II. Handling the OT Prophets 1. The Eighth Century

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Some tools for understanding the Old Testament prophets. The focus in this lecture is on the historical context of the eighth century prophets (Amos, Hosea, Jonah, Isaiah, Micah, probably Joel and Obadiah) and different genres within the prophetic literature. This is the second of five lectures given on the Bible and Culture course at Schloss Mittersill, Austria (a course run jointly by Schloss MIttersill and IFES).

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  • Five key questions to ask when handling the prophets 1

    Need to find dates, events, situations
  • What structure, genre, kinds of oracles, etc.?
  • What’s the root of the problem? What are the key themes?
  • What are the key themes?
  • What is God offering? What are people required to do?
    What are the key themes?
    Walt Kaiser: ‘Preaching from the prophets can have a great contemporary application if we recognize repentance as the condition for experiencing God’s favor.’ (Toward an Exegetical Theology (Baker Books, 1981), p. 195.)
  • Handling the prophets 1

    Need to find dates, events, situations
  • Aram/Syria becoming major local power
    Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14
    Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  • Aram/Syria becoming major local power
    Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14
    Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  • Aram/Syria becoming major local power
    Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14
    Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  • Aram/Syria becoming major local power
    Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14
    Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  • Aram/Syria becoming major local power
    Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14
    Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  • Eg 1 Kings 13 - By the word of the LORD a man of God came from Judah to Bethel, as Jeroboam was standing by the altar to make an offering. . . .
  • We hear about most prophets but not much from them (Elijah, Elisha). For some we get some prophecy and biography (Gad: 1 Sam 22; 2 Sam 24 ≈≈ Nathan: 1 Ki 7, 12 ≈≈ Huldah 2 Ki 22)
    We hear from God via a few, but not much about them
    Note that only 16 of the hundreds of prophets have their words recorded in a substantial form
  • We hear about most prophets but not much from them (Elijah, Elisha). For some we get some prophecy and biography (Gad: 1 Sam 22; 2 Sam 24 ≈≈ Nathan: 1 Ki 7, 12 ≈≈ Huldah 2 Ki 22)
    We hear from God via a few, but not much about them
    Note that only 16 of the hundreds of prophets have their words recorded in a substantial form
  • Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border)
    Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah
    Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  • Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border)
    Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah
    Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  • Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border)
    Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah
    Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  • Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border)
    Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah
    Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  • Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border)
    Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah
    Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  • Omri (officer) had himself crowned and attacked Zimri who burnt palace down with himself inside. Omri lost cities to Aram but conquered Moab
  • Mesha regains independence from Ahab
  • 853 (Ahab’s reign). Shalmaneser III attacked Aram »» alliance of Canaanite nations (incl. I & J) headed by Aram. Shalmaneser claimed victory but didn’t take territory
    I-J alliance (Ahab & Jehoshaphat) to retake Ramoth Gilead but Ahab killed (1 Ki 22
  • Two J(eh)orams attempted to regain Moab but failed
    Jehoram of Judah married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab or Omri
    Ahaziah and Joram fought Hazael, usurper of Aram, but Elisha involved in Hazael’s take-over; A & J wounded; Elisha sends prophet to Ramoth Gilead to anoint Jehu (officer) as king; Jehu avenges death of Naboth by wiping out house of Ahab and Baal-prophets
  • Jehu loses all of Trans-Jordan to Hazael
    Israel becomes vassal of Damascus (2 Kings 10:32–33)
  • The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.
    (second line from top)
  • The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.
    (second line from top)
  • The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.
    (second line from top)
  • The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.
    (second line from top)
  • Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802.
    Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  • Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802.
    Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  • Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802.
    Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  • Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802.
    Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  • Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802.
    Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  • Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802.
    Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  • Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753)
    Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  • Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753)
    Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  • Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753)
    Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  • Time of relative weakness
  • Time of relative weakness
  • Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753)
    Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  • See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah)
    Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  • See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah)
    Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  • See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah)
    Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  • Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18)
    Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  • Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18)
    Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  • Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18)
    Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  • Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18)
    Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  • Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18)
    Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  • Wealth for few at expense of increasing poor. Side-effect: driving people to cities. Oppression undermined society and economy. Exploitation (6:4-7). Appeal: 5:24.
