Aquaculture : Unfilled Needs and Opportunities
R.L. Stotish, AquaBounty Technologies
World Aquaculture Production 2012
Country Tonnes % Global
China 36,734,215 61.4
India 4,648,851 7.8
Vietnam 2,671,800 4.5
...
Volume of U.S. imports of selected fish and shellfish products
Product
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Jan-Dec
12
Jan-Dec
13
Volu...
Shrimp Tilapia Salmon
Canada 74
Chile 120
China 36 185 9
Denmark 1
Costa Rica
Columbia 4
Ecuador 82 6
Faroe Isl. 17
Hondur...
Economics of Dependence on Foreign Producers
Food group 2012
Total U.S. food imports 1/ 105,971.4
Live meat animals 2,189....
NOAA
Fisheries of the United States, 2012
In 2011 Americans consumed 15 lbs. of seafood per person
(global per capita cons...
Approved Drugs
Immersion
Formalin
Formalin-F™ - NADA 137-687 | FOI Summary |
Formacide-B - ANADA 200-414 | FOI Summary |
P...
Fish Vaccines approved in US
NOVARTIS ANIMAL HEALTH US, INC.,
1. Aeromonas Salmonicida Bacterin, Product Code 2035.02 , fo...
Revision Date: February 2011
Guide to Using Drugs, Biologics, and Other Chemicals in Aquaculture
Table 2. Low regulatory p...
Epizootic haematopoietic
necrovirus
EHNV Yes
Red sea bream iridovirus RSIV Yes
Infectious
haematopoietic necrosis
virus
IH...
RNA Virus Abbreviation OIE
Yellow head virus YHV Yes
Taura Syndrome
Virus
TSV Yes
Infectious
myonecrosis virus
IMNV Yes
Ma...
DNA Virus Abbreviation OIE
Monodon
baculovirus
MBV No
Baculoviral midgut
gland necrosis virus
BMNV N
White spot
syndrome v...
Shrimp Finfish Molluscs
Taura Syndrome Infectious Haematopoietic
Necrosis
Bonamia ostreae
White Spot Disease Infectious Sa...
.
Challenge
Intensive production = potential for rapid spread of disease
Lack of effective vaccines or treatments
Frequently...
Why Aquaculture Biotechnology?
• Fish is a healthy food and an efficient source of high quality
protein
• Many of world’s ...
The use of si-RNA technology
may represent an opportunity
for specific therapeutic
solutions for many of the most
damaging...
Seafood is healthy, nutritious, and desirable
Fish are efficient converters of feed to human food
Capture fisheries have b...
Dr. Ronald L. Stotish - Aquaculture: Unfilled Needs and Opportunities
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Dr. Ronald L. Stotish - Aquaculture: Unfilled Needs and Opportunities

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Aquaculture: Unfilled Needs and Opportunities - Ronald L. Stotish, PhD President and Chief Executive Officer of AquaBounty Technologies, from the 2014 NIAA Annual Conference titled 'The Precautionary Principle: How Agriculture Will Thrive', March 31 - April 2, 2014, Omaha, NE, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2014_niaa_how_animal_agriculture_will_thrive

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Dr. Ronald L. Stotish - Aquaculture: Unfilled Needs and Opportunities

  1. 1. Aquaculture : Unfilled Needs and Opportunities R.L. Stotish, AquaBounty Technologies
  2. 2. World Aquaculture Production 2012 Country Tonnes % Global China 36,734,215 61.4 India 4,648,851 7.8 Vietnam 2,671,800 4.5 Indonesia 2,304,828 3.9 Bengladesh 1,308,515 2.2 Thailand 1,286,122 2.2 Norway 1,008,010 1.7 Egypt 919,585 1.5 Myanmar 850,697 1.4 Philipines 744,695 1.2 other 7,395,281 12.35 Total 59,872,600 100 US 495,499 0.8 SOWFA 2012
