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    Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance Document Transcript

    • January Wastewater 2010 Treatment Page 34 www.che.com Boosting 1 Catalyst ProductivityCapital And Production Costs • wastewater treatment  Pipe Sizing Rules Focus on Weighing Audiosonic Acoustic Cleaners Recognizing Your Colleagues Page 26 Pressure Relief Systems Facts At Your Fingertips: NewestVol. 117 No. 1 January 2010 Low-Pressure Scrubbing Measurement Technologies • 01_CHE_010110_COV.indd 1 12/22/09 9:23:54 AM
    • When the right reaction matters ... Trust BASF Process Catalysts and Technologies At crucial moments, the right reaction matters. When you are looking for the right reaction from your process catalyst, turn to BASF. Our technical experts will recommend the right catalyst from our innovative product line that will achieve the desired reaction. The end results may also include greater yield and better end product properties. When the catalyst is right, the reaction will be right. Trust BASF. � Adsorbents � Chemical catalysts � Polyolefin catalysts � Custom catalysts � Refining catalysts For more information, please visit www.catalysts.basf.com/process Circle 01 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-01XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 2 12/22/09 9:28:02 AM
    • www.dipeshengg.com Autoclave Systems with Quick-Opening Doors for Aerospace Structural Composites Agitators offering Homogenous high heat transfer suspension of rates solids/catalysts Optimum Higher catalyst life Spherical Paddle C-GMP Rotocone utilisation of gas due to low shear Chopper Dryer Vacuum Dryer Offered in a variety of construction in Reliable bare/cladded containment of material gas and the product of the reaction Higher productivity Tall Vertical Column due to higher gas interfacial area High flooding limits cGMP Heat Exchanger Silicon Carbide Tube Available with Heat Exchanger (Di-Sic) Custom-designed ASME U & U2 for each process Certification or CE as per PED. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger for Oil&Gas GAS LIQUID REACTORS/HYDROGENATORS For Hydrogenation, Oxidation, Ethoxylation, Phosgenation, Chlorination, Ammonolusis, Carbonation, Bromination, Sulphonation and Flurorination With over 100 trained and highly experienced engineers, backed by more than 400 skilled technicians and six modern plants, we at Dipesh Engineering Works are ready to serve you. Since 1981, we have been Batch Reactor with Internal and External Coils designing and supplying a range of coded process equipment and plants to global clients under third-party and Agitator acceptance of firms like Lloyds, TUV, Jacobs H&G, BVIS, AKER, SAIPEM and TCS. Our aim has remained consistent over all these years: Be a one-stop-shop and provide all standards-based process equipment and services under one roof. Our clients say we make a huge difference to them through our innovative approach. We invite you to benefit from our experience and expertise. cGMP Reactors cGMP Reaction Kettle Let us know how we can help you. 3, Sheroo Villa, 87 J.P. Road, Andheri West, Mumbai 400053. India. Tel: +91.22.2674 3719 / 2674 3729 | Fax: +91.22.2674 3507 E-mail: sales@dipeshengg.net | www.dipeshengg.com Alloy-20 Reaction-cum-Filtration Vessel WORLD-CLASS, CUSTOM DESIGNED AND CODED PLANTS & EQUIPMENT SINCE 1981 Circle 04 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-04XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 1 12/22/09 9:31:02 AM
    • Circle 05 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-05XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 2 12/22/09 9:31:48 AM
    • JANUARY 2010 In This Issue Volume 117, no. 1 Commentary 5  ditor’s Page E New HART award aims to spark progress across the CPI The HART www.che.com Innovation Achieve- ment Award, given in recognition of Cover story exceptional achieve- 26  over Story Capital And Production C ment, ingenuity and Costs: Improving the Bottom Line De- innovation in using cisions made in early phases of a project HART communica- affect production costs for years to come. tion, is unveiled The disciplined method described here taps into potential savings departments news Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 11  Chementator Recovering energy from fluegas; Large-diameter reverse osmosis Bookshelf. . . . . . . . . . 8 product lowers cost and reduces footprint; Who’s Who. . . . . . . 25 . “Super boiler” achieves higher efficiency 51  olids Processing A Sound Solution S through the recovery of waste heat; A new Reader Service to Material Flow Problems Audiosonic electrochemical process for making potas- page. . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 acoustic cleaners use high-energy, low-fre- sium ferrate; Sound water treatment delivers quency sound waves to eliminate particu- Economic environmental and economic benefits; Com- late buildup, without damaging equipment Indicators. . . . . . 63, 64 mercialization is set for a new distillation technology; and more equipment & services advertisers 17  ewsfront Boosting Catalyst Produc- N 24D-2 New Products & Services (Domestic tivity Companies are finding different Italian Section. . . . 24I-1 Edition) Protect braided hoses with these pathways to increase catalysts’ ability to sleeves; Harsh environments will not harm Product Showcase. . 56 . produce these pressure transmitters; Unbreakable Classified 20  ewsfront Recognizing Your Col- N switch technology finds application in key- Advertising. . . . . 57–61 leagues Consider nominating a deserving boards; Stainless-steel external trim is stan- colleague for the 2010 Personal Achieve- dard with these ball valves; Use this pump Advertiser Index . . . . 61 ment Award. Entries are due April 15 to evacuate liquid storage terminals; Spe- cialty motors certified for hazardous duty; coming 21  ewsfront Are You Ready? With stricter N in februARY air-pollution-control regulations on the ho- and more rizon, now is the time to examine the new- 24I-12 New Products & Services Look for: Feature est scrubbing technologies (International Edition) Reduce rubber Reports on Doing contamination in food with these elas- an Energy Audit; and Engineering tomers; Ceramic membranes help filter Distillation Debottle- surface-treatment effluents; A family of necking; an Environ- 24  acts At Your Fingertips Low-Pressure F mental Manager products for WirelessHart communication; Measurement This one-page guide out- article on Electronic Monitor fermentation in realtime with this lines techniques for measuring low pres- Valve Actuators: probe; A new version for this flowsheet sures, or vacuum an Engineering simulation software; Disposable respirators 34  eature Report Wastewater Treat- F for protection against aerosols; This globe Practice article on ment: Energy-Conservation Opportuni- valve now comes in smaller sizes; and Selecting Variable ties Consider these options to improve more Frequency Drives for energy efficiency and reduce the cost of Centrifugal Pumps; treating wastewater 54  ocus Weighing This weigh belt helps F Focus on Mixers; minimize material buildup; Measure bulk News articles on 42  ngineering Practice Pressure Relief E material flows with no moving parts; This Requirement During External Pool-Fire Supercritical carbon scale is suitable for potentially hazardous dioxide; and Engi- Contingency A practical overview of the areas; This weigh-batch system can loosen important factors that need to be consid- neering Software; bulk material before blending; Handle Facts at Your Fin- ered when designing a pressure relief system eight load cells with this crane weighing gertips on Pumps; 48  ngineering Practice Updating the E system; Use this network interface for and more Rules For Pipe Sizing The most eco- fast transfer of time-critical information; nomical velocity in piping continues to shift Handle a wide range of feedrates with this Cover: downward weigh feeder; and more David Whitcher Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 302_CHE_010110_TOC.indd 3 12/22/09 9:51:40 AM
    • Competence is knowing how it all fits together. More than 100,000 customers in every industry around the globe trust Endress+Hauser to make their processes safe, efficient and repeatable. Just like a puzzle, many pieces must come together at the right time and place to manufacture a product profitably. Endress+Hauser understands there is a world of difference between a good fit and a perfect fit for your critical process measurement needs. This is evidenced by the hundreds of thousands of instruments we deliver every year worldwide – the widest range available from any one supplier. When you need support with planning, engineering, project management, automation, or just need help with a difficult process, Endress+Hauser is the partner you can depend on. Endress+Hauser, Inc 2350 Endress Place Greenwood, IN 46143 Sales: 888-ENDRESS inquiry@us.endress.com Service: 800-642-8737 www.us.endress.com Fax: 317-535-8498 Circle 06 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-06XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 4 12/22/09 9:32:24 AM
    • Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 New HART award aims to spark progress across the CPI An Access Intelligence Publication Publisher Art & Design Mike O’Rourke DAVID WHITCHER N Publisher Art Director/ umber six on this magazine’s list of twelve tips for clearer technical morourke@che.com Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com writing is “When writing about concepts that are new, unfamiliar or Editors Production abstract, try to include examples.” This principle, as articulated in an Rebekkah j. Marshall Editor in Chief MICHAEL D. KRAUS informative article by former CE Editor-in-Chief Nicholas P. Chopey (CE, VP of Production & Manufacturing rmarshall@che.com mkraus@accessintel.com July 2003, pp. 73–75), is admittedly simple but can nevertheless be pivotal. Dorothy Lozowski Steve Olson Without effective examples, it would take many innovative solutions far Managing Editor dlozowski@che.com Director of Production & too long to saturate their intended outlet and reach their full potential. Manufacturing GERALD ONDREY (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com With that reality in mind, CE has the exclusive media privilege of un- Senior Editor John Blaylock-CookE veiling that the Evonik Degussa GmbH (Essen, Germany; www.evonik. gondrey@che.com Ad Production Manager jcooke@accessintel.com com) Methacrylates Complex, at the Multi User Site (MUSC) in Shang- Scott Jenkins Associate Editor Marketing hai’s Chemical Industry Park, has been selected as the winner of the sjenkins@che.com Holly Rountree HART Innovative Achievement Award. The new award is presented by Contributing Editors Marketing Manager hrountree@accessintel.com the HART Communication Foundation (HCF; Austin; www.hartcomm. SUZANNE A. SHELLEY Audience org) in recognition of exceptional achievement, ingenuity and innovation sshelley@che.com Development in using HART communication in realtime applications to improve opera- Charles ButcheR (U.K.) Sylvia sierra cbutcher@che.com Senior Vice President, tions and maintenance. The project and the award itself illustrate how Paul S. Grad (Australia) Corporate Audience Development the CPI’s pioneers can both inspire and be inspired by winning techno- ssierra@accessintel.com pgrad@che.com logical applications. Tetsuo Satoh (Japan) John Rockwell tsatoh@che.com Vice President, Although the HART communication protocol is certainly not new, its Joy LePree (New Jersey) Audience Development Chemical full capabilities can seem abstract to chemical engineers whose process jrockwell@accessintel.com jlepree@che.com Laurie Hofmann control training is too often limited to Laplace transforms or basic control Gerald parkinson Audience Marketing Director theory. Even for engineers who have practical control-system training lhofmann@Accessintel.com (California) gparkinson@che.com and experience, the widescale adoption of HART — or any other com- Terry Best Editorial Audience Development Manager munication bus, for that matter — is much easier to visualize and justify Advisory Board tbest@accessintel.com with the help of compelling success stories. John Carson George Severine Jenike & Johanson, Inc. Fulfillment Manager Indeed, the Shanghai facility’s achievement begins with yet another ex- David Dickey gseverine@accessintel.com ample. At the start of its project, Evonik read an application story posted MixTech, Inc. Jen Felling on the HART Website about how a BP facility saved money installing Mukesh Doble List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700 IIT Madras, India j.felling@statlistics.com smart valve positioners to help identify which valves needed to be re- Henry Kister Conferences paired during plant shutdowns. Before the use of HART to identify valve Fluor Corp. Dana D. Carey conditions at BP, a certain number of valves were removed and repaired Director, Global Event Sponsorships Trevor Kletz dcarey@chemweek.com at every shutdown, whether the valve actually needed repair or not. Loughborough University, U.K. Peck Sim Evonik then decided to design-in the use of HART to help reduce its own Gerhard Kreysa (retired) DECHEMA e.V. Senior Manager, maintenance costs and now has over 2,000 HART-compatible instruments Conference Programming Ram Ramachandran psim@chemweek.com and valves from multiple global manufacturers. “Our technician can now BOC Beatriz Suarez quickly and more efficiently access device calibration, integrity and wiring Director of Conference Operations Information bsuarez@chemweek.com information in order to check that the entire control loops are performing services Robert Paciorek Corporate according to the process design,” says the plant representative. “As a di- Senior VP & Chief Information Officer Steve Barber rect result of this implementation, we managed to cut loop-check time and rpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com costs by 25% compared to the traditional method based on conventional Charles Sands Senior Developer Brian Nessen handheld devices. As well, daily troubleshooting of instruments is now Web/business Applications Architect Group Publisher mainly performed from the safety and convenience of the control room.” csands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com The team is now initiating a predictive maintenance program, in which Headquarters priority equipment such as key control valves and safety instruments re- 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S. Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 ceive immediate attention. “Once they experienced first- European Editorial offices hand the power, performance and reliability of HART Zeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany technology, they decided to use HART in additional ap- Tel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 plications.,” says Ed Ladd, HCF director of Technology Circulation Requests: Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 Programs. “This application is a model for new plants Fullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, of all types — that HART is the right communication Northbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com choice to lower maintenance and operation costs.” Advertising Requests: see p. 62 We invite you to visit www.che.com for more about For photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.com For reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com the award and this exemplary application.  ■  Rebekkah Marshall Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 503_CHE_010110_ED.indd 5 12/22/09 9:59:44 AM