    Amos sees roots of injustice in idolatry and apostacy. Religion = superstition.
  • What structure, genre, kinds of oracles, etc.?
  • Nonlinear optics. Changes to polarization density of material under extreme electric fields. Polarization waves generated are related to the generating electric fields by the nonlinear susceptibility tensor. This expansion shows the way higher order tensors arise.
  • prophetic speeches. Think oracles. Identify oracles.
    But many just follow on. Often can’t identify whether given at same time or to same people or not.
    Haggai and early Zech. - all oracles dated; some of Ezekiel and Jeremiah
    Eg Amos 5 - generally accepted that contains 3 oracles: 1–3, 4–17, 18–27
  • Report of oral message delivered by the prophet on behalf of God
  • Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1
    Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  • Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1
    Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  • Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1
    Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  • Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1
    Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  • Judgment speech
  • Amos 3:9-11; Isaiah 5:8–10 (land-grabbing), 11–17 (drunkenness), 18–24; 10:1–4 (injustice); Micah 3:9–12; Jeremiah 11:9–12
    Judgment usually expressed through one of 10 ‘D’s: Death, Disease, Drought, Dearth, Danger, Destruction, Defeat, Deportation, Destitution, Disgrace
  • Amos 3:9-11; Isaiah 5:8–10 (land-grabbing), 11–17 (drunkenness), 18–24; 10:1–4 (injustice); Micah 3:9–12; Jeremiah 11:9–12
    Judgment usually expressed through one of 10 ‘D’s: Death, Disease, Drought, Dearth, Danger, Destruction, Defeat, Deportation, Destitution, Disgrace
  • Amos 3:9-11; Isaiah 5:8–10 (land-grabbing), 11–17 (drunkenness), 18–24; 10:1–4 (injustice); Micah 3:9–12; Jeremiah 11:9–12
    Judgment usually expressed through one of 10 ‘D’s: Death, Disease, Drought, Dearth, Danger, Destruction, Defeat, Deportation, Destitution, Disgrace
  • Covenant/prophetic lawsuit (rîb)
    Charging and individual or nation with breech of covenant
  • Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6
    Ezekiel 16; 20; 22
    Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  • Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6
    Ezekiel 16; 20; 22
    Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  • Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6
    Ezekiel 16; 20; 22
    Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  • Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6
    Ezekiel 16; 20; 22
    Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  • Ezekiel 13:1-16 – woe to prophets; v. 17–23 – woe to daughters who prophecy
    Ezekiel 7
    Isaiah 5:8–24; 10:1–4 ≈≈ Habakkuk 2:6–8 ≈≈ Micah 2:1–5 ≈≈ Zeph 2:5–7
  • Ezekiel 13:1-16 – woe to prophets; v. 17–23 – woe to daughters who prophecy
    Ezekiel 7
    Isaiah 5:8–24; 10:1–4 ≈≈ Habakkuk 2:6–8 ≈≈ Micah 2:1–5 ≈≈ Zeph 2:5–7
  • Ezekiel 13:1-16 – woe to prophets; v. 17–23 – woe to daughters who prophecy
    Ezekiel 7
    Isaiah 5:8–24; 10:1–4 ≈≈ Habakkuk 2:6–8 ≈≈ Micah 2:1–5 ≈≈ Zeph 2:5–7
  • Amos 5:1–3; Isaiah 14:3–23; Ezekiel 19:1–14; Jeremiah 9:17–21 8:18 – 9:1; 4:19–22 (note change of voice - Jeremiah, people or God?)