  3. 3. Volume of U.S. imports of selected fish and shellfish products Product 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Jan-Dec 12 Jan-Dec 13 Volume (1,000 pounds) Trout, fresh and frozen 12,021 16,326 11,082 19,606 18,699 19,606 18,699 Atlantic salmon, fresh 198,260 203,913 192,238 222,310 190,415 222,310 190,415 Pacific salmon, fresh 1/ 12,278 18,956 19,704 9,770 12,153 9,770 12,153 Atlantic salmon, frozen 7,844 6,058 5,694 4,828 5,604 4,828 5,604 Pacific salmon, frozen 1/ 61,750 80,859 85,406 65,491 71,293 65,491 71,293 Atlantic salmon, fillets 220,550 178,871 201,601 276,703 318,147 276,703 318,147 Salmon, canned and prepared 2/ 32,444 27,222 25,167 27,539 37,052 27,539 37,052 Tilapia 3/ 404,132 474,967 433,162 503,644 504,430 503,644 504,430 Shrimp, frozen 896,045 914,925 948,460 923,109 870,934 923,109 870,934 Shrimp, fresh and prepared 4/ 321,372 321,800 323,579 253,452 249,131 253,452 249,131 Oysters 5/ 20,503 23,802 26,779 18,566 19,810 18,566 19,810 Mussels 5/ 57,062 56,921 63,813 75,384 70,949 75,384 70,949 Clams 5/ 37,657 40,145 44,832 45,518 48,586 45,518 48,586 Scallops 5/ 56,262 51,865 56,804 34,021 60,373 34,021 60,373 The last two columns contain data for the previous and current year to date. 1/ Includes salmon with no specific species noted. 2/ Includes smoked and cured salmon. 3/ Frozen whole fish plus fresh and frozen fillets. 4/ Canned, breaded or otherwise prepared. 5/ Fresh or prepared. Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. USDA ERS
  4. 4. Shrimp Tilapia Salmon Canada 74 Chile 120 China 36 185 9 Denmark 1 Costa Rica Columbia 4 Ecuador 82 6 Faroe Isl. 17 Honduras 9 India 104 Indonesia 89 13 Mexico 20 Norway 20 Thailand 92 Taiwan 20 Vietnam 66 United Kingdom 14 other 70 6 2 Total 559 243 257 000 tonnes 2013 US Imports of Shrimp, Tilapia, and Salmon USDA ERS
  5. 5. Economics of Dependence on Foreign Producers Food group 2012 Total U.S. food imports 1/ 105,971.4 Live meat animals 2,189.6 Meats 6,238.4 Fish and shellfish 16,428.0 Dairy 1,604.3 Vegetables 9,797.1 Fruits 12,559.8 Nuts 2,108.3 Coffee and tea 8,902.3 Cereals and bakery 9,083.1 Vegetable oils 6,455.5 Sugar and candy 4,805.6 Cocoa and chocolate 4,096.0 Other edible products 10,979.4 Beverages 2/ 10,724.0 Liquors 7,898.9 Total animal foods 26,460.3 Total plant foods 68,787.1 Total beverages 18,622.9 Total US agricultural imports 102,871.4 Nonfood ag. imports 3/ 13,327.9 The value opportunity Is $16.4 Billion. The US currently supplies less than $2 Billion of the demand. This accounts for a trade deficit if excess of $10.5B
  6. 6. NOAA Fisheries of the United States, 2012 In 2011 Americans consumed 15 lbs. of seafood per person (global per capita consumption is 41.4 lbs.) 91% of that seafood was imported 50% of that seafood was produced by aquaculture Top Ten : Shrimp>Tuna>Salmon>Pollock>Tilapia>Pangasius>Catfish>Crab> Clams
  7. 7. Approved Drugs Immersion Formalin Formalin-F™ - NADA 137-687 | FOI Summary | Formacide-B - ANADA 200-414 | FOI Summary | Paracide-F® - NADA 140-831 | FOI Summary | Parasite-S® - NADA 140-989 | FOI Summary | | EA | | FONSI | Hydrogen peroxide 35% PEROX-AID® - NADA 141-255 | FOI Summary | | EA | | FONSI | Oxytetracycline hydrochloride Oxymarine™ – NADA 130-435 | FOI Summary | Oxytetracycline HCl Soluble Powder-343-ANADA 200-247 | FOI Summary | PENNOX 343 - ANADA 200-026 | FOI Summary | TERRAMYCIN 343 (oxytetracycline HCl) Soluble Powder – NADA 008-622 | FOI Summary | TETROXY Aquatic - ANADA 200-460 | FOI Summary | Tricaine