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Bible and Culture 2016 – Daniel 7

Bible and Culture 2016 – Daniel 7
My slides from day 4 of Bible & Culture 2016
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Bible and Culture 2016 – Daniel 7

  1. 1. Day 4 Daniel 7 – 9 Apocalyptic
 in Daniel A God vindicates his faithful servants (1) B Nebuchadnezzar’s dream: 4 kingdoms (2) C God rescues his faithful witnesses (3) D Warning for king; redemption (4) E Warning for king; judgment (5) F God rescues his faithful witness (6) G Daniel’s dream: 4 kingdoms (7) H Details of post-Babylonian kingdoms (8) I Jerusalem restored (9) J More on post-Babylonian kingdoms (10– ‘‘ ’’ Chapter 7 is ‘the single most important chapter of the Book of Daniel. Its position is pivotal, both in terms of the architecture of the book as a whole and in terms of the brilliance of the vision which it contains.’ Sibley Towner ‘‘ ’’ Once convinced of the truth this chapter is proclaiming, the reader is in possession of the key to history. Joyce Baldwin 7 First year of Belshazzar (553 BC) 8 Third year of Belshazzar (551 BC) 9 First year of Darius (539 BC) 10–12 Third year of Cyrus (537 BC) symbolic visions (7, 8) Standard vision report a. Introduction b. Report of the vision c. End of the vision d. Prophet’s reaction
 7:1 7:2–27 7:28a 7:28b
 8:1 8:2–25 8:26 8:27 ‘epiphany vision’ (9, 10–12)
  2. 2. ‘Epiphany visions’ in Daniel a. Circumstances b. Prayer c. Messenger appears d. Reassuring message e. Revelation f. Charge
 9:1–2 9:3–19 9:20–21
 9:24–27 10:1 10:2–3 10:4–9
 10:10 – 11:1
 11:2 – 12:3 12:4 Understanding apocalyptic literature ‘‘ ’’ It's ‘a “911” genre, for times of emergency – not just the stress of routine problems – times when the ordinary means for addressing life’s difficulties are simply not sufficient.’ Thomas Long prophetic visions narrative framework revelation mediated by an otherworldly being concerns the interaction between this world and a supernatural reality ultimately about eschatological salvation ‘‘ ’’ Apocalyptic literature draws back the curtains and allows the reader to see the eschatological victory of God, which has already been achieved over whatever forces are, even at the moment, crippling the community of faith.’ Thomas Long
  3. 3. ‘‘ ’’ Apocalyptic literature is ‘intended to interpret present, earthly circumstances in light of the supernatural world and of the future, and to influence both the understanding and behaviour of the audience by means of divine authority.’ SBL Eight common features • ‘temporal dualism’ – separating this present age from the age to come • pessimism about the present; optimism about the future • ‘periodization of history’ – viewing history as distinct periods • expecting the imminent arrival of the reign of God Eight common features • cosmic perspective • righteous people being vindicated • involvement of supernatural beings • a messianic element Daniel Block ‘‘ ’’ The intention of apocalyptic is not to chart out God’s plan for the future so future generations may draw up calendars, but to assure the present generation that — perhaps contrary to appearance — God is still on the throne . . . and that the future is firmly in his hands. Daniel Block ‘‘ ’’ Apocalyptic tends to be impression- istic, more like an abstract painting which communicates an overall impression. . . . Sometimes the details in apocalyptic are for dramatic effect; there may be no significance other than how the imagery of the scene is enhanced by the details. . . . ‘‘ ’’ . . . The details in apocalyptic must not be seen as allegorical in the sense that each detail has a corresponding reality. Brent Sandy and Martin Abegg don’t interpret everything symbolically don’t interpret everything spiritually don't think it’s all
 about the future
  4. 4. don't think it’s all
 about the past focus on the main point ‘‘ ’’ The key to the interpretation of images is to find the point of connection [between the images and their intended meaning] and not push the peripheral elements of the comparison. . . . ‘‘ ’’ . . . This means we will be left with a gray area in our interpretation. Some of the points of comparison will be obvious, but others will not be. At such points we need to hold back and not insist on our interpretation. Tremper Longman III identify the scenes and characters identify the plot line climax setting description of vision rising tension – request for interpretation interpretation conclusion perhaps with prophet’s reaction Daniel 7 sea = chaos © Stuart McKiggan, used under a Creative Commons licence
  5. 5. ? What are the scenes in Daniel 7, and what characters are involved? Identify the plot line. ? ? Compare the beasts in Daniel 7:3–8,
 19–25 with the statue in Daniel 2:31–43. What similarities are there? What are the differences? If Daniel 2 is a human perspective and Daniel 7 is God’s perspective, how does that help us understand the difference? ? Shumma Izbu © British Museum. Used by permission. Four kingdoms ‘‘ ’’ The text offers no interpretation of any of the characteristics of the dream beasts, except that the horns are kings. . . . The text does not answer these questions, nor can background information resolve them. John Walton IVP Bible Background Commentary 1. Lion = Babylonia 
 (605–539 BC) Daniel 7:4 (cf 2:37–38) Lamassu © British Museum. Used by permission. 2. Bear = Medo-Persia
 (539–331 BC) Daniel 7:5 (cf. 2:39; 8:3) Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus II
  6. 6. Achaemenid Empire under Cambyses II Achaemenid Empire under Darius I 3. Leopard = Greece
 (331–63 BC) Daniel 7:6 (cf 2:39; 8:8; 11:3–4) Alexander Macedon empire 4. Beast with iron teeth = Rome (63 BC – AD 476/1453) Daniel 7:7–8,19–25 (cf 2:40–43) ‘‘ ’’ Rome showed itself to be the first truly universal empire of antiquity. Rome was characterized by its conquering and crushing power and by its ability to consolidate the territories which it seized. E.J. Young 10 horns horned crown © British Museum. Used by permission.
  7. 7. little horn little horn in Daniel 7:7–8
 is not
 little horn in Daniel 8:9–12 little horn in Daniel 8 = Antiochus IV Epiphanes
 © Jniemenmaa, used under a Creative Commons licence little horn in Daniel 7 
 = antichrist / 
 man of lawlessness 1 John 2:18,22; 4:3; 2Thessalonians Monday: Tuesday: Wednesday: Thursday: Friday: one like a 
 son of man Daniel 7:13–14 ‘‘ ’’ There is nearly universal consensus that the phrase ‘one like a son of man’ means simply ‘one like a human being’. . . . the general sense of ‘someone, anyone.’ John Collins ? How is the ‘one like a son of man’ contrasted with the four beasts? ? ? What is the theme of this chapter? What is the goal? ?
  8. 8. How do we get to Jesus from Daniel 7? 1. Redemptive-historical progression 2. Promise-fulfilment 3. Anticipations (typology) one like a son of man 
 = the Son of Man ‘‘ ’’ When people heard Jesus use the term “son of man” for himself, they had to decide which type of “son of man” he was. Technically he was both, but it took faith to believe he was like the “son of man” in Daniel ESV Study Bible 4. Analogy 5. Longitudinal themes 6. New Testament references
  9. 9. 7. Contrast