  • Proclamation of salvation/restoration
    Promise
  • Ezekiel 36:22f
    Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  • Ezekiel 36:22f
    Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  • Ezekiel 36:22f
    Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  • Ezekiel 36:22f
    Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  • Recognised by content; may take any form
    Isaiah 13–23; Jeremiah 46–51; Ezekiel 25–32; Amos 1–2; Zephaniah 2:4–15
  • Watch out for changes (eg Isa 35 is poetry; 36 is narrative)
  • First or third person story about prophet Isaiah 6; Ezekiel 4, 12; Hosea 1; Isaiah 20; Jeremiah 27
    Political – 2 Kings 6; Isaiah 36–37
    Ethical – Numbers 20; 2 Kings 4–5
    Confrontation stories – Amos 7:10–17; Jeremiah 6, 19, 26–28
  • Autobiographical account of the prophet’s calling

    Vocation Report (Marvin A. Sweeney, ‘The Genres of Prophetic Literature’)
  • Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3
    Amos 7:10–17
  • Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3
    Amos 7:10–17
  • Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3
    Amos 7:10–17
  • Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3
    Amos 7:10–17
  • Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3
    Amos 7:10–17
  • Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3
    Amos 7:10–17
  • Autobiographical account of prophet’s experience
    Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  • Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  • Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  • Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • Amos’s oracles against the nations
    ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  • 3:2 ‘chosen’ (NIV) = ‘known’ v. personal.
    QUESTION: How useful is idea of chosen people today? cf 1 Pet. 2:9 What kind of encouragement and challenge should it bring?
  • During reign of Jeroboam 782–753
  • See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah)
    Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Moses warned about the results of disobedience: Leviticus 26:27-39; Deuteronomy 28:49-68
  • The Son of Beeri; Contemporary of Isaiah and Amos
  • Jeroboam 782-753
  • Jeroboam 782-753
  • Jeroboam 782-753
  • What’s the root of the problem? What are the key themes?
  • What are the key themes?
  • What is God offering? What are people required to do?
    What are the key themes?
    Walt Kaiser: ‘Preaching from the prophets can have a great contemporary application if we recognize repentance as the condition for experiencing God’s favor.’ (Toward an Exegetical Theology (Baker Books, 1981), p. 195.)
  • 2 Ki 16:5–9
    Israeli-Syrian attack on Judah; counteracted with help from Assyria
  • 2 Ki 16:5–9
    Israeli-Syrian attack on Judah; counteracted with help from Assyria
  • 2 Ki 16:5–9
    Israeli-Syrian attack on Judah; counteracted with help from Assyria
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Poss TigPil invasion in 734
    713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  • Glass jar from palace of Ashurnarsipal II, but from later date. A cuneiform inscription on it reads: 'Palace of Sargon King of Assyria', accompanied by an engraving of a lion. The lion, often occurring with inscriptions of Sargon II (reigned 722-705 BC), is probably an official mark indicating that the article derives from or belongs to Sargon's palace or treasury. The jar has no close parallels either in Assyria or in neighbouring areas. It may be of Phoenician origin, and the cuneiform inscription may have been added for its new Assyrian owner. Glass vessels are known in the ancient Near East from as early as the second millennium BC. They were made by building glass up around a clay core, which was afterwards removed. By the time this jar was produced however, glass vessels were being cast, probably by the lost wax technique, and then finished by grinding and polishing. (BM)
  • Contemporary of Hosea and Micah
  • Jerusalem / Zion / mountain / city are broadly interchangeable
  • 1:8; 3:1, 8, 16; 4:3-4; 10:12, 24-25, 32; 22:1-14; 49:14-21; 54:1, 11; 64:10; 66:6
  • Preservation: 1:8; 26:1; 29:1-8; 31:5-9; 36:15; 37:10, 32-35; 38:6 // Restoration: 40:2, 9: 52:1; 57:13; 61:3; 66:8 // Davidic restoration: 1:21, 26-27; 24:23; 33:20 // Redeemed: 51:7; 52:1-2, 7-8; 59:20; 62:11 // Cyrus: 45:13 // God's dwelling: 4:3-5; 12:6
  • Of or In
    Preservation: 1:8; 26:1; 29:1-8; 31:5-9; 36:15; 37:10, 32-35; 38:6 // Restoration: 40:2, 9: 52:1; 57:13; 61:3; 66:8 // Davidic restoration: 1:21, 26-27; 24:23; 33:20 // Redeemed: 51:7; 52:1-2, 7-8; 59:20; 62:11 // Cyrus: 45:13 // God's dwelling: 4:3-5; 12:6
  • 14:25; 41:27; 46:13; 60:14; 62:1, 6; 65:18-19; 66:13
  • 6:1-13 — Holiness and transcendence (cf 5:16; 40:25; 57:15), holiness and judgement (cf 5:16, 24; 10:17; 30:12-14), holiness and salvation (cf 30:15; 10:20; 12:6; 29:19; 41:14; 43:3, 14; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 52:10; 54:5; 60:9, 14). 'Holy' used of God more in Isaiah than in all rest of OT. 'The Holy One of Israel' used 25 times (7 in rest of OT).