    • Letters Underground storage tanks November 2009, Facts At Your Fingertips “Aboveground and Underground Storage Tanks”: It is articles like this one that cause me a major headache. Our company deals in assisting clients with their regulatory compli- ance. When I see a client who has an underground tank my first question is “Why?”. The answer is “We need the above ground space.” There is a third option, overlooked by most and that is to place the tank in a vault. The result is that the tank is regulated as an above ground tank, with all of the advantages of an underground tank. Their next comment is, “But no one told me.” Yes, the ini- tial cost is a little more, but the savings over the long run are considerable. George Moczulski Ambient Engineering Help transform the energy landscape Do you have an idea to transform the energy landscape by a 10x Engineering Factor? The American Institute of Chemical Engineers’ (AIChE) 10xE Competition is open for you to realize your idea potential. Submit your concept to Alan Fuchs and Alok Pradhan by January 31, 2010, at: 10xE@aiche.org The 10xE competition will focus on radically efficient designs of processes and devices that dramatically reduce energy and resource consumption. The submitted con- cepts should focus on capturing the methodology behind radically efficient designs of processes, devices and mate- rials and highlight the results. All can participate. Entrepreneurial teams as well as individual engineers will submit case study papers of their designs and the top entries will be announced atCircle 07 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-07 the Energy Efficiency Plenary by Amory Lovins during the AIChE Spring Meeting, March 23, 2010, San Antonio, Tex. An expert judging panel lead by Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute will select the winning papers. The winning concepts will receive the following awards and recognition: •  ree AIChE Spring Meeting registration F •  n AIChE Energy Efficiency Award Certificate A •  ase study review by Amory Lovins at the Energy Ef- C ficiency Plenary •  ress coverage P •  ublication in RMI 10xE Casebook P In addition, review by investors is planned and a limited number of travel stipends will be made available. To learn more about the challenge, visit www.aiche.org/ Energy/GetInvolved/10xEChallenge.aspx Postscripts, corrections December 2009, Focus on Level Measurement and Con- trol, pp. 51–53: On p. 52, the Website address for Tec- mark Corp. was listed incorrectly. The correct address is www.tecmarkcorp.com. ■ 04_CHE_010110_LET.indd 6 12/21/09 9:45:18 AM
    • Choose a better way to manage your information... Do you work in a world of last-minute data ❚ Increase plant uptime – increase revenue cleanup and “big bang” data handover? ❚ Enhance compliance and safety and minimise Gaps in your compliance information? reputational risk International teams struggling to ❚ Minimise financial and schedule risks synchronise their data and activities? ❚ Reduce faults and expensive rework ❚ Revamp and extend the life of your plant more easily All compounded by your reliance on rigid, ❚ See clear project progress against plan, including KPIs inflexible data warehouse technology? ❚ Collaborate reliably with international teams, subcontractors, even clients There is another way... AVEVA NET can manage data of any type and make it AVEVA NET’s specialist Information Management accessible and useful, in both AVEVA and third-party capabilities, across the design, engineering, environments. construction and operations phases of both Plant and Marine industries, manage your information to Choose a better way. Choose AVEVA NET - help you: the brand for Information Management. Contact us to learn more! EVA Email us at marketing.contact@aveva.com, quoting reference ANAD09, or find your regional AV N ET contact on our website at www.aveva.com/contact. Visit www.aveva.com/avevanet or take a MIC look at our AVEVA NET plant Owner Operator microsite at www.aveva.com/aveva_net/oos. R OSITE S Head office: High Cross Madingley Road Cambridge CB3 0HB UK Circle 08 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-08XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 7 12/22/09 9:33:35 AM
    • Bookshelf The Nalco Water Handbook, 3rd ed. By wastewater. The material on reclaimed water could have Daniel Flynn. McGraw Hill Co., 1221 been expanded to include water reuse, given its increasing Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY importance. The section concludes with chapters on sludge 10121. Web: www.mcgrawhill.com. disposal, emulsions and wet scrubbing of gases. 2009. 1,280 pages. $125.00. Section 3 is devoted largely to reducing energy usage, through lower electric use in motors and other equipment, Reviewed by Brad Buecker, as well as improved aeration and process upgrades. Technical support specialist, The third edition wisely retains a set of industry- AEC PowerFlow, Kansas City, Mo. specific chapters that appeared in earlier versions of the book. The set includes chapters on the paper, power, chem- T he third edition of Nalco’s comprehensive manual ical, petroleum, aluminum, steel, coal, food and municipal on water and water treatment is an effective re- water industries. placement to the previous version as well as an ex- cellent information source for those seeking to learn about Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompati- industrial water treatment and improve plant operation bilities. 3rd ed. By Richard P. Pohanish and efficiency. The opening section covers fundamental and Stanley A. Greene. Wiley & Sons water chemistry, and provides useful information for plant Inc., 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. personnel who may encounter a steep learning curve with Web: www.wiley.com. 2009. 1,110 pages. regard to industrial water treatment. $175.00. Section 2 includes chapters on the removal of impurities from raw water makeup and conditioning of the water to The Science and Engineering of minimize corrosion, scaling or other problems downstream. Cutting. By Tony Atkins. Butterworth- The section contains a comprehensive discussion of water Heinemann, 30 Corporate Dr., Suite clarification and multimedia filtration — technologies that 400, Burlington, MA. 01803. Web: www. have been the backbone of primary water pretreatment elsevier.com. 2009. 432 pages. $64.95. for years — as well as discussions of ion exchange and membrane separation technologies. Although the order of Citizen Engineer: A Handbook for the chapters could have been reversed, the ion exchange Socially Responsible Engineering. chapter contains much useful information, including a good By David Douglas, Greg Papadopoulos discussion of how primary exchange resins function. and John Boutelle. Prentice Hall, One The three pages devoted to micro- and ultra-filtration Lake St., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. may not be enough, given the potential for these systems Web: www.prenhall.com. 2009. 292 to replace clarifiers and sand filters in many applications. pages. $27.00. Discussion of reverse osmosis, which has proven to be an excellent pretreatment technology, was comprehensive. Effective Alarm Management Sys- A portion of the section covers the widely utilized process tem Practices. By The ASM Consor- of steam generation in detail, and includes an informative tium. CreateSpace, 100 Enterprise Way, discussion on a number of industrial boiler designs. A chap- Suite A200, Scotts Valley, CA 95066. ter on boiler feedwater treatment focuses on deposits that Web: www.createspace.com. 2009. 106 foul steam generators, and ways to prevent scaling and pages. $150.00. fouling. A short chapter on turbines is a new and welcome addition to the book, given turbines’ integral role in power Crystal Structure Analysis: Princi- generation and wide use at other industrial plants. Another ples and Practice, 2nd ed. By Alexan- chapter investigates problems that can be caused by oxygen der Blake and others. Oxford University and carbon dioxide in condensate return systems, which Press Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, can be relatively complex for industrial applications. NY 10016. Web: www.oup.com/us. 2009. Section 2.3 is devoted to cooling water processes and 387 pages. $59.95. chemistry. Chapter 14 offers a good review of the types of cooling water systems, with much discussion on open Design for Environment: A Guide to recirculating systems that use cooling towers. Notable are Sustainable Product Development, useful chapters on mechanisms of fouling and corrosion, 2nd ed. By Joseph Fiksel. McGraw Hill Co., 1221 Av- others on cooling water system monitoring, as well as sev- enue of the Americas, New York, NY 10121. Web: www. eral chapters on cooling water biology. mcgrawhill.com. 2009. 410 pages. $125.00. A major portion of the book addresses wastewater treat- ment, a complex process that is handled in an informative Advanced Regulatory Control: Applications and manner. An outline of wastewater system designs and Techniques. By David Spitzer. Momentum Press LLC, treatment methods is followed by a helpful discussion of 222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017. Web: www.mo- dissolved air flotation as well as the removal of ammonia, mentumpress.net. 2009. 145 pages. $49.95. ■ phosphorous, suspended solids, and heavy metals from Scott Jenkins 8 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201005_CHE_010110_BKS.indd 8 12/22/09 2:45:52 PM
    • B:8.125” T:7.625” S:7” f over and distribution o ck of sales “We K YHquWRtkgelopbally… Des of e ipmen e tra c 18,000 pie DQG parts, to the right place, get the right at the right time DQG QGeasierparonvdedchReOaIpe r automate more processes Dtomize or im cus ns f solutio S:9.75” T:10.5” B:11” DQG cadus ce timcteifspyentroon service re ll to re er rs s unication impr ove comm rs deale DQG with our vy load for our staff Microsoft Dynamics CRM lifted a heaefficiently.” DQG by managing our relationships more Microsoft Dynamics® CRM integrates information from different sources and puts it in one place, at one time, so everyone in your company sees the information needed to make better decisions faster. It’s simple for your sales and support people to use, and it’s ready to fit your company right away. So you can spend less time on service calls and more time building stronger relationships. To learn more about the efficiencies Microsoft Dynamics CRM can create for your business, go to microsoftdynamics.com/manufacturing Circle 09 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-09XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 9 12/22/09 9:37:19 AM
    • RO-2111C Tom Di -Industrial Ad for Chemical Eng. size: 7.875” x 10.75” (Bleed: 8.125” x 11.5”) 4-c date: 10/08/07 (SCD#07ROSS026) “In the auto industry, no one drives faster than Uniseal.” Uniseal is known throughout the OEM auto industry as a premier supplier of structural adhesive and sealant systems. With fast-moving R&D, custom formulations and superb quality, it’s easy to see why this company has been so successful. To keep production in the passing lane, Uniseal relies on the finest equipment available anywhere for high-viscosity vacuum mixing: 10- to 1,500-gallon double planetary and triple-shaft mixers engineered right here at Ross. We’d like to help you succeed, too. Call 1-800-243-ROSS. Or visit www.mixers.com. Circle 10 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-10 Tom DiGiannurio, Senior Engineer, Ross Employee OwnerXX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 10 12/22/09 9:38:27 AM
