Development Model for the
Cloud
Paradigm Shift of the Same Old Same Old?

Dr. Umit Yalcinalp,
Salesforce.com
Developer Eva...
Computing History
Reduce Complexity, Do More

   Turing Machines
   Assembly code
   Programming Languages
   Applicat...
Striving Towards Less Complexity
   Punch Cards
   Cobol
   C++
   Platforms
   Application Servers
   Scripting and...
Take Application Servers as an Example…
  Essential Built in services
    –  Load Balancing
    –  Memory Cache
    –  Tr...
However
Business App Dev Requirements stayed similar…
     Develop an application that has m abstract entities. Define re...
Challenges in traditional way of developing
apps remained…
Infrastructure Services: Hardware
Infrastructure Services: Operating System
Infrastructure Services: Database
Infrastructure Services: App Server
Application Services
Operational Services
Business Services
How do many developers make this happen?
Putting it together: Duct Tape!
Complexities Abound
                               to Final Destination
                                                  ...
Now comes along Cloud Computing Paradigm

The chatter and buzz on the street…

   About developing services, platforms an...
Applications Moving to the Cloud




 1960’s      1980’s          Today
 Mainframe   Client/server   Cloud Computing
     ...
Platforms Moving to the Cloud




 1960’s      1980’s          Today
 Mainframe   Client/server   Cloud Computing
        ...
Collaboration Moving to the Cloud




        Lotus Notes                     SharePoint
        Novell GroupWise         ...
Throw in a lot of new technologies …

              Map reduce


                                 Column db

             ...
The Three AmigoS of Cloud Computing
           Cloud Computing Platforms


  Software

                                  ...
?!
Abstractions and Services




    They are all over the Map
Cloud Developer Concerns:
Capabilities Managed Environment
   Abstraction Level
    –  Capabilities
    –  Constraints
 ...
Lets Look at these Cloud Computing Platforms

   Amazon WS
   Microsoft Azure
   Google App Engine (GAE)
   Force.com
Services Available:
  Virtual OS instances EC2
  Data Services
      –  S3
      –  RDS
    Additional Services:
      ...
Developer Perspective

   Hosting Locally Built Infrastructure Deployed Elsewhere
   Hosting Locally Built Apps
   Buil...
Amazon AWS Activity:
   Not about OS and simple data store anymore
   Hosting
     –  Existing Infrastructure Components...
Microsoft Azure Platform:
   Hosting Azure applications on Microsoft Cloud
   Services for backend development (Old and ...
Google App Engine
   Services: Lean App Server Features
     –  JPA API for hiding BigTable
     –  Connection support, C...
Commonalities & Differences Emerge

   Abstracted Large Data Set or SQL
   Managed Environment Limits
   Asynchronous T...
App Services and Application Requirements?
Where do the Application Requirements get
addressed?
    Next Level in PaaS:
    –  Infrastructure
    –  Application Serv...
First Cloud Company to Exceed:


          $1.3 Billion +
           Annual Revenue Run Rate




                         ...
Strong Growth In New Customers

                         67,900+
                         Paying Customers




  FY2002   ...
The Cloud Computing Model


                      Multi-tenant
                      Automatic Upgrades
                  ...
Force.com Platform for Building Applications
Three AmigoS and Force.com


  Software: Applications on Salesforce.com Cloud
      Customizable
      Extensible
  Pl...
Platform - Force.com Philosophy:
                                              •  Common Things Simple
                   ...
Hello World?
Development Process

   Create an “org”: Private on SFDC cluster
    –  A collection of applications
    –  Built on top ...
Two Development Approaches:

   Web Interface
    –  What you build is what you see
    –  Rapid Prototyping
   Eclipse ...
Application
                        Data Model
                                                              Name
Merchand...
Business Logic

                 Declarative Logic (point and click)
                    Field Requiredness/Uniqueness
   ...
Declarative Workflow: Visual Process Manager
Data Model Realized in Default UI   Unlimited Real-Time
                                      Customization
Custom Pages
Sites
Saw that even BigFoot is moving to the
Cloud…
Next Stop Wonderland:
Collaboration for the Enterprise




                        • One can follow any Entity just like a...
Developer’s Toolbox
  Language Runtime: Apex: Java, C# like language
    –  For creating CRUD Logic on Data Model (trigge...
Developer
   Integration Toolkits:
    –  Force.com WS API language bindings in target
      languages, environments
   ...
Differences in Platforms