  • II. Handling the OT Prophets 1. The Eighth Century

    1. 1. Handling the Prophets 1
    2. 2. 1 What is the historical context? 2
    3. 3. 2 How is the prophet’s message presented? 3
    4. 4. 3 What main problems does the prophet diagnose? 4
    5. 5. 4 What are the remedies? 5
    6. 6. 5 What is the underlying message about God and humanity? 6
    7. 7. 1 What is the historical context? 7
    8. 8. 10Century th 8
    9. 9. Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 9
    10. 10. Jeroboam 931 Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 Rehoboam 931 9
    11. 11. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 10
    12. 12. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, sacred stones and Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ 10
    13. 13. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, sacred stones and Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ • Egyptian invasion (925) 10
    14. 14. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, • Shrines at Dan sacred stones and and Bethel Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ • Egyptian invasion (925) 10
    15. 15. 9Century th 11
    16. 16. Jeroboam 931 Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 Rehoboam 931 12
    17. 17. 1050 Saul 1010 David 970 Solomon Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Nadab 910 Baasha 909 Asa Elah 886 12 911
    18. 18. 1010 David 970 Solomon Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Nadab 910 Baasha 909 Asa Asa Elah 886 911 911 Zimri 885 Omri 885 Ahab 874 13
    19. 19. Ahab 874 14
    20. 20. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess 14
    21. 21. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram 14
    22. 22. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram • Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2 14
    23. 23. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram • Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2 • Elishah: 2 Kings 2 – 8 14
    24. 24. Mesha Stele records the victory of King Mesha of Moab after being subject to Israel during Omri’s reign and half of Ahab’s (2 Kings 3)
    25. 25. Omri 885 Ahab 874 Jeho- Asa 911 shaphat 870 16
    26. 26. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 17
    27. 27. Hazael Damascus ARAM ISRAEL Jehu Samaria
    28. 28. Assyria 19
    29. 29. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region 20
    30. 30. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan 20
    31. 31. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan • Receives tribute from Jehu 20
    32. 32. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan • Receives tribute from Jehu 838: Shalmaneser invades neighbours 20
    33. 33. 805: Adadnirari III invaded area. Conquered surrounding nations but not Judah. 21
    34. 34. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 835 Joash/Jehoash Jehoahaz 814 22
    35. 35. Jehoahaz 814 23
    36. 36. Jehoahaz 814 Army reduced to: • 50 horsemen • 10 chariots • 10,000 foot soldiers (2 Kings 13:7) 23
    37. 37. 8Century th 24
    38. 38. Jehoash 798 Jehoahaz Jehu 814 841 Jehoash Amaziah 835 796 25
    39. 39. Jehoash 798 26
    40. 40. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times 26
    41. 41. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times • Beginning of recovery 26
    42. 42. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times • Beginning of recovery 2 Kings 13:25 26
    43. 43. 841 Jehu 835 Jehoash Jehoahaz 814 Jehoash 798 796 Amaziah Jeroboam 27 782
    44. 44. Jeroboam 782 28
    45. 45. Jeroboam 782 • Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23) 28
    46. 46. Jeroboam 782 • Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23) • Increased Israel’s territory east and north 28
    47. 47. Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC 29
    48. 48. Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC Tiglath-Pileser III didn’t come to power until 745 BC 29
    49. 49. Jehoash 798 796 Amaziah 782 Jeroboam 767 Uzziah/ Azariah Zachariah 753 Shallum 752 Manahem 752 Pekahia 742 30
    50. 50. 800 780 760 740 720 700 800 780 760 740 720 700
    51. 51. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos 800 780 760 740 720 700
    52. 52. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    53. 53. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    54. 54. Peace 32
    55. 55. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) 32
    56. 56. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) 32
    57. 57. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Poverty 32
    58. 58. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Exploitation (Hosea 12:7; Amos 8:5-8) Poverty 32
    59. 59. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Exploitation (Hosea 12:7; Amos 8:5-8) Idolatry Poverty (Hosea 13:2) 32
    60. 60. Decline 33
    61. 61. • Zechariah: 6 months, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:8– 12) 34
    62. 62. • Zechariah: 6 months, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:8– 12) • Shallum: 1 month, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:13–15) • Menahem: 752–742 BC (2 Kings 15:17–22) • Pekahiah: 742–741 (2 Kings 15:23–26) • Pekah: 740–732 BC (2 Kings 15:27) • Hoshea: 732–722 (2 Kings 17:1–4) 34