    • Edited by Gerald Ondrey January 2010 Heat source Recovered Dilute Recovering energy Heater Fan water spent liquor from fluegas To stack Warm water Countercurrent A lcoa of Australia (www.alcoa.com.au) has developed a process to recover sensible and latent heat from the fluegas (FG) pro- contacting tower Flash vapor to Quench Hot water duced by Bayer alumina calciners, and use Calciner condenser Indirect the heat to evaporate Bayer spent liquor. fluegas condenser Peter Hay, of Alcoa’s Technology Delivery Pump Falling Group, at Alcoa’s Kwinana Refinery, in film Heat evaporator sink Western Australia, says the recovered heat ery process (flowsheet) are: fluegas quench can also be applied to seawater desalination. to cool the FG to its dew point and to wet Condensate Calcination consumes 25 to 40% of the refin- and discharge the fugitive dust in the FG; ery’s total energy input, and produces large counter-current contacting tower to heat quantities of FG that is generally vented to water and cool the FG; induced draft fan to Concentrated the atmosphere, says Hay. overcome pressure losses in the FG circuit; spent liquor Energy is recovered from the FG by pro- indirect exhaust FG heater to ensure fluegas gressive cooling. Only sensible heat is re- buoyancy and dispersion; falling film evapo- covered between 165°C and the dew point. rator, to exchange heat between the heated Aiding crystal growth Below the dew point, the energy recovered water in the shell with the spent liquor film Scientists at Brookhaven is mainly the latent heat of the water con- flowing inside the tubes thereby evaporat- National Laboratory (BNL; densed. The higher-grade, sensible heat is ing the spent liquor; and indirect heat ex- Upton, N.Y.; www.bnl.gov) have patented a method for only about 10% of the practical recoverable changer, to condense and recover high qual- absorbing hydrogen fluo- energy, considering 50°C to be the heat sink ity condensate from the evaporated liquor. ride gas to enhance crystal practical limit. Water is recovered after the For every metric ton (m.t.) of smelting- growth. HF is commonly dew point is reached. Since considerable re- grade alumina produced, about 0.2 GJ of added to precursors to trans- fining infrastructure is invested to collect sensible heat is recovered from FG exit tem- fer crystalline order from a and store fresh water — an essential raw peratures between 85 and 165°C, and about substrate to a growing mate- material for the Bayer process — any pro- 0.6 m.t. of water is recovered from FG exit rial, but buildup of the gas can cess that can reduce fresh water usage has temperatures between 57 and 82°C. Hay slow down or even stop the significant value to the refining operation, and co-inventor Dean Ilievski, also of Alcoa’s reaction. Simply venting the says Hays. Technology Delivery Group, have applied for HF is not practical because other necessary gases may The basic components of the heat recov- a patent on the process. be present, and also pressure variations cause non-unifor- Large-diameter reverse osmosis product mity in crystals. The BNL method features lowers cost and reduces footprint a solid material that selec- tively absorbs HF, leaving K och Membrane Systems Inc. (KMS; Wilm- ington, Mass.; www.kochmembrane.com) recently unveiled large-diameter reverse get into the range of tens of millions of gal- lons per day, plants can realize cost savings of 30% and footprint reductions of 50%” with behind oxygen, water vapor and other gases that may be necessary for the reac- osmosis (RO) elements and pressure ves- the larger-size product, Jaferey adds. tion. The method has been demonstrated for grow- sels for seawater desalination that offer The economics and smaller space require- ing crystals of a common cost savings and reduced footprints. The ments become increasingly important as yttrium-barium-copper-oxide new RO element and pressure vessel com- seawater desalination plants seek more ca- (YBCO) superconductor. The binations have an 18-in. dia. and a 60-in. pacity and are located in more densely pop- YBCO crystal growth rate length, rather than the standard 8-in.-dia., ulated areas with limited land space. The was faster when using a bar- 40-in.-long size that has been commonly product has installation advantages as well ium-oxide HF absorber than used. The larger size translates to an effec- because it is available in pre-engineered when conventional methods tive membrane area of 17,500 ft2 per ves- packaged plants that require less fieldwork were used, says BNL. The sel, compared to 2,800 ft2 for conventional to install. As desalination requires pressures technology — available for 8-in. elements. of up to 1,200 psi to drive the RO process, licensing or commercializa- “The larger diameter becomes cost-effec- KMS also had the challenges of designing tion — is expected to find tive at capacities of around 1-million gal/d,” larger diameter pressure vessels that could applications in superconduc- tors, optical devices and says Imran Jaferey, Koch’s vice-president meet ASME code requirements, and deliver- microelectronics. for water and wastewater. “Once capacities ing them cost-effectively. Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation. Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 1106_CHE_010110_CHM.indd 11 12/21/09 9:17:53 AM
    • C hementato R Tube side TMC membrane cross section Shell side TMC element with pore sizes of the layers TMC element 60 to ‘Super Boiler’ achieves higher efficiency Water-vapor ° 80 A ° 500 A ~0.4µm through the recovery of waste heat laden Hot water Capillary condensation of water fluegas inlet outlet occurs in the surface pores A n advanced heat recovery system (AHRS) that boosts the fuel-to-steam efficiency of firetube boilers by as much uses a transport mem- brane condenser (TMC) to capture and use sen- as 15% will be produced by Cannon sible and latent waste Water (and heat) flow Boiler Works Inc. (New Kensington, Pa.; heat via the water vapor www.cannonboilerworks.com) through from fluegas. The Super a license agreement with the Gas Tech- Boiler consists of a two- nology Institute (GTI, Des Plaines, Ill.; pass, high-pressure- Water-vapor www.gastechnology.org). Cannon ex- steam firetube boiler depleted Cold boiler feed water pects to have its first commercial units and an AHRS (diagram), fluegas outlet available late this year, for incorpora- an integrated unit that tion into new boilers or retrofitting onto includes the TMC and low- and high- the tubes. The flowing water draws the existing boilers. pressure economizers. Fluegas flows hot, moist fluegas through the mem- The technology has been proven for through the economizers, where sensible brane to join the flow, thereby recover- high-pressure-steam systems by three heat is removed, then passes to the TMC ing heat. About 30–50% of the water in field demonstrations at various types for recovery of sensible and latent heat. the fluegas passes through the mem- of industrial plants over the past three The TMC consists of hundreds of brane and is recovered as pure water, years, says Curt Bermel, GTI’s business nanoporous ceramic tubes. Cold boiler says Bermel, while the passage of un- development manager. The complete feedwater flows through the tubes, wanted contaminants, including CO2 system, which GTI calls “Super Boiler,” countercurrent to the fluegas outside and O2, is blocked. A new electrochemical process for making K2FeO4 A new process for producing the oxi- dizing agent potassium ferrate (VI) (K2FeO4) can routinely generate multi- and engineers at Battelle. The other key innovation, they say, was varying the power across the anode, which elim- gram yields were achieved on a single, commercial-scale cell, but the cells are modular, and can be replicated to scale- kilogram quantities per day, say sci- inates the accumulation of unstable up, notes Andy Wolter, chief operating entists. Ferratec (St. Louis, Mo.; www. or solid intermediates and keeps the officer of Ferratec and parent company, theincubationfactory.com) and partner anode from “passivating” — a problem The Incubation Factory. Electrosynthesis (Lancaster, N.Y.; www. that has plagued past efforts to produce Initially, Ferratec is targeting a hand- electrosynthesis.com) have licensed the ferrate electrochemically. ful of the many applications for the pow- process technology from Battelle (Co- Advantages of the new process include erful oxidizer, including use as a broad- lumbus, Ohio; www.battelle.org) and a high-purity (>95%), highly stable (tol- spectrum disinfectant, a water quality are looking toward commercial-scale erates 70°C) product and a small and tool and for selective oxidations in fine ferrate production. relatively clean waste stream. The kilo- chemical syntheses. The common laboratory method for making the compound involves chlorina- tion of ferric salts, a process that makes Sound water treatment delivers only gram quantities and has not been found to be scalable. The new process is environmental and economic benefits based on an electrochemical cell with an iron anode in a strong caustic medium. As low voltage is applied, the cell produces A two-year collaboration between Ash- land Hercules Water Technologies (AHWT; Wilmington, Del.), a commer- phosphate treatment requiring pH ad- justment through sulfuric acid dosing — with Ashland’s Enviroplus scale-and- K2FeO4 as a slurry, and hydrogen gas. cial unit of Ashland Inc. (Covington, Ky.; corrosion inhibitor, in conjunction with The ferrate is removed continuously from www.ashland.com), and BASF Neder- an Ashland Sonoxide ultrasonic water- the circulating electrolyte and isolated by land B.V. (Nijehaske, the Netherlands) treatment system. solid/liquid separation. Recovered elec- has demonstrated that a combination of Enviroplus uses natural, biodegrade- trolyte is recycled back to the cell. ultrasonic microbial control and corro- able and renewable ingredients (BCA- Relying on electrochemistry rather sion inhibitors not only enhances envi- polymers and low phosphorous PSA than chlorination synthesis methods ronmental performance, but also leads to phosphonate), and eliminates the need was a key technology development in as- a dramatic reduction in total operating for sulfuric acid. The patented Sonox- sembling a viable process and enabling costs for cooling water treatment. BASF ide technology works by passing water high yields, explain Bruce Monzyk and opted to replace its complete cooling-wa- through an ultrasonic chamber where Mike von Fahnestock, process chemists ter-treatment program — a conjugated (Continues on p. 14) 12 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201006_CHE_010110_CHM.indd 12 12/21/09 9:21:31 AM
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    • C hementato R DME to propylene JGC Corp. (Yokohama; www. Downcomer jgc.co.jp) and Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. (Tokyo, both Commercialization is set for Japan; www.m-kagaku.co.jp) a new distillation technology Stage spacing are investing ¥2.6 billion ($29 million) in a pilot plant to fur- Separator ther develop a new process to A new distillation device developed by UOP LLC (Des Plaines, Ill.; www.uop.com) will make its commercial debut in an ethylene make propylene from diverse feedstock, such as methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) — separation column at LG Chem, Ltd.’s pet- made from coke-oven gas rochemical plant in Yeosu, South Korea. — and underutilized olefins Coflow channel from naphtha crackers. The Scheduled for startup in the near future, the revamped column is expected to process two firms have been working Modular on different aspects of this twice as much ethylene as it previously did width technology since 2007. JGC, with conventional distillation trays. for example, has developed a The capacity of conventional sieve or fixed DME-to-propylene (DTP) pro- valve trays is limited by the froth height and two vapor-liquid separators. The latter are cess, which uses a modified the amount of liquid entrainment that can located on opposite sides of the downcomer, ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The be achieved, notes Greg Wisniewski, prod- forming two vapor-liquid coflow channels DTP process is said to have a uct line manager for UOP process equip- between the downcomer and the separa- high selectivity for lower ole- ment. UOP’s technology, called SimulFlow, tors (see diagram). Downflowing liquid is fins, with propylene yields of avoids frothing by entraining all the liquid distributed through spouts at the bottom of 70% achieved. The pilot plant, in the vapor at each column stage. Its high the downcomer and is entrained in upflow- located at Mitsubishi Chemi- cal’s Mizushima Plant, is capacity is achieved by simultaneous cocur- ing vapor. The two phases are mixed, then scheduled to come onstream rent liquid and vapor flow, within a contact- split up by the separators. In the case of at the end of July. ing channel, and by efficient vapor-liquid the LG Chem plant, a mixture of primarily phase separators. ethylene and ethane is fed to the column. SimulFlow differs from a sieve deck tray High-purity ethylene is obtained from the Biomass-to-liquids in that it has multiple horizontal contacting top and the ethane is condensed and recov- The Karlsruhe Institute of ered from the bottom. Technology (KIT; Germany; modules. Each includes a downcomer and www.kit.edu) has received €11 million in German federal and state funding to extend Sound water treatment rates (measured on steel corrosion coupons) KIT’s pilot plant for developing  (Continued from p. 12) were shown to be reduced from 0.3–0.4 mil/ its bioliq process — a four- bacteria cells are exposed to a combination yr to 0.23 mil/yr. Compareing with BASF’s stage process for converting of low-power, high-frequency ultrasound previous water treatment costs to those biomass (straw or wood) into and micro-bubble aeration. This reduces associated with the Sonoxide system, en- liquid fuels. The funding will the overall bacteria levels and eliminates gineers found that operating costs were enable KIT to add the last two biofilm formation within the entire cooling reduced by 80%, chemical use was reduced stages — gas cleaning and fuel synthesis — to its pilot water system, says Olaf Pohlmann, AHWT’s by 90% and feed water savings of 20% were plant. The first stage of the pilot Sonoxide commercial leader EMEA. achieved. Results also show a preliminary is flash pyrolysis of biomass After two years of operation, not only was savings of €20,000/yr from feed water and microbial control demonstrated, corrosion chemical use reductions, says Pohlmann. (Continues on p. 16) These nanotube membranes promise superior performance for less cost C arbon nanotube membranes are being developed for water desalina- tion and carbon dioxide sequestration Porifera’s chief technology officer and a former team leader at LLNL. She adds that the membranes will enable an en- controlled within a range of 1–10 nm. The height or length of the tubes, which determines the membrane by Porifera Inc. (Hayward, Calif.; www. ergy reduction of up to 70% in desali- thickness, is currently 3–5 µm. Work- poriferanano.com) under an exclusive nation, compared to the use of conven- ing membranes are assembled by em- license from Lawrence Livermore Na- tional RO membranes. bedding the nanotube structure in a tional Laboratory (LLNL, Livermore, The nanotubes are produced by porous polymeric or ceramic substrate, Calif.). Porifera, a new company, ex- chemical vapor deposition from ethyl- with the nanotubes forming the pores pects to commercialize desalination ene or other carbon-bearing gases at of the membrane. membranes within two years. 800–850°C, under low or atmospheric Porifera is also developing mem- Laboratory tests indicate that the pressure. The carbon deposits onto branes that are tailored to separate CO2 membranes will have “something like multiple iron-based nanoparticle cata- from fluegas. This project, which is at an 10 to 100 times the flux of polymeric lysts, forming an integrated miniature early stage, is being carried out under a reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, due forest of nanotubes. The dimensions of $1 million-plus grant from the U.S. Dept. to a nanofluidic effect unique to car- the tubes can be precisely controlled, of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects bon nanotubes,” says Olgica Bakajin, says Bakajin. The diameters can be Agency (Washington, D.C.). 14 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201006_CHE_010110_CHM.indd 14 12/21/09 9:24:45 AM