   Degrees of Abstraction and Tight Integration with Data
    Model
   Abstraction of Applicat...
The Duct Tape Index for Cloud Platforms
Cloud Development Landscape
  Levels of Abstraction
  Application Composition
  Development Environment (local, remote,...
The confusion should not be cloud developer’s
epitaph
Where a developer wants to get…
Conclusion:


   Choose Your Abstraction Level Wisely:
    –  Flexibility(Roll Your Own) vs. Time to Develop(Managed)
   ...
Q & A!

http://developer.force.com!
Twitter: umityalcinalp        !
Typical Development Cycle

   Create your own image/Packaging
    –  Bundle App Server/Application
   Install/Manage Rem...
User Interface: MVC Model   Programmable
                            User Interface
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Development Model for The Cloud

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Development Model for The Cloud

  1. 1. Development Model for the Cloud Paradigm Shift of the Same Old Same Old? Dr. Umit Yalcinalp, Salesforce.com Developer Evangelist
  2. 2. Computing History Reduce Complexity, Do More   Turing Machines   Assembly code   Programming Languages   Application Frameworks   Application Platforms   Application Servers   Scripting and Dynamic Languages   …
  3. 3. Striving Towards Less Complexity   Punch Cards   Cobol   C++   Platforms   Application Servers   Scripting and Dynamic Languages   …
  4. 4. Take Application Servers as an Example…   Essential Built in services –  Load Balancing –  Memory Cache –  Transaction Management –  Connection management   Packaging a full app (war, ear, …)   Security/Authentication   Messaging Infrastructure simplifies tasks   User management   Monitoring and Management of Apps   Versioning   Tooling and Composition   Integration APIs (WS, REST, …)
  5. 5. However Business App Dev Requirements stayed similar…   Develop an application that has m abstract entities. Define relationship between entities.   Display data subset j in a page and update data set if x is true.   Implement and Deploy an application that has n users where a user can belong to one of k different roles   Restrict access of data subset j to user role i when x is true.   If user role has made change p, notify user roles s.   Do {x, y, z, send email, fax, ….to m users} when f happens.   Do f every {day, week, …} when s …   Generate report on … organized by …   Make the application extensible, customizable…   Deploy mobile client for app that maintain disconnected data for user using dataset x.   Integrate app with Twitter, feed, …   Integrate app with Payment System, …
  6. 6. Challenges in traditional way of developing apps remained…
  7. 7. Infrastructure Services: Hardware
  8. 8. Infrastructure Services: Operating System
  9. 9. Infrastructure Services: Database
  10. 10. Infrastructure Services: App Server
  11. 11. Application Services
  12. 12. Operational Services
  13. 13. Business Services
  14. 14. How do many developers make this happen?
  15. 15. Putting it together: Duct Tape!
  16. 16. Complexities Abound to Final Destination Final Application Infrastructure Application Operational Business App Ideas Services Services Services Services Network Security Authentication Ordering Storage Sharing Availability Provisioning Operating System Integration Monitoring Licensing Database Customization Patch Mgmt Billing App Server Web Services Upgrades Renewal Web Server API Backup Upgrades Data Center Multi-Language NOC Marketing Disaster Recovery Multi-Currency Sales Integrated Workflow Analytics Multi-Device Messaging Search
  17. 17. Now comes along Cloud Computing Paradigm The chatter and buzz on the street…   About developing services, platforms and applications   Don’t host but use hosted resources elsewhere   Develop with hosted services, software, platforms   Pay as you go   Consume as you go   Monitor and adopt
  18. 18. Applications Moving to the Cloud 1960’s 1980’s Today Mainframe Client/server Cloud Computing Applications
  19. 19. Platforms Moving to the Cloud 1960’s 1980’s Today Mainframe Client/server Cloud Computing Platforms
  20. 20. Collaboration Moving to the Cloud Lotus Notes SharePoint Novell GroupWise Groove File Sharing 1980’s 2000s Today Work Group Intranet Social Computing Computing Computing
  21. 21. Throw in a lot of new technologies … Map reduce Column db Data service Worker task administration Scheduler What does this new paradigm offer to app developers?…