    63. 63. Amos 35
    64. 64. 2 How is the prophet’s message presented? 36
    65. 65. genre 37
    66. 66. Once upon a time, there lived a young boy in an old wooden chalet, high in the mountains. Every day, he cared for his father’s goats as they grazed on the slopes. But the boy was always worried that he might meet a troll. 38
    67. 67. You are covered up to the amounts specified on your policy schedule for personal accident benefits, which will be paid to you or your legal representative, if you sustain bodily injury caused by an accident and at the end of 12 months of the occurrence of that accident, it is the sole cause of: 1) your death (£10,000); 2) the physical loss of or permanent and total loss of use of one or more limbs at or above the wrist or ankle (£10,000); 3) the complete and irrecoverable loss of sight in one or both eyes (£10,000); 39
    68. 68. My darling Esmerelda, I miss you with all my heart. Every moment of every day, I long to be with you, to hold you close and to touch your face once more. I yearn for the scent of your fragrance, the taste of your lips and the touch of your hand. I cannot eat or sleep or focus on anything. With every second that passes, my desire for you grows more intense, more passionate, more overwhelming. I adore you, Esmerelda, with every fibre of my being. I am yours for ever. 40
    69. 69. To a good approximation (for sufficiently weak fields, assuming no dipolar moments are present), P is given by a Taylor series in E whose coefficients are the nonlinear susceptibilities: Pi /ε0 = ∑xij(1)Ej + ∑xijk(2)EjEk + ∑xijkl(3)EjEkEl + … j k l Where x (1) susceptibility, x is the linear (2) gives the Pockels effect and second harmonic generation, and x (3) gives the Kerr effect. 41
    70. 70. oracles 42
    71. 71. messenger speech 43
    72. 72. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) 44
    73. 73. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) • Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . ) 44
    74. 74. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) • Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . ) • Messenger formula (This is what the Lord says . . . ) 44
    75. 75. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) • Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . ) • Messenger formula (This is what the Lord says . . . ) • Message 44
    76. 76. judgment oracles 45
    77. 77. • Accusation 46
    78. 78. • Accusation • Link (logical connective) 46
    79. 79. • Accusation • Link (logical connective) • Announcement of judgment 46
    80. 80. covenant lawsuit 47
    81. 81. • Summons 48
    82. 82. • Summons • Charge 48
    83. 83. • Summons • Charge • Evidence 48
    84. 84. • Summons • Charge • Evidence • Verdict 48
    85. 85. woe oracle 49
    86. 86. • Announcement of distress 50
    87. 87. • Announcement of distress • Reason for distress 50
    88. 88. • Announcement of distress • Reason for distress • Prediction of disaster 50
    89. 89. lament 51
    90. 90. salvation oracles 52
    91. 91. • Indication of situation 53
    92. 92. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future 53
    93. 93. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future • Proclamation of radical change 53
    94. 94. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future • Proclamation of radical change • Blessing 53
    95. 95. oracles against the nations 54
    96. 96. poetry 55
    97. 97. narrative 56
    98. 98. commissioning 57
    99. 99. commissioning 57
    100. 100. • Encounter with God 58
    101. 101. • Encounter with God • Introductory words 58
    102. 102. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission 58
    103. 103. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission • Objection(s) 58
    104. 104. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission • Objection(s) • Reassurances 58
    105. 105. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission • Objection(s) • Reassurances • Sign(s) 58
    106. 106. vision 59
    107. 107. • Announcement of vision 60
    108. 108. • Announcement of vision • Transition 60
    109. 109. • Announcement of vision • Transition • Vision sequence 60
    110. 110. Identify the oracles in Amos. ? What features of the writing do you notice? 61
    111. 111. 1:1 – 2:6 Amos accuses foreign nations . . . and Judah and Israel 62
    112. 112. ARAM
    113. 113. PH IL IS T IN ES ARAM
    114. 114. PH IL IS T IN ES TYRE ARAM
    115. 115. TYRE ARAM ES IN T IS IL PH EDOM
    116. 116. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS IL PH EDOM
    117. 117. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS IL MOAB PH EDOM
    118. 118. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS JUDAH IL MOAB PH EDOM
    119. 119. TYRE ARAM ISRAEL AMMON ES IN T IS JUDAH IL MOAB PH EDOM
    120. 120. 1:1 – 2:6 Amos accuses foreign nations . . . and Judah and Israel 3:1 – 6:14 Judgment speeches and woe oracles against Israel 7:1 – 9:15 Visions 64
    121. 121. Jonah 65
    122. 122. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    123. 123. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 67