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    • C hementato R (Continued from p. 14) into a high-energy-density, transportable synthetic crude oil (so-called liqSynCrude). The A glucaric acid process moves closer to scaleup second stage — gasification of liqSynCrude into syngas — is presently under construction A n economical method for producing glu- caric acid from glucose was successfully scaled up three-fold to a 6-L reactor by its a closed reactor. Computer-based control of the reaction parameters is key to avoiding the thermal issues that are associated with (CE, February 2009, p. 12). developer, Rivertop Renewables (Missoula, regulating the exothermic reaction. Oxida- A new nuclear fuel Mont.; www.rivertop.com). The company is tion of glucose occurs at mild (20–40 °C) Researchers at Idaho National planning to assemble a pilot-scale process temperatures as the oxygen pressure and Laboratory (Idaho Falls; www. capable of producing 3-million lb/yr. reaction time are carefully orchestrated. The inl.gov) have developed a new type of nuclear fuel that leaves Glucaric acid is among a dozen “building- O2 that is introduced to the reactor regener- less waste compared to con- block” chemicals cited by the U.S. Depart- ates nitric acid (consumed in the oxidation) ventional fuels. Designed for ment of Energy (DOE; Washington, D.C.) as by reacting with NOx gases produced in the the Next Generation Nuclear having the most significant economic poten- reaction. Glucaric acid is typically isolated Plant, the new fuel consumes tial as bio-based feedstocks for the chemical as a water insoluble salt. approximately 19% of its low- industry if they could be produced effectively Rivertop is targeting the detergent mar- level uranium, which is more on an industrial scale. ket initially, where glucaric acid could be than three times that achieved The Rivertop technology, which can be ap- a nontoxic, biodegradable replacement for by commercial light-water- plied to sugars other than glucose, such as phosphates in making household detergents. reactor fuel. Each fuel particle xylose and sucrose, is a highly controlled, Glucaric acid could also serve as a corrosion contains a kernel of enriched uranium surrounded by carbon nitric-acid-oxidation process carried out in inhibitor and as a concrete admixture. and carbide layers that act as containment boundaries for the radioactive material. ❏ A commercial debut for microwave-assisted polymerization A device for the mass production of lactic acid oligomers, polylactic acid (PLA) and other polymers has been de- the manufacturing time to nearly one tenth that required by conventional methods, requires less energy and gen- reaction requires no tin-based catalyst or sulfuric acid. Glart, which produces oligo lactic acid as functional food mate- veloped by Japanese researchers from erates consistent product with almost rials, introduced this technology into its the Renewable Plastics Group of the no byproducts, says AIST. production line, and says the product is Research Institute for Innovation in AIST and Shikoku Instrumentation equivalent to, or better than that made Sustainable Chemistry, National In- developed a reaction vessel in which mi- by conventional methods. stitute of Advanced Industrial Science crowaves are efficiently absorbed and a The patent-pending technology has and Technology (AIST; Tokyo; www.aist. technology for handling highly viscous also been used to demonstrate the sol- go.jp), Glart Inc. (Kanagawa Prefecture; liquids. A 20-L reactor (300-mm dia., vent-free polycondensation of 1,4-bu- www.glart.co.jp), and Shikoku Instru- 400-mm tall) that can operate at temper- tanediol and succinic acid at 260°C mentation Co. (KagawaPrefecture; www. atures up to 200°C and pressures to 400 using 0.25 wt.% Ti(OiPr)4 as catalyst, yonkei.co.jp), with partial funding from Pa has been constructed and is capable which yields an aliphatic polyester with the New Energy and Industrial Technol- of producing 20 kg per batch. In mak- high strength and molecular weight ogy Development Organization (NEDO; ing PLA, an aqueous solution of lactic (1.37105 g/mol). This one-step reaction Kawasaki; www.nedo.go.jp). The unit, acid is simply irradiated by microwaves only takes 75 min compared to the 24 h which utilizes microwaves instead of (6 kW, 2.45 GHz). Unlike conventional needed for conventional polycondensa- conventional electrical heaters, reduced routes to PLA, the microwave-assisted tion in solution, says AIST. Demonstration for a wood-to-fuel via DME route H aldor Topsøe (Lyngby, Denmark; www.topsoe.com) will demonstrate a new technology that converts wood tute (Des Plaines; www.gastechnology. org), will convert 25 ton/d of wood into fuels using Topsøe’s integrated gasoline used to make DME and methanol — the precursors for gasoline. Topsøe says that process integration becomes particu- to liquid fuels, as part of a $25-mil- synthesis (Tigas) process. The demon- larly attractive, because the low H2-to- lion project funded by the U.S. Dept. stration will be the final step toward CO ratio characteristic of gasification- of Energy (DOE; Washington, D.C.; commercializing Tigas. derived syngas greatly amplifies the www.energy.gov). Among the partners First developed in the 1980s for con- thermodynamic enhancement caused by in the project are the pulp-and-paper verting natural gas into fuel, Tigas combining the methanol and DME syn- company UPM-Kymmene, which will converts gasification-based synthesis theses. The integrated synthesis may supply the wood, and ConocoPhillips, gas (syngas) into high-octane gasoline therefore be conducted with high effi- which will show that the new fuel can through dimethyl ether (DME) as the ciency, even at moderate loop pressure, be used within existing infrastructures. key intermediate. The demonstration which makes the integrated process The demonstration plant, which will plant will use a multistage gasifier to suitable for both wet and dry entrained- take place at the Gas Technology Insti- convert wood into syngas, which is then flow gasifiers, says Topsøe. n Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 1606_CHE_010110_CHM.indd 16 12/21/09 9:23:31 AM
    • Newsfront Boosting CatalySt Productivity Companies are finding FIGURE 1. Metal clusters with a narrow size different pathways to increase distribution, such as these pro- catalysts’ ability to produce duced on BASF’s Nanotechnology platform improve F activity while or the better part of a century, approach in its NanoSe- reducing metal chemical process industries (CPI) lect platform, a commer- content have depended on catalysts to cially viable process for make their processes viable. Cur- manufacturing metal BASF rent efforts toward process efficiency crystallites of a specific and environmental innocuousness size. The first two products under the cess. “Palladium content of Lindlar have placed more demands on cata- NanoSelect umbrella are LF100 and catalysts is about 5% by weight, while lysts to produce more with less. LF200, which are the world’s first the LF 100 and 200 have around 0.5 Industrial catalyst manufacturers lead-free alternatives to Lindlar cata- or 0.6% palladium by weight,” Donker- are partners in the effort; they are lysts. Lindlar catalysts are lead-mod- voort explains, “but hydrogenation ac- pursuing several different pathways ified heterogeneous palladium cata- tivity levels are similar.” to maximize their products’ ability to lysts that, for example, hydrogenate The BASF LF Series catalysts also boost output for those who use them. alkynes to selectively produce cis-, eliminate the need for lead. The role of Among the strategies are to find ways rather than trans-alkenes. lead in Lindlar-catalyzed reactions is to maintain product yields with less BASF Catalysts global product important, but not well understood. catalyst, and to improve catalyst ac- technology manager Hans Donker- For developing the lead-free hy- tivity without sacrificing selectivity. voort explains that standard heteroge- drogenation catalysts, BASF won a There have been several recent neous catalysts have metal crystallite “Green Excellence Award” from Frost examples where new catalysts have sizes varying from <1 to 100 nm. The & Sullivan (San Antonio, Tex.; www. helped realize manufacturing ad- NanoSelect platform is designed to frost.com) in August 2009. vantages. Success has been reached make metal colloids with metal crys- “Feedback from [LF catalyst] users through the use of alternate catalyst tallites sized in a very narrow, almost in the market has been good,” Donker- materials, new support designs and unimodal size range — for example, voort says. “Performance is the same new manufacturing methodology. 7.0±1.5 nm. [as existing Lindlar catalysts], includ- “For the LF 100 and 200 catalysts, ing selectivity for the cis versus trans Engineering particle size we are able to produce metal crystal- double bond.” Heterogeneous catalyst activity and lites in a specific narrow range, which The two catalysts constructed on selectivity are affected strongly by allows BASF to achieve the same the NanoSelect platform differ in the catalyst particle size. One strategy to functionality with the NanoSelect support material used — in the case improve productivity is to find ways catalyst as that of a Lindlar catalyst,” of LF 100, the support is activated to make uniform-sized catalyst par- Donkervoort says. In addition, these carbon, and for LF 200, the support is ticles that are optimally sized to per- catalysts require less palladium metal alumina-silicate powder. form the needed reactions. The BASF to achieve the same hydrogenation ac- BASF’s catalyst division is currently (Ludwigshafen, Germany; www.basf. tivity, which leads to significant cost working on producing other catalysts com) catalyst division is applying that reductions in the hydrogenation pro- on the NanoSelect platform, including Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 1707_CHE_010110_NF1_SCJ.indd 17 12/21/09 10:07:27 AM
    • Newsfront multimetallic systems. The company lowing for higher productivity with crochannel reactors are small — typi- is also seeking collaborations with less equipment. Microchannel reactor cally 1ºC, compared to a 20 to 40ºC university research groups to learn blocks (Figure 2) are ideally suited to differential often observed in conven- more about the fundamental chemis- catalytic reactions that are highly exo- tional reactors. Also, conversion rates try of the catalyst systems. thermic or highly endothermic, and for carbon monoxide of greater than In addition to working on new could benefit those for which a conven- 70% per pass have been observed, NanoSelect catalysts, BASF engi- tional reactor architecture limits the compared to 45–60% in fixed bed or neers are also developing catalysts reaction equilibrium. slurry bed reactors. that are compatible with other strate- But to take full advantage of the mi- Oxford and Velocys are building an gies manufacturers may be pursuing crochannel technology, heterogeneous installation to demonstrate the micro- toward achieving higher productiv- catalysts need to be extremely active. channel technology at a biomass gas- ity in their processes. Succeeding in Oxford’s OMX process enables higher ification plant in Gussing, Austria. The doing so could include moving from activity by manufacturing catalyst facility will use gasified woodchips as a batch-production model to continu- particles in a narrow, nanoscale metal- a feedstock for F-T chemistry and will ous production, Donkervoort explains. crystallite-size distribution around the have a capacity of about 10,000 gal/yr. Companies are looking to downsize optimal size for a particular reaction. The plant is expected to be opera- their equipment and make more prod- The narrow particle-size-distribution tional in early 2010 for the beginning uct with smaller process hardware, curve allows the highest activity while of a six-month demonstration period, Donkervoort says, and “it’s up to us still maintaining sufficient stability, after which the reactor skid will be to develop catalysts that will be effec- Oxford says. In the OMX method, an moved