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INTRODUCING
THE
PROPHETS
History
47%
Prophets
27%
Wisdom
26%
Parts of
the OT
?
What do you like about the Old Testament
pr...
‘‘
’’
For all the Prophets and the Law
prophesied until John.
Matthew 11:13
‘‘
’’
And beginning with Moses and all
the Pro...
The Prophets’
Focus
‘‘
’’
Whether he is discussing the past,
present or future, the prophet is
seeking to make God the mos...
2nd century BC?
‘‘
’’
On the whole, the Qumran
discoveries provide powerful
evidence of the antiquity of the
textual tradi...
Warnings from Moses
e.g. Leviticus 26:27-39

Deuteronomy 28:49-68
Warnings from the prophets
e.g. Isaiah 3:1–9; 39:1–8

Ha...
Sargon II

(721–705)
© British Museum. Used by permission
Sennacherib
(704–681)
Assyrian Empire
around 700 BC
Esarhaddon
(...
Assurbanipal
(668–627)
© British Museum. Used by permission © Wayne Robinson, used under a Creative Commons licence
© Tony...
Babylon
© Antonio TwizShiz Edward, used under a Creative Commons licence
Babylon Babylon
© Antonio TwizShiz Edward, used u...
© IHH Humanitarian Relief Foundation: Turkey, used under a Creative Commons licence
Cut off from home
© IHH Humanitarian Re...
narratives: chapters 1–6 ‘court stories’
• The king faces a problem he cannot solve
• The king’s sages fail to resolve it
...
originally for listening to repetition fast pace
internal connections Plot sequence of scenes
scenes usually only have 2 c...
don’t focus on moral lessons plot = crisis and resolution
climax
setting
occasioning
incident
preliminary
incidents
rising...
pay attention to characters restating things
?
Identify the scenes in Daniel 1.
What is the setting of each scene?
Who are...
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Bible and Culture 2016 – Introduction to the OT Prophets and Daniel

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My slides from the first day of Bible & Culture 2016:
- introduction to the Old Testament prophets
- introduction to the book of Daniel
- starting to look at Daniel 1

See more about Bible and Culture at bibleandculture.org)

Published in: Spiritual
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Bible and Culture 2016 – Introduction to the OT Prophets and Daniel