methanesulfonate Finquel® - NADA 042-427 - original approval 1972 Tricaine-S – ANADA 200-226 | FOI Summary | Injectable Chorionic gonadotropin Chorulon® - NADA 140-927 | FOI Summary | Medicated Articles/Feeds Florfenicol Aquaflor® - NADA 141-246 | FOI Summary | | EA | | FONSI | Original approval, enteric septicemia of catfish Aquaflor® - NADA 141-246 | FOI Summary | | EA | | EA Appendices Index | | FONSI | Supplemental approval, coldwater disease in salmonids Aquaflor® - NADA 141-246 | FOI Summary | Supplemental approval, furunculosis in freshwater-reared salmonids Aquaflor® – NADA 141-246 | FOI Summary | | EA | | FONSI | Supplemental approval, streptococcal septicemia in freshwater-reared warmwater finfish; columnaris disease in freshwater-reared finfish; and increase the dose for enteric septicemia for catfish Oxytetracycline dihydrate Terramycin® 200 for Fish - NADA 038-439 | Supplemental FOI Summary (2006)| |Supplemental FOI Summary (2008)| | EA | | FONSI | Sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprim Romet-30® - NADA 125-933 - original approval 1984 | EA | |FONSI | Sulfamerazine - NADA 033-950- original approval 1967 - not currently marketed CVM Approved Drugs for Aquaculture
  8. 8. Fish Vaccines approved in US NOVARTIS ANIMAL HEALTH US, INC., 1. Aeromonas Salmonicida Bacterin, Product Code 2035.02 , for use in salmonids and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) 2. Arthrobacter Vaccine, Live Culture, Product Code 1K11.00 , for use in Atlantic salmon Aeromonas Salmonicida-Vibrio Anguillarum-Ordalii-Salmonicida Bacterin, Product Code 2138.02 , for use in salmonids 3. Flavobacterium Columnare Bacterin, Product Code 2974.00 , for use in salmonids 4. Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus Vaccine, Killed Virus, Aeromonas Salmonicida-Vibrio Anguillarum- 5.Ordalii-Salmonicida Bacterin, Product Code 4A45.20 , for use in salmonids 6. Yersinia Ruckeri Bacterin, Product Code 2638.00 , for use in salmonids 7. Vibrio Anguillarum-Ordalii Bacterin, Product Code 2858.03 , for use in salmonids 8. Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Vaccine, DNA, Product Code 17A5.D0 , for use in salmonids NOVARTIS ANIMAL HEALTH US, INC., 9. Cyprinid Herpesvirus Type 3 Vaccine, Modified Live Virus, Product Code 1443.20 , for use in koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) MERCK ANIMAL HEALTH, 10. Edwardsiella Ictaluri Vaccine, Avirulent Live Culture, Product Code 1531.00 , for use in catfish 11. Flavobacterium Columnare Vaccine, Avirulent Live Culture, Product Code 17F1.00 , for use in catfish, and largemouth bass
  9. 9. Revision Date: February 2011 Guide to Using Drugs, Biologics, and Other Chemicals in Aquaculture Table 2. Low regulatory priority aquaculture drugs, indications, and doses. Compound Indication(s) Dose Acetic Acid Parasiticide for fish 1000-2000 ppm dip for 1-10 minutes Calcium chloride Used to aid in egg hardening 10-20 ppm CaCO3 (eggs) Used to aid in maintaining osmotic balance during fish holding and transport ≤150 ppm CaCO3, indefinitely (fish) Calcium oxide External protozoacide for fish 2000 ppm dip for 5 sec Carbon dioxide gas Anesthetic for fish Fuller’s Earth Used to reduce the adhesiveness of fish eggs Garlic (whole form) To control helminth and sea lice infestations of marine salmonids at all life stages Ice Used to reduce the metabolic rate of fish during transport Magnesium sulfate Used to treat external monogenic trematode infestations 30,000 ppm MgSO4 + 7000 ppm NaCl dip for in fish 5-10 min Onion (whole form) Used to treat external crustacean parasites infestations of salmonids Used to deter sea lice from infesting external surface of salmonids Povidone iodine Egg surface disinfectant 100 ppm for 10 min during or after water hardening American Fisheries Society Fish Culture Section