to Wright-Patterson Air Force tive” in such a scheme. organic component forms a complex Base near Dayton, Ohio to test its ap- with the metal salt that effectively plicability to producing synthetic jet Catalysts for a new reactor stabilizes the metal. The complex un- fuel. Goals of the demonstration plant Catalyst particle size figures promi- dergoes a rapid calcination process are to learn about process upsets and nently in another effort where increased that blocks the metal crystallite from catalyst poisoning. productivity is coupled with downsized growing larger. capital equipment. Oxford Catalysts The process also generates particles Optimizing performance Ltd. (Oxford, U.K.; www.oxfordcata- with an ideal surface configuration. Efforts aimed at squeezing more pro- lysts.com) has developed a method with OMX produces metal crystallites with ductivity from processes using hetero- a goal similar to that of BASF’s Nano- “terraced” surfaces to enhance activ- geneous catalysts can focus on other Select platform — achieving a narrow, ity, the company explains. areas, including tweaking catalyst crys- catalyst-particle-size distribution. Microchannel reactors contain tal structure, reducing energy require- One objective of this method, known stacked arrays of parallel reaction ments and refining catalyst selectivity. as organic matrix combustion (OMX), channels with sizes in the range of Süd-Chemie AG (Munich, Germany; is to help generate catalysts suitable 0.1 to 5.0 mm. Smaller diameter chan- www.sud-chemie.com) found a way to for a process-intensification technol- nels dissipate heat more quickly than improve productivity in traditional ogy, called microchannel reactors, de- those in conventional fixed-bed or ammonia synthesis by stabilizing a veloped by Oxford subsidiary Velocys slurry reactors. By significantly reduc- new catalyst crystal structure. The (Plain City, Ohio; www.velocys.com). ing distances required for heat and new catalyst contains less oxygen in Microchannel reactors and the cata- mass transfer, microchannels help ac- its crystal structure than its predeces- lysts inside were developed, in part, as celerate processes. Oxford Catalysts sors, and therefore shortens the reduc- a way to make the distributed produc- has been working on new designs for tion time. It also exhibits up to 40% tion of biofuels feasible. Biomass den- highly active catalysts specifically for higher activity. Combined, the advan- sity is low compared to petroleum; it F-T chemistry. When coupled with the tages in the new ammonia synthesis takes about one ton of biomass to yield microchannels, the catalysts help pro- catalyst improve energy efficiency sig- a single barrel of liquid biofuel. To make cesses realize 50 times higher produc- nificantly for ammonia producers and a biomass-to-liquid-fuels process prac- tivity per gram of catalyst. could boost ammonia production by up tical and economically feasible, produc- For example, in F-T reactions car- to 5%. tion facilities need to be small and lo- ried out in 1–2-mm microchannels, “A 5% increase in ammonia produc- cated near the source of the biomass. A heat can be removed 20 to 100 times tion can translate into millions of dol- spin-off from the Battelle Memorial In- faster than in a conventional reactor. lars annually in a typical-sized plant,” stitute (Columbus, Ohio; www.battelle. This limits competing reactions, such remarks Yvonne Zhang, vice president com), Velocys devised microchannel as those that generate methane. “Mi- for global marketing in the catalyst reactors to enable small biomass-to- crochannels allow you to work under technology unit of Süd-Chemie. The liquid production facilities that could conditions that are more favorable for better-performing crystal structure be located near biomass sources. reaction kinetics,” remarks Derek At- was discovered by a China-based Microchannel reactors are designed kinson, business development director academic research group and was li- to intensify catalytic reactions, such for Oxford Catalysts. censed by Süd-Chemie from Zhejiang as Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reactions, al- Temperature differences across mi- University of Technology. 18 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201007_CHE_010110_NF1_SCJ.indd 18 12/21/09 10:08:39 AM
    • Oxford Catalysts / Velocys nies can compete on energy required to separate it by filtra- costs with Chinese tion. The catalyst is characterized by a and Middle Eastern highly porous covalent triazine-based firms, because the network into which platinum metal cost of natural gas is powder is added so that the Pt atoms relatively cheap, but reside within the lattice of the organic in a few years that framework. The methane is oxidized won’t be the case. into methanol in heated sulfuric acid. Figure 2. Velocys microchannel reactors have improved Bae and Grace are Schüth and colleagues are now trying heat transfer properties and require highly active catalysts looking for the in- to enable the process to work with re- creased costs to push actants in the gaseous state. The work Improving the selectivity of cata- many companies toward producing spe- could eventually be used to make it lysts that are marketed is being pur- cialty products instead of commodity cost-effective to monetize previously sued by a number of companies in polyolefins. Producers are already going unused natural gas resources. the catalyst business, including CRI in that direction, Bae says, because they A research team at the University Catalyst, a subsidiary of Royal Dutch can command premium pricing. Grace of California at San Diego (www.ucsd. Shell Group (London, U.K.; www.shell. is looking to help in that effort also, by edu) has demonstrated catalytic activ- com) and Grace-Davison (Columbia, working with industry partners to de- ity after post-synthetic modifications Md.; www.gracedavison.com). In many velop and commercialize stereoselective of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). cases, improved selectivity means catalysts based on metallocene chemis- In synthesizing the hollow-latticed higher productivity, in the form of try, Bae explains. Metallocenes consist of MOFs, the researchers substituted higher yields of desired products ver- a metal atom bound to, and sandwiched an amine-containing molecule for sus side products. by, two cyclopentadiene rings. a similar molecule that served as a CRI Catalyst plans to introduce a Metallocenes are an example of linker for the MOF structure. Includ- product early this year that will im- metal-organic complexes, which may ing the amine group allowed the team prove selectivity in styrene produc- become increasingly common as in- to functionalize the MOF with other tion. The catalyst is designed to main- dustrial catalysts in the future as molecules that give rise to catalytic tain the activity of its predecessors chemists and engineers learn the de- activity. They “bolted on” two cyclic an- while boosting selectivity, says Lau- tails of their function and work out vi- hydrides capable of chelating an iron rent Fenouil, global business director able production processes. atom, which can be used as a catalytic for CRI/Criterion’s styrene catalyst active site. The research could eventu- unit. Fenouil says the driving force University catalyst research ally give rise to a new type of tunable for the company’s catalyst business is Projected demand among CPI compa- catalyst for specific synthetic tasks. increasing catalyst activity and selec- nies for catalysts that exhibit higher Meanwhile, Korean scientists have tivity, along with lengthening product activities, enhanced selectivity, reduced succeeded in making ultrathin zeo- lifetimes to help its customers opti- environmental impact, or posess other lite sheets that may have advantages mize efficiency. In the future, the sty- desired performance parameters have as efficient catalysts for hydrocarbon rene sector will see a “renewed empha- many companies looking not only to re- cracking and other petrochemical ap- sis” on energy cost and energy usage, cently developed technologies, but also plications. The thinness of the zeolite Fenouil notes, adding that CRI will be to academia for new developments that sheets allows reactants to rapidly and working on catalysts that help users could spur the next generation of in- easily diffuse into the zeolite structure reduce energy use while retaining the dustrial catalysts. A significant portion while products diffuse out. Working at same performance characteristics. of industrially relevant catalyst work the Korean Advanced Institute of Sci- In many areas, productivity becomes in academia is focused on engineering ence and Technology (Daejon, South an economic imperative based on feed- metal-organic complexes to serve as Korea; www.kaist.edu), researchers stock costs. For example, producers of catalysts and supports. An example is directed the growth of a thin zeolite polyolefins are searching for catalysts work led by Ferdi Schüth at the Max sheet with surfactant molecules that that will allow them to improve both Planck Institut für Kohlenforschung acted as templates. The polar end of production and economics. Grace- (Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany; www. the surfactant consists of two qua- Davison global marketing director for kofo.mpg.de). Researchers there, along ternary ammonium groups around polyolefins Jewan Bae says his com- with collaborators elsewhere, have which the zeolite crystal grows. The pany is working to develop catalysts developed a new catalyst for oxidiz- non-polar tails prevent the growing to do just that. The demand can espe- ing methane into methanol. The new zeolite crystals from aggregating to- cially be felt among resin producers in catalyst mimics a previously studied gether into larger, three-dimensional Europe, Japan and Korea, who must homogeneous catalyst based on plati- crystals. The surfactant template is produce more to compete with com- num and bipyrimidine, but has the removed, leaving thin zeolite flakes, panies in China and the Middle East, additional and important property of which pile up randomly with gaps to where feedstock costs are lower. Bae being a solid material that can act as a aid diffusion to the catalytic sites.  ■ says for now, North American compa- heterogeneous catalyst with much less Scott Jenkins Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 1907_CHE_010110_NF1_SCJ.indd 19 12/21/09 10:10:10 AM
    • Newsfront Recognizing your colleagues Consider nominating a deserving colleague W Recent award winners hen thinking about whom to nominate, keep in mind that a distinguished career can take many forms. Here, for instance, are the most re- cent winners: Brian W. S. Kolthammer, research fellow at The Dow Chemical Co., may be best known for our 2010 Personal Achievement Award. for his pioneering work in the kinetic modeling of catalyst systems and their process adaptation Entries are due April 15 to solution, process-polymerization plants for the manufacture of polyolefins. This work has enabled record pacing in the successful scaleup I n professional life, the influences or her creativity and general and commercialization of new, major plastomer and elastomer product lines. that teach us, inspire us and drive excellence in the practice of us to succeed tend to come more chemical engineering tech- Shyam Lakshmanan, group general man- from individuals than corporations. nology. At least some of the ager at See Sen Chemical Bhd & Malay-Sino If you would like to bring recognition activity must have taken Chemical Industries Sdn Bhd, has been hailed as to someone whose excellence in chemi- place during the three-year the “foremost person” at his company respon- cal engineering you admire, consider period ending Dec. 31, 2009. sible for achieving plant capacity improvements and water, fuel and electricity savings. nominating him or her for Chemical Be specific about key contri- Engineering’s 2010 Personal Achieve- butions or achievements. But Henry Kister, of Fluor, has been hailed as ment Award. The nomination period is do not include confidential the world’s foremost authority on distillation now open. information in your writeup. and absorption troubleshooting. He has writ- The aim of this award, which Chemi- 3.  lease be sure to include your P ten two widely consulted engineering books on cal Engineering (CE) has offered bi- own name and address, in distillation, as well as over 70 articles, and has taught courses and spearheaded symposia in ennially since 1968, is to honor indi- case we need to contact you. distillation.  ❏ viduals for distinguished careers. It 4.  end your nomination no S complements CE’s Kirkpatrick Award later than April 15 to: for Chemical Engineering Achievement, and rank them. Based on the voting of Nanette Santiago presented in the alternate years, which these judges, we will designate one or Chemical Engineering honors companies — as opposed to indi- more winners. Then we will inform all 110 William St., 11th floor viduals — for specific chemical-process the nominees and nominators about New York, NY 10038 accomplishments (see December, p. 17). the results of the voting. Email: awards@che.com Our Personal Achievement Awards An article in Chemical Engineering have saluted excellence in diverse We encourage you to ask others to around the end of this year will profile areas — research, development, de- provide information in support of the the winners. Around the same time, sign, plant operations, management nominee; ask them to write to us by we will present physical embodiments and other activities. The distinction April 15. Such input has often proved of the awards to these individuals. can emerge in less-ordinary ways, such to be decisive during the judging. as government service. The criterion is Points to keep in mind that the career must have related, fully What’s next Nominees can be from any country. or largely, to the use of chemical engi- Once we receive a nomination, we will They need not hold a degree in chemi- neering principles in solving indus- ask the candidate whether he or she cal engineering. But their achieve- trial, community or other problems. is willing to be considered (you may ments must have involved use of instead do so yourself and include a chemical-engineering principles in It’s easy to nominate note to that effect in your nomination). solving problems, and part of the ac- Submitting an award nomination is a Meanwhile, we might take any steps tivity must have been in 2007 – 2009. simple matter: that seem called for to verify the ac- The Personal Achievement Award 1.  tate the name, job title, employer S complishments stated in the brief or has been hailed and respected since and address of the candidate. the supporting letters. its inception. We welcome your nomi- 2.  repare a summary, in up to about P Next, we will send all the nomina- nation, to help us maintain this worth- 500 words, that highlights your tions to a panel of senior chemical en- while activity. ■ nominee’s career and brings out his gineering educators, who will evaluate Rebekkah Marshall 20 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201008_CHE_010110_NF2_RM.indd 20 12/21/09 10:15:20 AM