    124. 124. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 67
    125. 125. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 67
    126. 126. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 67
    127. 127. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 67
    128. 128. They mocked God's messengers, despised his words and scoffed at his prophets until the wrath of the LORD was aroused against his people and there was no remedy. 2 Chronicles 36:16 68
    129. 129. Hosea 69
    130. 130. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah 70
    131. 131. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah • Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea 70
    132. 132. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah • Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea • Probably from 753–716 BC 70
    133. 133. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    134. 134. 1:1 – 3:5 Hosea’s marriage and Israel’s unfaithfulness 4:1 – 7:16 Sins of people, priests and leaders 8:1 – 11:11 False worship 11:12 – 14:9 Past and future 72
    135. 135. Adultery/Prostitution 73
    136. 136. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 73
    137. 137. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 Revelation 21:1–10 73
    138. 138. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 73
    139. 139. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
    140. 140. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
    141. 141. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 The ultimate marriage Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
    142. 142. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 The ultimate marriage Numbers 15:37–41 Forgetfulness leads to prostitution Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
    143. 143. 3 What main problems does the prophet diagnose? 74
    144. 144. To Amos, justice was of the very essence of God’s Being, and therefore it must mark all who worship Him. H.H. Rowley 75
    145. 145. 4 What are the remedies? 76
    146. 146. 5 What is the underlying message about God and humanity? 77
    147. 147. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC 78
    148. 148. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC • Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem to Bethel 78
    149. 149. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC • Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem to Bethel • Context: war 78
    150. 150. Read Hosea 1:1–11; 2:16–23; 3:1–5; 4:1–3; 6:1– 3; 11:1–4. What forms does Hosea use? Who is speaking in each case? What is the purpose of the passage? In what context might it have been spoken? 79
    151. 151. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 80
    152. 152. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt) 80
    153. 153. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt) 701: Sennacherib’s invasion 80
    154. 154. 81
    155. 155. 824 BC
    156. 156. 670 BC
    157. 157. Judah
    158. 158. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) 84
    159. 159. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) 84
    160. 160. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) • Reform during reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22, 23) 84
    161. 161. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) • Reform during reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22, 23) … but too little, too late 84
    162. 162. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    163. 163. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah Isaiah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    164. 164. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    165. 165. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah ? Joel Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    166. 166. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah ? Obadiah ? Joel Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
    167. 167. Isaiah 86
    168. 168. Zion 87
    169. 169. Divine judgment 88
    170. 170. Preservation/ Restoration 89
    171. 171. Security 90
    172. 172. Centrality 91
    173. 173. Holy One of Israel 92
    174. 174. King (1–37) 93
    175. 175. Servant (38–55) 94
    176. 176. Conqueror (56–66) 95
    177. 177. Righteousness 96
    178. 178. Davidic King 97
    179. 179. Israel and Gentiles 98
    180. 180. Messianic enigma 99
    181. 181. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God 100
    182. 182. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God • 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being a means of blessing 100
    183. 183. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God • 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being a means of blessing • 5:1-30 – degeneration of God’s people despite his care 100
    184. 184. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) 101
    185. 185. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) 101
    186. 186. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) • They are ignoring what their experience teaches them (5–8) 101