  22. 22. The Three AmigoS of Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Platforms   Software ?! –  Hosted apps, abstracting APIs, OS, Data storage…   Platform DATA –  Hosted collection of APIs, abstracting OS, data storage, …   Infrastructure –  Hosting virtual servers, OS and some kind of data store
  23. 23. ?!
  24. 24. Abstractions and Services They are all over the Map
  25. 25. Cloud Developer Concerns: Capabilities Managed Environment   Abstraction Level –  Capabilities –  Constraints   Managing the Managed Environment   Cost Indirectly Affecting Development
  26. 26. Lets Look at these Cloud Computing Platforms   Amazon WS   Microsoft Azure   Google App Engine (GAE)   Force.com
  27. 27. Services Available:   Virtual OS instances EC2   Data Services –  S3 –  RDS   Additional Services: –  Load Balancing Servers –  Simple Queue Service –  Elastic MapReduce Processing Large Data Sets •  Job Flows on top of Hadoop –  Different granularity of accessing data (i.e. Pig) •  Monitoring Individual Task Progress …
  28. 28. Developer Perspective   Hosting Locally Built Infrastructure Deployed Elsewhere   Hosting Locally Built Apps   Building Data Management Platform   Testing/Monitoring –  Great Console for Infrastructure Monitoring –  Deployed app still responsibility of developer
  29. 29. Amazon AWS Activity:   Not about OS and simple data store anymore   Hosting –  Existing Infrastructure Components: JEE, DB2, …(composed images) –  Traditionally built apps   What do you build with it –  More infrastructure: DIY app server functions for scalability & composition •  Load Balancing •  Deciding when to take resources offline (in development testing) –  Low Level Data Services •  Large Data Processing (must understand Hadoop…) –  Infrastructure Management Logic   Development Methodology: It Depends!   Managing/Debugging Your App: –  Console (monitoring, debugging, management (upgrades, shutdown)) –  Remote scripts managing specific to installed components
  30. 30. Microsoft Azure Platform:   Hosting Azure applications on Microsoft Cloud   Services for backend development (Old and New) –  Table (Data Storage) –  Asynchronous Worker Tasks –  SQL Azure   Develop/Deploy –  Requires OS+Long list of Packages Installation Locally –  Built/Test on local development environment   Entry Point for developers is Visual Studio –  .NET libraries –  Local debugging –  Local packaging(.cspkg)/Manual deployment to location based Microsoft cloud   Management of Remote Servers/Services –  Requires Server Logs Messages for managing   Very tailored to existing Microsoft developers –  Java developer targeted with Third Party tools porting APIs
  31. 31. Google App Engine   Services: Lean App Server Features –  JPA API for hiding BigTable –  Connection support, Cron like jobs –  User Administration (Google accounts/Roll your own)   Backend development Basics –  BigTable/GFS –  Tasks Queues (experimental)   Built/Test on local development environment –  Naturally independent of OS –  JRE + GAE   Managed Environment Limits   Entry Point: Eclipse –  Develop Locally/Deploy war file Remotely   Remote Monitoring –  System Logs   Multilanguage (Java/PHP)
  32. 32. Commonalities & Differences Emerge   Abstracted Large Data Set or SQL   Managed Environment Limits   Asynchronous Task/Process Management –  Deal with Data Sets –  Working with Managed Environment Limits   Delineation of Development & Production   Art of “System Log” Recording and Monitoring
  33. 33. App Services and Application Requirements?
  34. 34. Where do the Application Requirements get addressed? Next Level in PaaS: –  Infrastructure –  Application Server Capabilities Force.com Platform: Application Services + Integrated End2End Framework
  35. 35. First Cloud Company to Exceed: $1.3 Billion + Annual Revenue Run Rate Quarterly Revenue ($M) FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 Revenue through fiscal quarter ended 10/31/09
  36. 36. Strong Growth In New Customers 67,900+ Paying Customers FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010
  37. 37. The Cloud Computing Model Multi-tenant Automatic Upgrades Pay-as-you-go Elastic Application Development: 5X Faster At half the cost
  38. 38. Force.com Platform for Building Applications
  39. 39. Three AmigoS and Force.com   Software: Applications on Salesforce.com Cloud   Customizable   Extensible   Platform   Infrastructure:   Multitenant Kernel   Data Storage   ISO 20071 Certified Security   Loan Balancing   Replication & Recovery   Transaction Management   Sandboxed Application   Trust (Status Monitoring