    • Newsfront With stricter air- Are You Ready? pollution-control regulations on the horizon, now is the time to examine the newest scrubbing Marsulex Environmental Technologies. technologies Ammonium sulfate technology, which serves as an alternative to traditional wet fluegas desulfurization, uses aqueous or anhydrous ammonia to convert SO2 emissions into a high-quality, high-value commercial grade ammonium sulfate crop fertilizer M ost members of the highly lution-control levels in the U.S. would another round of EPA going back to for- regulated chemical process require the installation of scrubbers mulate a new Boiler MACT. The regula- industries (CPI) are aware on more than 200 cement kilns, accord- tion was released in April for comment of the growing worldwide ing to Bob McIlvaine, president of the and will likely be law by December attention focused on the issues of McIlvaine Co. (Northfield, Ill.; www. 2010,” says Moss. The rule would give climate change, air and water pollu- mcilvainecompany.com). “There would companies with boilers burning coal, tion and the supply and protection be new Maximum Achievable Con- wood or solid fuels three years to com- of natural resources. For this reason, trol Technology (MACT) rules, which ply with the new MACT regulations. air-pollution-control scrubbers play an would result in scrubbers being placed And, aside from the possibility of integral role in most chemical process- in most cement plants,” he says. new mandates concerning air pollu- ing facilities. However, the economic Similarly, he says, MACT regula- tion control, many industry experts get downturn caused many processors to tions regarding hydrochloric acid in a sense of stricter enforcement on ex- shelve air-pollution-control projects power plants may result in the instal- isting regulations. “What we are start- during the past year. But with the lation of new scrubbing technologies ing to see is a much more active EPA recent hint of potential regulatory ac- in these facilities. “It would be a ‘make under this administration,” says Moss. tion in the air, it might be wise to dust lemons into lemonade’ situation be- “There’s more aggressive enforcement off those project plans and take a look cause rather than removing the HCl of laws already on the books, so now is at the newest scrubbing technologies and having it as a contaminant in a good time to start taking a serious designed to help processors meet cur- wastewater that would require fur- look at air pollution control.” rent and future air-pollution-control ther treatment, we believe a two-stage challenges and “green up” their scrub- scrubbing system that captures HCl in New technologies deliver bing processes at the same time. the first stage and SO2 in the second, For this reason, many scrubber manu- allowing processors to make both hy- facturers are bumping up their game Next in the regulatory pipeline drochloric acid and gypsum, is likely and striving to improve existing tech- While there is currently uncertainty to become the technology of choice.” nologies or develop new ones in an in the area of upcoming CO2 legisla- McIlvaine says that while such a effort to meet or exceed today’s man- tion, experts in the industry suggest system would involve billions of dol- dates, as well as any that are expected that there will be some new man- lars in investment, the technology to come down the pike. dates regarding carbon capture tech- already exists and is employed in Eu- For example, to help with compli- nology in the future. “For this reason rope, which proves it is a viable solu- ance of stricter Boiler MACT regula- we see many processors interested in tion to potential legislation in the U.S. tions, Tri-Mer is offering the Ultra- driving down emissions for CO2, as Other possible regulatory action to Temp Filtration (UTF) system. “We well as SO2, SO3 and NOx to signifi- consider includes a revisit of the Boiler expect as they regulate particulate cantly lower levels than where they MACT by the U.S. Environmental Pro- matter coming from boilers, they are currently operate,” says Tony Licata, tection Agency (EPA; Washington, D.C.), likely to further regulate SO2, HCl vice president of Babcock Power Envi- says Kevin Moss, business development and other acid gases,” says Moss. ronmental (Worchester, Mass.; www. director, with Tri-Mer (Owosso, Mich.; UTF technology uses ceramic tube babcockpower.com). www.tri-mer.com). He notes that while filters made of ductile ceramic fibers, In addition to CO2 legislation, a new Boiler MACT was developed a few years which are able to handle the high tem- proposed air-pollution rule that would ago, it was shelved because it was not peratures (applications up to 1,000°F significantly alter permissible air-pol- being applied uniformly. “There’s been and temperature resistant up to Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 2109_CHE_010110_NF3_JLP.indd 21 12/21/09 10:49:03 AM
    • Newsfront 1,650°F) of boiler exhaust gases and previously found only limited use in the ability to accommodate high par- filter the particulate down to very low VOC (volatile organic compound) re- ticulate loads, compatibility with high levels. The system offers a very high ef- moval applications. “Bioscrubbers were inlet concentrations of VOCs, high ef- ficiency and can handle even submicron thought to be a low-tech approach,” says ficiency removal, permanent ceramic particulate matter. The UTF system Moss. “They simply weren’t able to get media, automatic self cleaning and can also be employed for concurrent to high efficiencies and had a limited the ability to handle tars, waxes and gas scrubbing, to remove acid gases number of VOCs they could attack.” heavy VOC compounds. Also, waste through injection of a dry scrubbing However, recent technology upgrades generation is minimal with no NOx agent, such as limestone or Na2HCO3. have made this type of system more compound creation. Also intended to meet stricter regu- viable than ever before. For instance, Similarly, Duall Division of Met-Pro lations regarding acid gases is Babcock Tri-Mer’s MultiPhase Bioscrubber (Owosso, Mich.; www.dualldiv.com) Power Environmental’s Turbosorp Dry overcomes the disadvantages of con- has recently launched its line of Bio- Circulating fluid-bed scrubber for pro- ventional bioscrubbers designed for the Pro Scrubbers. These scrubbers are cesses requiring dry technology. The biological treatment of air pollutants touted as being 100% environmentally system removes acid fluegas constitu- by treating incoming contaminants in friendly and are efficient at control- ents, primarily SO2 and SO3, as well as the phase (liquid or gas) in which the ling and removing H2S emissions and mercury, HCl and HF from coal-fired contaminant would normally reside, odors. “The real drive toward improv- boilers. Turbosorp is available for ca- depending on its inherent properties. ing and embracing bioscrubbers is the pacities up to 300 MW per turboreactor For example, a highly volatile com- fact that you are using green technol- and is suited for facilities with sulfur pound with low water solubility will ogy versus chemicals,” says Greg Kim- contents below 3%. Acid gas removal concentrate in the bioscrubber gas mer, vice president and general man- efficiencies of 95 to 97% are typical. phase, and will be treated mainly in ager of Duall. “Not only is it a natural The principal of the scrubbing tech- the gas phase. Highly water-soluble technology, but in this economic cli- nology is to bring high levels of solid compounds with low volatility will mate, it is efficient because you aren’t recirculation, finely atomized water, concentrate in the bioscrubber water spending as much on chemicals.” hydrated lime and fluegas within a phase and will be treated in the water Duall’s Bio-Pro employs a state-of- circular fluid-bed reactor. Lime and phase. Most compounds with inter- the-art biotrickling filter technology finely atomized water are injected mediate volatility and water solubil- in combination with a unique blend independently into the turboreactor ity will be treated in both the gas and of micro-organisms to provide 99% to lower fluegas temperature and en- water phases, depending on their nat- H2S removal with a side range of inlet hance absorption capacity. ural partitioning. loadings and provides an environmen- The fluid bed material is comprised Conventional biofiltration systems tally safe byproduct. of solids, including Ca(OH)2, fly ash attempt to treat all the contaminants Another environmentally friendly from the combustion process and solid in the gas phase, whereas a con- option comes from Purafil Environ- reaction products from the fluegas ventional bioscrubber delegates the mental Systems (Doraville, Ga.; www. particulate-matter device. Upon leav- treatment of the water-soluble frac- purafil.com). The Purafil ESD FOC-1, ing the turboreactor, the solids are tions of the contaminants to an ex- fiberglass Emergency Gas Scrubber separated from the fluegas in either ternal treatment system, often with (EGS) with Chlorosorb dry scrubbing a fabric filter baghouse or an electro- design flaws that can either partially medium uses a non-toxic, dry-scrub- static precipitator and recycled back to re-entrain the contaminants into the bing medium in place of a toxic, liq- the reactor. Where mercury and dioxin ambient environment or allow the uid caustic to neutralize gases in the removal are required, activated carbon contaminants to accumulate and es- event of an emergency situation. This can be injected into the turboreactor. cape through the water. medium’s “chemisorptive” process re- None of the conventional systems moves chlorine by means of adsorption Envirofriendly systems are designed to handle particulate and chemical reaction. Chlorine gas is While the goal of all air pollution scrub- matter in the gas phase, treat con- trapped within the pellet where an ir- bers is to save the environment from densables with high molecular weight, reversible chemical reaction changes toxic gases and particulate matter (while nor handle the dissipation of heat if the gases into harmless solids. helping the processor meet regulatory the incoming stream is above the nor- This type of emergency standby mandates), many scrubber manufactur- mal operating temperature of aerobic equipment is necessary for facilities ers are working to make the scrubbing organisms (50 to 105°F). that store large quantities of Cl2, systems themselves as safe for the en- However, the newer MutliPhase typically in one or more one-ton cyl- vironment as is possible, while still pro- Bioscrubber system can handle much inders to prevent accidental chemical ducing results that meet or exceed cur- higher inlet temperatures from dryers. releases. If a toxic gas release from rent and expected regulations. Often, exhausts from press vents and a one-ton cylinder were to occur, the Bioscrubbers, one of the most com- dryers are treated together, producing thermodynamic properties of Cl2 sug- mon types of environmentally friendly significant cost advantages. gest that approximately 400 lb of liq- scrubbing systems available, have been Other advantages of the Multi- uid Cl2 would flash into vapor and the around for over 20 years, but have Phase Bioscrubber technology include remaining contents of the cylinder 22 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201009_CHE_010110_NF3_JLP.indd 22 12/21/09 10:49:43 AM