    187. 187. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) • They are ignoring what their experience teaches them (5–8) • But God preserves a remnant (9) 101
    188. 188. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) 102
    189. 189. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) • He wants repentance and reformation (15–17) 102
    190. 190. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) • He wants repentance and reformation (15–17) • He offers cleansing in return for obedience (18–20) 102
    191. 191. • The failure of the faithful city (21) 103
    192. 192. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) 103
    193. 193. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) 103
    194. 194. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) 103
    195. 195. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) • The dross will be purged (25) 103
    196. 196. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) • The dross will be purged (25) • The faithful city will be restored (26) 103
    197. 197. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem 104
    198. 198. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem • 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem 104
    199. 199. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem • 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem • 4:2–6 – the new Jerusalem 104
    200. 200. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion 105
    201. 201. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation 105
    202. 202. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation • centre of global peace 105
    203. 203. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation • centre of global peace • For that to be possible, God’s people must ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ (5) 105
    204. 204. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ 106
    205. 205. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation 106
    206. 206. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation • 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human beings’ 106
    207. 207. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation • 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human beings’ • 3:1–4:1 – the social situation 106
    208. 208. • Aspects of Judah’s national life which deserve judgment (6–9)
    209. 209. • Aspects of Judah’s national life which deserve judgment (6–9) • The nation is the opposite of what it should be (2–4) • Judgment and its results (10–21) • The Lord will humble human beings and make idols vanish
    210. 210. • God will take away all physical resources and human leaders (2–3)
    211. 211. • God will take away all physical resources and human leaders (2–3) • He will give you immature leaders (4) • The social order will collapse (5–7) • Leadership will become a nonsense (6–7, 12)
    212. 212. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences 109
    213. 213. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences • The wicked bring disaster upon themselves 109
    214. 214. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences • The wicked bring disaster upon themselves • The righteous reap the consequences of right behaviour – it will be well for them in the long run 109
    215. 215. Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1) • Judgment will be more than a change in economics
    216. 216. Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1) • Judgment will be more than a change in economics • War is coming because sin leads to death, not just to losing happiness • Six out of seven men will be killed – women must care for themselves
    217. 217. Stop trusting in human beings • Human insights
    218. 218. Stop trusting in human beings • Human insights • Human resources • Human religion • Human achievement • Human influence
    219. 219. Pride 112
    220. 220. • The LORD Almighty has a day in store for all the proud and lofty, for all that is exalted … (2:12) • The arrogance of all people will be brought low and human pride humbled; the LORD alone will be exalted in that day (2:17)
    221. 221. • In that day people will throw away to the rodents and bats their idols (2:20) • In that day the Lord will snatch away their finery … (3:18) • In that day seven women will take hold of one man … (4:1) 114
    222. 222. In that day the Branch of the LORD will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land will be the pride and glory of the survivors in Israel. Those who are left in Zion, who remain in Jerusalem, will be called holy, all who are recorded among the living in Jerusalem. The Lord will wash away the filth of the women of Zion; he will cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of fire. (4:2–4) 115
    223. 223. Then the LORD will create over all of Mount Zion and over those who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow of flaming fire by night; over all the glory will be a canopy. It will be a shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding-place from the storm and rain. 116
    224. 224. Micah 117

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