul in a small boat, namely Bandirma ( a nice model of the boat may be seen at the Ataturk Museum in Ataturks Mausoleum, Ankara), going ashore at Samsun, a coastal town in the Black Sea, on the 19th. of May 1919 ( a date later to be presented by Ataturk to the Turkish Youth as the Turkish Youth Day), the day the War of Independence began. He wanted Independence.
First with skirmishes , in time with proper army troops, Ataturk and his army friends armies started fighting the enemy. Ankara was chosen to be Ataturks headquarter for its central location and the seeds of a new country were planted there. He and his friends wanted to replace the Monarchy with a Republic. The War of Independence took some three years and by the end of the year 1922, all of the invaders had left the country. The Ottoman Sultan fled in a British boat. The birth of a new nation had begun.
The Independence day of Turkey is 29 Oct 1923. The first president of Turkey was Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. As President for 15 years, until his death in 1938, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introduced a broad range of swift and sweeping reforms - in the political, social, legal, economic, and cultural spheres - virtually unparalleled in any other country.
There are 81 provinces of turkey. Its total population is 78,785,548 (July 2011 est.) Population growth rate 1.235% (2011 est.) Birth rate 17.93 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) Death rate 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
ATATURK REFORMS1.Political Reforms2. Social Reforms3. Reforms in the fields of education and culture4. Economic Reforms5. Women Rights
Political Reforms• The Sultanate was abolished (1st November 1922)• The Republic was declared (29 October 1923)• Abolishment of the caliph (3 March 1924)
Social Reforms• International numeric system was introduced.• Adoption of the solar calendar and changing Friday into a weekday and Sunday becoming the official day of rest of the week.• Adoption of international hours and measurements.
Reforms in the fields of education and culture• Unification of education. Abolition of Medreses, renovations of school programs according to contemporary and national needs, opening of new universities• Innovations in fine arts• Regulation of the university education
Economic Reforms• Encouragement of the farmers.•• Establishment of model farms.•• Establishment of industrial facilities.• He develop transportation networks.
Women Rights• Rights for women to be elected for the parliament.• "Everything we see in the world is the creative work of women." ( M. Kemal Atatürk )
Top Facts To Know about Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 1 – He founded the Republic of Turkey in 1923. Previously it was part of the Ottoman Empire. 2 – Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is refereed to as the father of all Turks. 3 – He abolished the Islamic justice system and adopted western justice and law methods.
4 – He introduced the Turkish Language and helped a whole country to learn it within five years.5 – He made it law that women could wear their own choice of clothing. Previously the headscarf was compulsory.6– He banned the headscarf from all government and education buildings.
7 – Thanks to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkey is now the only country in the world that is an Islamic democracy. 8 – He moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara where it was less vulnerable to attack. 9 – 10th of November of every year is Mustafa Kemal Ataturk day in Turkey. Flags of him will be put up in streets, out of the windows and houses. Schools will also have a minute’s silence.
The period of presidency between Mustafa kamal and Abdullah Gul is as under :- Celâl Bayar (1883–1986) Cemal Gürsel (1895–1966) Cevdet Sunay (1899–1982)
Ahmet Necdet Sezer (1941– ) Abdullah Gül (1950– ) NowAbdullah Gul is the president and Rejeb Tayyab Erdogan is the Prime Minster of turkey.
Rejeb Tayyab Erdogan has been elected three times as prime minister. In 2002(with 34% of popular vote) In 2007(with 47%) In 2011(with 49%)