    • would spill out as a liquid at its boil- scrubber takes it even further. “It can Most beneficial in power, petrochemi- ing point. According to the American be used to make and sell commercial cal and industrial plants with higher Water Works Association’s Risk Man- grade fertilizer for more than it costs sulfur fuels, proximity of navigable agement Program, the outer limit of for the ammonia to make that fertil- water or good rail access and locations the impact area, in a Cl2 release, is izer, so you can generate some revenue with regional demand for high-quality drawn at a five-mile radius in all di- back to pay for other operating costs of crop fertilizer, the technology provides rections from the point of impact. the plant,” notes Olson. longterm environmental compliance Purafil’s dry chemical EGS is de- In addition, the fertilizer made and requires no chemical or byproduct signed to contain the entire contents from Marsulex’s ammonium sulfate waste handling. Every ton of NH3 used of a fully loaded one-ton Cl2 cylinder (AS) fluegas desulfurization (FGD) generates approximately four tons of in a worst-case scenario. The EGS can technology can be used to grow more ammonium sulfate fertilizer. neutralize an initial 400 lb in the first plants and crops, especially those that Other benefits include water-soluble minute and any additional chlorine at are high in photosynthesis. “The so- chemistry that prevents internal build a rate of 80 lb/min thereafter. called ‘C4 plants’ that are high in pho- up, NH3 reagent with 98% removal ef- Ammonia scrubbing is also seeing a tosynthesis help with CO2 absorption ficiency with unlimited sulfur contents rise when compared to calcium-based from the atmosphere,” explains Olson. and the elimination of liability associ- technologies, since ammonia is carbon “So it’s a very efficient technology and ated with waste product disposal. neutral. “Ammonia scrubbing doesn’t very effective for the kind of environ- While no one knows exactly what contribute incremental CO2 to the ment we are looking at today.” tomorrow’s regulatory environment atmosphere,” notes Dave Olson, vice AS Technology, which serves as an will bring, the technologies to meet president of licensing and commer- alternative to traditional wet FGD, the likely mandates currently exist, cial operations with Marsulex Envi- uses aqueous or anhydrous ammo- making now the time to see what op- ronmental Technologies (Lebanon, nia to convert SO2 emissions into a tions are available and get the right Pa.; www.marsulex.com). And, Mar- high-quality, high-value, commercial- one for your facility in place. ■ sulex Environmental’s new ammonia grade ammonium-sulfate fertilizer. Joy LePree Stop wasting Get the right rupture disc money on for your application. rupture discs. Call the experts at Fike. Solutions to Fit your Facility and your Budget. PRV/SRV SANITARY FULL-SCALE PROTECTION RUPTURE DISCS TESTING Proven Quality and Reliability for over 60 Years 1-866-758-6004 WWW.FIKE.COM Circle 13 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-13 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 2309_CHE_010110_NF3_JLP.indd 23 12/21/09 10:50:47 AM
    • Low-Pressure Measurement Department Editor: Scott Jenkins B ecause of the behavior of materials under vacuum, including The useful operating range of a conventional B-A-type gage lowered boiling points, low-pressure operations are useful tools extends between 10–3 and 10–10 torr. in chemical processing, as well as in research and develop- ment and manufacturing. Areas where a vacuum system is neces- Crossed-electromagnetic-field IG sary or useful include the following: Another broad type of ionization gages can be classified as •  eparating liquids S crossed-electromagnetic-field (EMF) IGs (also called cold-cathode •  rocessing temperature-sensitive materials P IGs). This IG type is characterized by the generation of a dis- •  reventing unwanted chemical reactions between process materi- P charge between cathode and anode that is maintained with a als and the surrounding environment by removing air magnetic field. • mproving heat transfer through liquids by removing air I An example of this IG type is a Penning gage. A Penning gage •  rying solutes (removing solvent) D maintains a cathode-anode discharge by applying a magnetic • nitiating materials transfer or aiding filter processes by applying I field. The magnetic field prevents the electrons from traveling differential pressures directly to the anode; instead, they travel in helical paths through •  epositing thin-films on surfaces, such as in the microelectronics D the vacuum space. industry and other areas The electrons can ionize gas molecules in the vacuum when •  esting with mass spectroscopy T they have sufficient energy. Since the resulting gas ions have much greater mass than electrons, they are unaffected by the magnetic Low-pressure measurement field and are captured. The probability of collisions is proportional to gas density. The Because of vacuums’ central role in processing and research, it is current generated by the ion collection process is an indirect indica- important to be able to measure pressures that may be a tiny frac- tion of vacuum pressure. tion of typical atmospheric pressures. Table 2 compares the advantages and disadvantages of emitting- Table 1 shows a typical breakdown of vacuum quality. The cathode IGs and crossed-EMF IGs. ranges do not have universally agreed-upon definitions, however. Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of ECG Table 1. Typical ranges for vacuum quality Versus crossed-EMF ionization gages Pressure in torr Pressure in Pa Advantages Disadvantages Atmospheric pressure 760 101.3 kPa Emitting- • Accuracy better than  • Longer delays to ac-  cathode crossed EMF, especially quire a stable reading Low vacuum 760 to 25 100 to 3 kPa IGs at very low pressures • Do not handle chemi-  Medium vacuum 25 to 1 × 10–3 3 kPa to 100 mPa •  ore easily calibrated M cally active gases well than crossed EMF (other than N2, H2 or High vacuum 1 × 10–3 to 1 × 10–9 100 mPa to 100 nPa •  ess affected by exter- L rare gases) Ultrahigh vacuum 1 × 10–9 to 100 nPa to 100 pPa nal magnetic fields 1 × 10–12 •  lectron emission cur- E Extremely high vacuum <1 × 10–12 <100 pPa rent can be controlled, stabilized and varied Outer space 1 × 10–6 to 100 µPa to < 3fPa 3 × 10–17 (1fPa = 10–15 Pa) Crossed • Can be turned on  • Output varies non-  electro- at higher pressures linearly with pressure Perfect vacuum 0 0 magnetic during a pumpdown • Pumping speed higher  field IGs • No X-ray limit (electrons  than emitting cathode At pressures below 1 torr, forces exerted by gaseous molecules are not produce X-rays, which gages and cannot be sufficient to measure directly with an absolute pressure gage. Pressure generate photocurrent controlled that is indistiguishable • Electron space charge  must be inferred by assessing a pressure-dependent physical property from measured current) trapped in the gages of the gas, such as thermal conductivity, ionizability or viscosity. • Electron-stimulated des-  leads to instabilities orption effects are small IOnization Gages Selecting IGs Ionization gages (IGs) are one class of instruments for indirect A number of factors should be considered when selecting IGs for measurement of gas density and pressure. IGs generally work by pressure measurement in the high- and ultrahigh-vacuum ranges. ionizing neutral gas molecules, then determining their number by These considerations include the following: measuring an electrical current. Characteristics of ionization gages • Pressure range required for application include and electron source, an ion collector that is negative rela- • Gage pumping speed tive to the cathode, an acceleration voltage of about 100V, and a • Identity of gas species to be measured mechanism for measuring electric current. • Accuracy and stability • Size and mechanical stability Emitting-cathode ionization gages • Interferences with magnetic fields One type of IG can be classified as emitting-cathode IGs (ECG) • Price (also known as hot-cathode IGs). These are characterized by a heated filament that serves as source of electrons. References An example of an emitting cathode ionization gage is a 1. ousten, K. “Handbook of Vacuum Technology,” John Wiley and Sons Inc., J Hoboken, N.J., 2008. Bayard-Alpert (B-A)-type ionization gage. In a B-A-type gage, 2. Pacey, D.J. Measurement of Vacuum. In: “Instrumentation Reference Book, electrons are emitted in a well-controlled, regular fashion from 3rd edition (ed. by Walter Boyes), Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, a heated filament (cathode) and accelerated toward a positively Mass. 2002. charged wire grid anode. 3. Vibert, P., Mechanical Pumps for Vacuum Processing – Part One. Chem. As electrons pass through the space between the electrodes, Eng., Oct. 2004, pp. 44–51. they collide with gas molecules in the vacuum system to generate 4. Stanford Research Systems Inc., Hot vs. Cold Ionization Gauges. Technical positive ions. At a constant filament-to-grid voltage and electron application note, 2007. www.thinksrs.com emission rate, the formation of positive ions is directly propor- 5. Brooks Automation Inc. Introduction to Bayard-Alpert Ionization Gauges. tional to the density of the molecules (pressure) in the gage. Technical note 706, 2007. www.brooks.com10_CHE_010110_FAC.indd 24 12/21/09 11:03:23 AM
    • Italy 2010 Special Advertising Section “Timid” recovery for Italian chemicals during 2010 The economic crisis has hit Italian chemical companies badly. Industry association Federchimica expects around 4% growth this year, but fears long-term structural damage I © Leon1 | Dreamstime.com talian chemical manufacturers have been suffering the effects of the global reces- sion to much the same extent as their com- petitors in other European countries. According to CEFIC, the European chemical industry council (Brussels; www. cefic.be), by October 2009 chemicals Downstream restructuring may cut the number of customers for the chemical industry production in Italy (excluding pharmaceu- ticals) had fallen by 17.8% compared to the peak of January 2008. Output for the first eight months of the year was 16.9% below that for the corresponding period in 2008. This is comparable with what has happened in Germany (–21%), Belgium (–17.8%), Italy (–17.8%), and the UK (–15.5%), with France (–13.6%) and Spain (–5.5%) escaping somewhat more lightly. As a result, said CEFIC, overall EU chemi- cals production in August 2009 was 17% lower than in January 2008. The situation has improved slowly following the sharp drop in EU chemicals production at the end of 2008. By August 2009, production was 12.4% higher than that the trough of December 2008. But there is still a considerable way to go, CEFIC warned. Average chemical prices (excluding pharmaceuticals) were 3.8% down in the first eight months of 2009 compared to the corresponding Continued on p. 24I-2 Italian innovation Comber 24I-4 Costacurta 24I-3 Desmet Ballestra 24I-8 Donadon SDD 24I-5 Finder Pompe 24I-10 Italvacuum 24I-6 Pompetravaini 24I-2 Robuschi 24I-8 Steel Belt Systems 24I-6 Circle 18 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-18 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||||WWW.CHE.COM||||JANUARY 2010||||||24I-112_CHE_010110_Italy.indd 1 12/21/09 2:45:54 PM
    • Italy Special Advertising Section Continued from p. 24I-1 period in 2008, and prices in August 2009 were 7% lower than those of a year before. From January to August 2009, European An international partner chemicals sales were 23.2% down on the same period of 2008. With this background, Italian chemical industry association Federchimica (Milan; www.federchimica.it) was by July 2009 fore- with an Italian heart casting a “timid” Italian recovery for 2010. To pumpmaker Pompetravaini, innovative Lower mortgage interest rates, low inflation and a fall in products and global sales are both vital energy prices mean that household consumption in Italy will not collapse unless the recession is sufficiently prolonged as to create a big increase in unemployment, Federchimica said. But the situation is different for manufacturing industry, espe- P ompetravaini has been marketing centrifugal and vacuum pumps to the chemical industry for 80 years, so is a well- known name worldwide. cially durable and investment goods, and sectors connected with More than 30 years ago the company started to serve interna- construction. European industrial production is expected to have tional markets by opening sales and manufacturing branches in fallen by 16% in 2009, followed by modest growth of +4% in 2010. the US and Canada. During the 1980s and 1990s the com- Permanent effects pany set up branches in The scale of the crisis is producing widespread restructuring, Germany, the UK and Federchimica pointed out. The implication is that the European the Netherlands, and Italian chemical companies are facing not only a squeeze in the latter also cov- demand, but also a fall in the number of their customers and, in ering Belgium and some downstream sectors, permanent downsizing. Luxembourg. At the Many Italian manufacturing companies were caught by the cri- beginning of the new sis in the course of a transformation to improve quality, increase millennium Pompes innovation and become more international in outlook. Especially Travaini France com- hard hit will be SMEs and financially exposed companies, such as pleted the coverage those whose profitability was already declining before the crisis, of central-western such as household appliances, paper, automotive, building mate- European markets, rials, textiles, rubber and plastics. ■ as well as former French colonies. Travaini’s newest offspring, born two years ago, is Travaini Pompy Polska, which looks after the Polish market and other countries PompeTravaini’s Hydrotwin 6 with its Excellence in solids-liquid separation and vacuum drying in eastern Europe, Roots blower and TRVX 1007 liquid-ring including the Baltic vacuum pump features sophisticated republics. electronic control At the same time, the parent company Pompetravaini has been developing a global network of distributors to guarantee the local availability of pumps, spares and technical expertise from South Africa to Iceland and from Australia to Chile. Over the last three years the Pompetravaini Group has shipped pumps and vacuum packages in over 81 different countries and issued technical documentation in 10 different languages. Even now, Pompetravaini is continuing to make plans for new outlets in new territories. This international presence, though a priority for Pompetravaini, is not sufficient in itself, so the group continues to develop innovative products every year. At the Achema exhibi- tion in Frankfurt in May 2009 Pompetravaini launched three new PRESSOFILTRO® liquid-ring vacuum pumps in its patented TRVX series, which fea- No heel thanks to Nutsche Filter-Dryer tures enhanced performance, compact dimensions, lower weight, “Whirl Snake” improved mechanical strength and attractive design. High containment high efficiency turbine Achema was also a runway success in new vacuum packages, OEL < 1 µg/m³ the company says. Oilpack is a compact vacuum package which uses oil as the seal liquid to achieve vacuum of 15–20 mbar(a) with COMBER COMBER USA, INC. zero water consumption. The other great novelty in Pompetravaini Agrate Brianza (Milan) / Italy Charlotte, North Carolina vacuum packages is the Hydrotwin, a combination of a Roots salesdept@comber.it comberusa@aol.com blower and a liquid-ring vacuum pump sealed with water or oil. Electronic control systems provide increased energy efficiency at www.comber.it / www.comberservice.ie high vacuums (down to 2 mbar(a)) and avoid any risk of dangerous overheating. www.pompetravaini.com Circle 19 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-19 24I-2||||||CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||||WWW.CHE.COM||||JANUARY 201012_CHE_010110_Italy.indd 2 12/21/09 2:56:02 PM