  40. 40. Platform - Force.com Philosophy: •  Common Things Simple Complex Things Possible •  Development Activity Distribution • Declarative Development Methodology • Programmable Analytics User Interface •  Metadata Driven with Shared Data Model Logic •  Built in: Customizable UI, Analytics, Integration Distribution, Workflows Data Model •  Iterative Development Paradigm: “See it as you build it” •  Application Sharing/Exchange •  Enforce Good Development Practices Development to Production: Testing
  41. 41. Hello World?
  42. 42. Development Process   Create an “org”: Private on SFDC cluster –  A collection of applications –  Built on top of shared metadata –  Every org becomes live and pre-populated with metadata –  Can accommodate > 1 developers depending on license   Develop/Test   If Sandbox, Complete Tests to Production   Register Custom URL/Expose as Website   “Package” specific app for AppExchange
  43. 43. Two Development Approaches:   Web Interface –  What you build is what you see –  Rapid Prototyping   Eclipse Plugin The App is alive on the cloud
  44. 44. Application Data Model Name Merchandise LineItem Invoice IsDeleted … • Text • Lookup: 1-m • LongText • Master-Detail: • RichText Hierarchical • Boolean • Number • Picklist (single or SOQL: Object Oriented Query Language Multivalue) Metadata • … • Computed Fields • Formula • Rollup
  45. 45. Business Logic Declarative Logic (point and click) Field Requiredness/Uniqueness Audit History Tracking Workflows Rules & Approval Processes Formula-Based Logic (spreadsheet-like) Formula Fields Data Validation Rules Workflows Rules & Approval Processes Procedural Logic (code) Apex Triggers Apex Classes
  46. 46. Declarative Workflow: Visual Process Manager
  47. 47. Data Model Realized in Default UI Unlimited Real-Time Customization
  48. 48. Custom Pages
  49. 49. Sites
  50. 50. Saw that even BigFoot is moving to the Cloud…
  51. 51. Next Stop Wonderland: Collaboration for the Enterprise • One can follow any Entity just like a User • Same Development Paradigm with Any Entity in the platform
  52. 52. Developer’s Toolbox   Language Runtime: Apex: Java, C# like language –  For creating CRUD Logic on Data Model (triggers) –  Executing Queries (SOQL and SOSL) –  Developing Controllers in conjunction with VF Pages –  Background Process Management •  Scheduled Tasks •  Batch Processes for handling large data sets   Eclipse Plugin –  Developed using WS APIs –  Retains only metadata locally –  Allows browsing metadata, dynamic SQL and code execution –  Remote execution, commit of metadata, dynamic code blocks –  Synchronizes live development with an org on the cloud –  Enables versioning locally with external tools
  53. 53. Developer   Integration Toolkits: –  Force.com WS API language bindings in target languages, environments   Packaging Apps for Distribution –  Within an org selecting an app –  Requires Test Implementation   Sandboxing –  A snapshot of metadata (and data) of an existing org –  Requires testing to move to production   Integral Part of Development Process: –  Testing Framework –  Governance Limits
  54. 54. Differences in Platforms   Degrees of Abstraction and Tight Integration with Data Model   Abstraction of Application Server Capabilities   Exposing Application Framework Capabilities   Data Model & Handling and Managing Large Data   Background Process & Task/Queue   Governance Limits   Level of Integration Support   Level of Management Needed from Developer   Tangible and Intangible Cost of using a platform
  55. 55. The Duct Tape Index for Cloud Platforms
  56. 56. Cloud Development Landscape   Levels of Abstraction   Application Composition   Development Environment (local, remote, mixed)   Workflow   Development and Deployment Cycles   Customizability / Extensibility   Integration   Being a Good Citizen   Versioning   Monitoring   Cost of Trying out a Platform
  57. 57. The confusion should not be cloud developer’s epitaph
  58. 58. Where a developer wants to get…
  59. 59. Conclusion:   Choose Your Abstraction Level Wisely: –  Flexibility(Roll Your Own) vs. Time to Develop(Managed) –  Think long term   Being a Good Citizen is Not Optional   Logs and Monitoring Rules in Clouds
  60. 60. Q & A! http://developer.force.com! Twitter: umityalcinalp !
  61. 61. Typical Development Cycle   Create your own image/Packaging –  Bundle App Server/Application   Install/Manage Remotely   Monitor Deployed Services to scale and use –  Are more servers needed? –  Is a bigger database needed? –  Do I need to shut down my servers during development?   Manual Redeployment
  62. 62. User Interface: MVC Model Programmable User Interface

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