Chap 6

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Chap 6

  1. 1. 6 Analyzing Consumer Markets Marketing Management, 13th ed
  2. 2. Chapter Questions • How do consumer characteristics influence buying behavior? • What major psychological processes influence consumer responses to the marketing program? • How do consumers make purchasing decisions? • How do marketers analyze consumer decision making? Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  3. 3. What Influences Consumer Behavior? • Cultural factors • Social factors • Personal factors Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  4. 4. What is Culture? Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behaviors acquired through socialization processes with family and other key institutions. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  5. 5. Subcultures • • • • Nationalities Religions Racial groups Geographic regions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  6. 6. Fast Facts About American Culture • The average American: • • • • chews 300 sticks of gum a year goes to the movies 9 times a year takes 4 trips per year attends a sporting event 7 times each year Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  7. 7. Social Classes • • • • • • • Upper uppers Lower uppers Upper middles Middle Working Upper lowers Lower lowers Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  8. 8. Characteristics of Social Classes • Within a class, people tend to behave alike • Social class conveys perceptions of inferior or superior position • Class may be indicated by a cluster of variables (occupation, income, wealth) • Class designation is mobile over time Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  9. 9. Social Factors • • • • Reference groups Family Social roles Statuses Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  10. 10. Reference Groups • • • • • Membership groups Primary groups Secondary groups Aspirational groups Disassociative groups Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  11. 11. Family Distinctions Affecting Buying Decisions • Family of Orientation • Family of Procreation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  12. 12. Personal Factors • • • • Age Life cycle stage Occupation Wealth • • • • Personality Values Lifestyle Self-concept Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  13. 13. Brand Personality • • • • • Sincerity Excitement Competence Sophistication Ruggedness Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  14. 14. Lifestyle Influences • Multi-tasking • Time-starved • Money-constrained Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  15. 15. Table 6.2 LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability) Market Segments • • • • • Sustainable Economy Healthy Lifestyles Ecological Lifestyles Alternative Health Care Personal Development Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  16. 16. Key Psychological Processes • • • • Motivation Perception Learning Memory Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  17. 17. Motivation Freud’s Theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Behavior is guided by subconscious motivations Behavior is driven by lowest, unmet need Behavior is guided by motivating and hygiene factors Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • • • • • Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  19. 19. Perception • • • • Selective attention Selective retention Selective distortion Subliminal perception Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  20. 20. Figure 6.4 Consumer Buying Process • • • • • Problem recognition Information search Evaluation Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  21. 21. Sources of Information • • • • Personal Commercial Public Experiential Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  22. 22. Non-Compensatory Models of Choice • Conjunctive • Lexicographic • Elimination-by-aspects Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  23. 23. Perceived Risk • • • • • • Functional Physical Financial Social Psychological Time Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  24. 24. Other Theories of Consumer Decision Making Involvement • Elaboration Likelihood Model • Low-involvement marketing strategies • Variety-seeking buying behavior Decision Heuristics • Availability • Representativeness • Anchoring and adjustment Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  25. 25. Mental Accounting • Consumers tend to… • • • • Segregate gains Integrate losses Integrate smaller losses with larger gains Segregate small gains from large losses Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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