  10. 10. Epizootic haematopoietic necrovirus EHNV Yes Red sea bream iridovirus RSIV Yes Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus IHNV Yes Viral haemorrhagic septicemis virus VHSV Yes Spring Viremia of Carp SVCV Yes Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus ISAV Yes Viral Necrosis Virus VNNV No Virus Abbreviation OIE Finfish Viruses From Walker & Winton 2010
  11. 11. RNA Virus Abbreviation OIE Yellow head virus YHV Yes Taura Syndrome Virus TSV Yes Infectious myonecrosis virus IMNV Yes Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus MrNV Yes Laen-Singh Virus LSNV No Mourilyar virus MVV No From Walker & Winton, 2010 Shrimp Viruses
  12. 12. DNA Virus Abbreviation OIE Monodon baculovirus MBV No Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus BMNV N White spot syndrome virus WSSV Yes Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus IHHNV Yes Hepatopancreatic parvovirus HPV No Shrimp Viruses From Walker & Winton 2010
  13. 13. Shrimp Finfish Molluscs Taura Syndrome Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis Bonamia ostreae White Spot Disease Infectious Salmon Anemia Haplosporidium nelson Yellow Head Disease Ceratomyxa shasta Martelia refringens EMS Epizootic Haematopoietic Necrosis Mikrocytos mackini Koi Herpesvirus Disease Perkinsus marinus Spring Viraemia of Carp Perkinsus olseni Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Reportable Aquatic Diseases in Canada
  14. 14. .
  15. 15. Challenge Intensive production = potential for rapid spread of disease Lack of effective vaccines or treatments Frequently poor management and biosecurity in developing regions Delivery of potential preventatives or treatments Opportunity Improved management and biosecurity Improved genetics including genome “editing” Novel vaccines and therapeutics Novel delivery systems
  16. 16. Why Aquaculture Biotechnology? • Fish is a healthy food and an efficient source of high quality protein • Many of world’s fisheries are maximally exploited • Aquaculture must at least triple by 2030 to hold per capita fish supply constant (FAO) • Genetics and husbandry practices generally primitive • Biotechnology can improve efficiency and sustainability
  17. 17. The use of si-RNA technology may represent an opportunity for specific therapeutic solutions for many of the most damaging viral diseases of shrimp and fish.
  18. 18. Seafood is healthy, nutritious, and desirable Fish are efficient converters of feed to human food Capture fisheries have been at maximum production levels for twenty years Aquaculture is an environmentally sustainable alternative production system Current aquaculture management relies on biosecurity There are few approved drugs or biologicals Many diseases of aquatic organisms are poorly understood Outbreak of a disease like EMS, TSV, WSD, ISAV can destroy a geographic industry Opportunities for novel approaches to reduce susceptibility, treat or block infection and disease.
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