  1. 1. INTRODUCING THE PROPHETS History 47% Prophets 27% Wisdom 26% Parts of the OT ? What do you like about the Old Testament prophets? What do you find hard about them? Why do we have these books? What is their special contribution to the Bible? ? barriers to
 understanding Language Geography HistoryCulture Religion ? How do . . . • language • culture • geography • history • religion . . . create barriers in our understanding of the Old Testament prophets? ? The Prophets’ Function ‘‘ ’’ We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. . . . ‘‘ ’’ Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit. 2 Peter 1:19–21 ‘‘ ’’ Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. Matthew 5:17
  2. 2. ‘‘ ’’ For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John. Matthew 11:13 ‘‘ ’’ And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself. Luke 24:27 not seeing the future but speaking the 
 word of YHWH ‘‘ ’’ Prophecy is essentially a ministry of disclosure, a stripping bare. Israel’s great prophets do not merely lift the veil of the future in order to destroy false expectations; at the same time, they expose the conduct of their contemporaries. . . . Prophets tear the masks away and show the true face of the people behind them. Hans Walter Wolff Confrontations Calling people back to the covenant © Sputnik, used under a Creative Commons licence Warning of judgment © Bitzcelt, used under a Creative Commons licence Promising restoration © Sputnik, used under a Creative Commons licence ‘‘ ’’ The ‘prophet in scripture takes on the role of gracious mediator. He stands between God and the people to deliver the word of the Lord. . . . The person of the prophet substitutes for the presence of Almighty God himself.’ O.P. Robertson, 
 The Christ of the Prophets, p. 10
  3. 3. The Prophets’ Focus ‘‘ ’’ Whether he is discussing the past, present or future, the prophet is seeking to make God the most genuine reality that men can know and experience. A.B. Mickelson
 Interpreting the Bible, p. 287 Identifying Israel’s sin Announcing judgment Declaring God’s love for Israel Announcing blessing Anticipating the New Testament the prophets’ focus God extreme 
 holiness, wrath & grace People extreme
 disobedience Judgment (apparently) total disaster Blessing total peace and joy Fulfilment New Testament Promise Old Testament INTRODUCING DANIEL Dating Daniel 6th century BC?
  4. 4. 2nd century BC? ‘‘ ’’ On the whole, the Qumran discoveries provide powerful evidence of the antiquity of the textual tradition of the [Masoretic Text]. J.J. Collins How to approach Daniel ? What do we need to know before we can understand Daniel (or any other book of the Bible)? ? Context Genre Structure Content Context ‘‘ ’’ It is dangerous to read the Old Testament in the light of the New before first reading the Old Testament in its original context. But it is equally incorrect for a Christian to neglect to read the Old in the fuller light of the New Testament. Tremper Longman III NIV Application Commentary: Daniel ‘‘ ’’ Lord, you are righteous, but this day we are covered with shame – the people of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem and all Israel, both near and far, in all the countries where you have scattered us because of our unfaithfulness to you. . . . we have not obeyed the Lord our God or kept the laws he gave us through his servants the prophets. . . . ‘‘ ’’ . . . All Israel has transgressed your law and turned away, refusing to obey you. Therefore the curses and sworn judgments written in the Law of Moses, the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against you. You have fulfilled the words spoken against us and against our rulers by bringing on us great disaster. Daniel 9:7–12
  5. 5. Warnings from Moses e.g. Leviticus 26:27-39
 Deuteronomy 28:49-68 Warnings from the prophets e.g. Isaiah 3:1–9; 39:1–8
 Habakkuk 1:5–17 Map: division of kingdom 931 BC Israel Israel Judah Assyria Assyrian Empire around 823 BC Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (858–823) © British Museum. Used by permission Tiglath-pileser III ((743–726) © Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin, used under a Creative Commons licence Shalmaneser V 
 (726–722) 722 BC Judah
  6. 6. Sargon II
 (721–705) © British Museum. Used by permission Sennacherib (704–681) Assyrian Empire around 700 BC Esarhaddon (680–669) © Tony Watkins © Tony Watkins © Tony Watkins © Tony Watkins © Tony Watkins © British Museum. Used by permission
  7. 7. Assurbanipal (668–627) © British Museum. Used by permission © Wayne Robinson, used under a Creative Commons licence © Tony Watkins Assyrian Empire around 640 BC Babylon Babylonian Empire around 600 BC Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 ) © British Museum. Used by permission 612 BC Nineveh falls to Babylon 610 BC Babylonians take Haran 609 BC Josiah killed; Egyptians install Jehoiakim as king 605 BC Baylonians triumph at Carchemish; Judah under Babylonian control 601 BC Jehoiakim rebelled 597 BC King Jehoiachin exiled; Mattaniah made king (as Zedekiah) 586 BC Fall of Jerusalem; Zedekiah exiled Babylonian Chronicle This segment covers 605-594 BC • Battle of Carcemish • Accession of Nebuchadnezzar • Appointment of Zedekiah • Judean exile © British Museum. Used by permission
  8. 8. Babylon © Antonio TwizShiz Edward, used under a Creative Commons licence Babylon Babylon © Antonio TwizShiz Edward, used under a Creative Commons licence Babylon © Antonio TwizShiz Edward, used under a Creative Commons licence Babylon gate © Khalil Karim, used under a Creative Commons licence Ishtar Gate © Tony Watkins ‘‘ ’’ Babylon was a gold cup in the Lord’s hand; she made the whole earth drunk. Jeremiah 51:7, NIV Exile Displacement © UNHCR:ACNUR Américas, used under a Creative Commons licence
  9. 9. © IHH Humanitarian Relief Foundation: Turkey, used under a Creative Commons licence Cut off from home © IHH Humanitarian Relief Foundation: Turkey, used under a Creative Commons licence ‘‘ ’’ Exile was not simply displacement from the land, but it was the experience of the end of creation, the exhaustion of salvation history, the demise of king, temple, city, land and all those supports which gave structure and meaning to life. Walter Breuggemann, 
 ‘Weariness, Exile and Chaos’ Surrounded by pagan religion © Tony Watkins © Tony Watkins© Tony Watkins © Tony Watkins ‘‘ ’’ [Babylon] covered an area of some 850 hectares, contained, we are told, 1,179 temples of various sizes, and while its normal population is estimated at about 100,000, it could have sheltered a quarter of a million people, if not more. Georges Roux Ancient Iraq 3rd edition (Penguin, 1992) Daniel 1 Genre = type/style of writing
  10. 10. narratives: chapters 1–6 ‘court stories’ • The king faces a problem he cannot solve • The king’s sages fail to resolve it • The hero is called in and succeeds • The hero is rewarded redemptive-historical narrative prophetic visions: chs. 7–12 apocalyptic literature ‘‘ ’’ Even though there is a dramatic contrast in genre between the two halves of the book, . . . the overall message of the book is uniform: In spite of present appearances, God is in control. Tremper Longman III Hebrew Narrative • Why do you think there is so much narrative in the Bible? • How are Hebrew narratives different from contemporary narratives?
  11. 11. originally for listening to repetition fast pace internal connections Plot sequence of scenes scenes usually only have 2 characters each scene must be read in the
 context of the whole narrative the big context is
 God’s promises and intention
  12. 12. don’t focus on moral lessons plot = crisis and resolution climax setting occasioning incident preliminary incidents rising tension beginning of resolution outcome conclusionresolution Characters characters are not described in detail pay attention to what they say and do Dialogue pay attention to when dialogue starts
  13. 13. pay attention to characters restating things ? Identify the scenes in Daniel 1. What is the setting of each scene? Who are the characters in each scene? What do their actions and words reveal about them? ? Scene 1: Jerusalem (1–2)
 characters: Nebuchadnezzar and God Scene 2: Babylon (3–10)
 characters: Daniel/friends and Ashpenaz Scene 3: Babylon (11–17) 
 characters: Daniel/friends & guard Scene 4: King’s palace, 3 yrs later (18–21)
 characters: Daniel/friends and the king www.tonywatkins.uk

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