Diabetes Type II

LORA YOAKUM, RN
Diabetes Clinical Coordinator
Type 2 Diabetes
• Definition:
   – Type 2 diabetes is a
     chronic (lifelong) disease
     marked by high levels of
    ...
Risk Factors

• High blood sugar
• Obesity
• Family
  history/genetics
• Inactivity
• Poor diet
Risk Factors (cont)
• Other risk factors include:
  – Age greater than 45 years
  – HDL cholesterol of less than 35 mg/dL
...
Symptoms
•   No symptoms
•   Blurred vision
•   Fatigue
•   Frequent or slow-healing
    infections
•   Increased appetite...
Exams and Tests

• Fasting blood sugar level
• Oral glucose tolerance test
• A1c or HbA1c
  – 3-6 month average of blood s...
Prevention
•   Screening
•   Maintain a healthy body weight
•   Talk about any problems you are having
•   Exercise
•   Vi...
Diet and Weight Control

• Choose healthy
  foods
• Eat controlled
  portions
• Manage weight
• Exercise
Regular Physical Activity
• Exercise daily
• See health care provider
  before starting any exercise
  program
• Monitor b...
Taking Care of Diabetes
• Check blood pressure
• Check hemoglobin
  (A1c)
   – every 6 months if your
     diabetes is wel...
Taking Care of Diabetes (cont)

• Complete
  examination/physical
• Blood pressure check
• Glycosylated hemoglobin
  (HbA1...
Foot Care
• Diabetes can damage
  nerves
• Diabetes can also
  damage blood
  vessels.
• To prevent injury to
  the feet, ...
Taking care of Diabetes (cont)

• Some people may
  take more than 1
  medication
• Most medications are
  taken by mouth ...
Taking care of Diabetes (cont)

• Maintain vaccinations
  – Pneumonia for
    patients over 60 or
    with lung disease
• ...
Taking care of Diabetes (cont)

• See the dentist every
  6 months for a dental
  cleaning and exam
• Make sure your
  den...
Taking care of Diabetes (cont)

• Get yearly kidney test
  – to make sure your are
    working well
• Visit your eye docto...
Possible Complications
• Heart Disease
    – CAD (coronary artery disease)
• Stroke
• Poor circulation
    – PVD (peripher...
Possible Complications
• Long-term
  complications
  – Atherosclerosis
    (plaque in arteries)
  – Coronary artery
    di...
Prevention
For more information
on Type II Diabetes,
please visit the
American Diabetes
Association at
www.diabetes.org
or...
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Diabetes

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Know your risk factors for Diabetes Type II in order to prevent it and learn about diabetes management if you already have been diagnosed.

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Diabetes

  1. 1. Diabetes Type II LORA YOAKUM, RN Diabetes Clinical Coordinator
  2. 2. Type 2 Diabetes • Definition: – Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. It begins when the body does not respond correctly to insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. • Alternative Names: – Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes - type 2; – Adult-onset diabetes
  3. 3. Risk Factors • High blood sugar • Obesity • Family history/genetics • Inactivity • Poor diet
  4. 4. Risk Factors (cont) • Other risk factors include: – Age greater than 45 years – HDL cholesterol of less than 35 mg/dL – Triglyceride level of greater than 250 mg/dL – High blood pressure – BMI (body mass index) >25 – History of gestational diabetes – Impaired glucose tolerance test – Race/ethnicity
  5. 5. Symptoms • No symptoms • Blurred vision • Fatigue • Frequent or slow-healing infections • Increased appetite • Increased thirst • Increased urination • Erectile dysfunction
  6. 6. Exams and Tests • Fasting blood sugar level • Oral glucose tolerance test • A1c or HbA1c – 3-6 month average of blood sugar • Cholesterol • B/P
  7. 7. Prevention • Screening • Maintain a healthy body weight • Talk about any problems you are having • Exercise • Visit your health care provider yearly and as needed if at risk
  8. 8. Diet and Weight Control • Choose healthy foods • Eat controlled portions • Manage weight • Exercise
  9. 9. Regular Physical Activity • Exercise daily • See health care provider before starting any exercise program • Monitor blood glucose levels before and after exercise. • Wear a diabetes identification bracelet • Drink extra fluids that do not contain sugar before, during, and after exercise.
  10. 10. Taking Care of Diabetes • Check blood pressure • Check hemoglobin (A1c) – every 6 months if your diabetes is well controlled – otherwise every 3 months • Check cholesterol and triglyceride levels yearly – aim for LDL levels below 100 mg/dL
  11. 11. Taking Care of Diabetes (cont) • Complete examination/physical • Blood pressure check • Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) • Fasting blood glucose • Total cholesterol panel • Nerve exam (Neurology) • Eye exam (Ophthalmology)
  12. 12. Foot Care • Diabetes can damage nerves • Diabetes can also damage blood vessels. • To prevent injury to the feet, check and care for your feet every day.
  13. 13. Taking care of Diabetes (cont) • Some people may take more than 1 medication • Most medications are taken by mouth or injection.
  14. 14. Taking care of Diabetes (cont) • Maintain vaccinations – Pneumonia for patients over 60 or with lung disease • Get a flu shot every year in the fall
  15. 15. Taking care of Diabetes (cont) • See the dentist every 6 months for a dental cleaning and exam • Make sure your dentist and hygienist know that you have diabetes
  16. 16. Taking care of Diabetes (cont) • Get yearly kidney test – to make sure your are working well • Visit your eye doctor – preferably one who specializes in diabetic retinopathy – once a year, or more often if you have signs or symptoms of changes in the eyes
  17. 17. Possible Complications • Heart Disease – CAD (coronary artery disease) • Stroke • Poor circulation – PVD (peripheral vascular disease) • High Blood Pressure • High Cholesterol • Infections of the skin and urinary tract • Erectile dysfunction
  18. 18. Possible Complications • Long-term complications – Atherosclerosis (plaque in arteries) – Coronary artery disease – Diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease) – Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) – Diabetic retinopathy (eye disease)
  19. 19. Prevention For more information on Type II Diabetes, please visit the American Diabetes Association at www.diabetes.org or CDC at www.cdc.gov/Diabetes

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