    • Pag 08 ing - 21x28 23-12-2009 12:23 Pagina 1 AD: www.graficadueprint.com © 2010 Costacurta S.p.A.-VICO SINCE 1921... AND WE STILL LOVE IT For more than eighty years, we at Costacurta have been constantly and resolutely committed to the development and manufacture of special steel wire and plate components used in many different industrial processes. Every day at Costacurta, we work to improve the quality of our products and services and the safety of all our collaborators, paying ever-greater attention to the protection of the environment. Within the wide range of Costacurta products you will also find some, described below, that are used specifically in the oil, petrochemical and chemical industries: - RADIAL FLOW AND DOWN FLOW REACTOR INTERNALS; - GAS-LIQUID AND LIQUID-LIQUID SEPARATORS; - ARMOURING OF REFRACTORY, ANTI-ABRASIVE AND ANTI-CORROSIVE LININGS. For more information visit our website or contact the division C components for the oil, petrochemical and chemical industries at tcrc@costacurta.it. Radial Flow and Down Flow reactor internals Costacurta S.p.A.-VICO Management systems www.costacurta.it via Grazioli, 30 certified by LRQA: 20161 Milano, Italy ISO 9001:2008 tel. +39 02.66.20.20.66 ISO 14001:2004 fax: +39 02.66.20.20.99 OHSAS 18001:2007 Circle 20 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-20 XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 3 12/28/09 4:04:53 PM
    • Italy Special Advertising Section Conical dryers ensure an improvement in drying Comber is a leading manufacturer of batch equipment for hygienic applications, with a special focus on dryers of both vertical and horizontal types C omber, which specializes in filtration and drying equipment, has recently improved the design of the agitator in its The agitator now takes the form of two half spirals. This has considerably reduced the drying time, the company says, while the Condry conical-bottom vertical pan dryer. conical bottom ensures easy discharge and The Next Generation evolution Comber’s Condry: now even more effective thanks to spiral agitator arms cuts the amount of residual product left inside the vessel to below 1%. By avoid excessive friction, the new agi- tator avoids damaging delicate products, while at the same time providing excellent mixing at low speeds. Simultaneous rota- tional and vertical motion ensures efficient and even mixing and allows the unit to P. D. Blower Package handle critical phases during drying. Because the agitator design prevents Up to 10.500 m3/h - 6.400 CFM the formation of agglomerates, no chop- pers or lump breakers are required. Such additions are undesirable, Comber notes, because they cause damaging shear and create dust during the final drying stage. The agitator arms have large surface areas to maximize their effectiveness in their secondary role of heat or cooling the PUMPS AND BLOWERS product. Heat transfer is also improved by narrow tolerances between the agitator Via S. Leonardo, 71/A - 43100 Parma - Italy and the vessel walls, which stop product Tel. +39 0521 274911/91 - Fax +39 0521 771242 sticking to the walls; this also makes the robuschi@robuschi.it dryer easy to empty and allows it to be used with small batches. Comber recently received an order for www.robuschi.com a large Condry unit with wetted parts of titanium. www.comberscreening.com Circle 21 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-21 24I-4||||||CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||||WWW.CHE.COM||||JANUARY 201012_CHE_010110_Italy.indd 4 12/21/09 2:57:44 PM
    • Italy Special Advertising Section We protect systems from excessive pressure Donadon SDD manufactures rupture discs, vent panels, and rupture indicators to high technical standards, yet boasts competitive prices and friendly, responsive service licensed to supply to nuclear power plants. delivery time is never more than three A large percentage of internet sales aids weeks, and in emergencies spares are sup- direct technical contact with customers plied in a few days, with no surcharge. and keeps costs competitive. Standard www.donadonsdd.com The economical LPD low-pressure rupture disc from Donadon SDD… D onadon Safety Discs And Devices (Donadon SDD) manufactures rupture discs, vent panels for explosion protection, and rupture indicating devices. To offer its customers a complete service the company also supplies a vast range of safety valves. In the past six years, a new corporate structure has helped Donadon SDD evolve from an artisan firm into an industrial one. This change has been supported by impor- tant investments in R&D, manufacturing and testing equipment, and new premises. Successful innovations include: • Donadon SCR reverse-buckling and SCD forward-acting rupture discs, both of which feature six pre-scored sectors instead of the usual four to improve performance; • Donadon LPD low-pressure rupture disk, a simple, reliable, accurate and cost- effective solution for applications such as storage tanks; and • discs of titanium and tantalum, as well as stainless steel, nickel, Hastelloy, Monel, Inconel and graphite. Compared to its competitors, Donadon SDD says it is small, flexible and respon- sive, without compromising on quality, as shown by the fact that the company is …and the high-performance SCR disc Circle 22 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-22 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||||WWW.CHE.COM||||JANUARY 2010||||||24I-512_CHE_010110_Italy.indd 5 12/21/09 3:03:54 PM
    • Italy Special Advertising Section Sulfur solidification plants SBS Steel Belt Systems uses solid steel belts from Berndorf Band to process a wide range of materials. One important area of application is the pastillation of sulfur The last few years have seen increasing Each sulfur pastillating conveyor is demand for sulfur processing plants. In provided with a hood to protect the work- this industry sector SBS provides turnkey ing area. An exhaust fan carries sulfur dust solutions based around cooling conveyors and vapors to a ventilation manifold and which solidify droplets of liquid sulfur into duct which discharges outside the build- free-flowing pastilles. Sulfur pastilles pro- ing. A second fan is permanently installed duced on SBS equipment have a regular as a standby, and the hood has doors for inspection and maintenance. Once solidified, the pastilles are Sulfur pastillation line from SBS… discharged from the cooling belt onto a second conveyor. This then transports the T he Italian company SBS Steel Belt Systems S.r.l. (SBS) was established in 1984. Its main activity is to design and pastilles to the next process step, typically a storage silo designed for loading trucks. www.steelbeltsystems.it build continuous process conveyors, equipped with endless steel belts from Berndorf Band, for a wide range of appli- …sulfur pastilles on the steel belt… cations in the chemical, petrochemical, plastic, food, rubber and powder coating hemispherical shape which makes for easy industries. storage, packaging and metering. Ancillary SBS’s premises are in Venegono equipment includes pumps to transfer Inferiore (VA), Italy. This site also houses a liquid sulfur to the pastillator, and product pilot-scale test center where SBS develops handling equipment including silos, truck new industrial processes, either on its own loading systems and automatic filling sta- …and free-flowing, dust-free product account or in cooperation with customers. tions for big bags. The PLANEX System: Redefining vacuum drying A brand new horizontal paddle vacuum dryer, equipped with an eccentric agitator with two independent movements, has been developed by ITALVACUUM T he PLANEX System is an innovative technology designed and patented by ITALVACUUM, which has manufactured ingredients, fine chemicals and interme- diates, the PLANEX System consists of a fixed cylindrical chamber containing an one-third lower. The agitator shaft has a double mechanical seal for perfect vacuum tightness and zero contamination. vacuum dryers and vacuum pumps for eccentric agitator with two independent The narrow gap between the agitator the chemical and pharmaceutical indus- rotations: the first about its own axis and and the wall of the drying chamber makes tries since 1939. Especially suitable for the second tangentially to the chamber the unit easy to unload and to clean. An the production of active pharmaceutical wall. This double motion ensures optimal integral CIP system allows all parts in mixing and continuous surface renewal, contact with the product to be washed facilitating the release of solvent vapors down, and inspection is simple thanks to and significantly reducing drying times. the large front port. The non-concentric Combined with the fact that the agita- agitator and easily-dismantled inner parts tor is much smaller in diameter than the facilitate swab testing. To ensure exter- drying chamber, the double rotation also nal cleanliness there is no support frame reduces mechanical stress. This prevents within the sterile room; the drying cham- local overheating due to friction and ber is simply flanged to the wall. allows the unit to treat even very deli- The PLANEX System is available in vol- cate and heat-sensitive products. In fact, umes of 300–4,400 l. Loading capacity is according to an independent analysis by 15–80% of the vessel volume, depending Prof. M. Vanni and Eng. M. Garbero of the on the product. Material Science and Chemical Engineering Through its recent introduction at Department at Turin Polytechnic, mechani- Achema 2009, some industrial models of cal and thermal stress on the product is the Planex System have been already man- Italvacuum’s PLANEX System installed only one-third of that in a traditional dryer ufactured and a pilot unit for the execution through the wall of a clean room with a concentric agitator, and power of drying trials at the Italvacuum plant is consumption is correspondingly about available. www.italvacuum.com 24I-6||||||CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||||WWW.CHE.COM||||JANUARY 201012_CHE_010110_Italy.indd 6 12/21/09 3:06:28 PM
    • ChemEng206,4X279,4 Dadi:Layout 1 21-12-2009 16:44 Pagina 1 Why Gamble? With Pompetravaini, the high-tech Company, You can make the best choice. Our commitment is always to stay ahead pompetravaini spa I-20022 Castano Primo (Mi) • Via per Turbigo, 44 Ph. +39.0331.889000 • Fax +39.0331.889057 sales@pompetravaini.it • www.pompetravaini.it Circle 23 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-23 XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 7 12/22/09 9:43:57 AM
    • Italy Special Advertising Section Fighting corrosion in vapor recompression New RBS positive displacement blowers from Robuschi are made from stainless steel. A prime application is in evaporators, where corrosion can attack cast-iron blowers R obuschi has established In the latter process, vapor removed from one stage of the evaporator is mechani- cally compressed, raising its enthalpy so having their bodies and rotors made from AISI 316 stainless steel. The new stainless steel blowers are available for throughputs a leading that it can be re-used in the steam chest of of 340–9,800 m3/h and differential pres- position in the previous evaporator stage. The energy sures up to 1,000 mbar. The machine has the markets supplied to the compressor is an efficient special labyrinth seals and, optionally, soft for blowers way to add energy to the vapor and allow packing seals for easier maintenance. An and pumps, with its latent heat to be re-used. adaptor kit for internal washdown is also an international repu- available. tation as an expert in customized solutions Mechanical vapor recompression is and systems. The company prides itself an effective way to operate evaporators on its ability to respond quickly to chang- with low specific energy consumption, ing needs, satisfying customers’ specific high heat transfer rates, short product demands at the lowest possible costs. residence times, simple design and low Recently Robuschi has broadened its running costs. product range through the launch of the Now with new RBS positive displacement blower the help of series in stainless steel. One of the main Positive displacement blowers are Robuschi application for these blowers is in evapo- generally used for this application, but stainless ration processes, where products are the presence of water droplets, often plus steel blow- concentrated by adding energy to boil off a caustic chemicals and acids used to clean ers, cor- solvent, generally water. the evaporator tubes, can cause corrosion rosion need To reduce the amount of energy used problems in ordinary cast-iron blowers. no longer be a in evaporation, multi-effect and vapor The new Robuschi positive displace- showstopper. recompression systems are very common. ment blowers get around this issue by www.robuschi.com Plants for surfactants and detergents Desmet Ballestra has for many years been the leading supplier of surfactant and detergent plants, but also has a growing reputation in sulfuric acid and fertilizers D esmet Ballestra SpA is the world leader in the design and supply of plants for surfactants and detergents. The a state-of-the-art enhanced loop reac- tor developed jointly with alkoxylation experts Pressindustria and MFC Progetti. company is a preferred technology sup- Compared to competing technology, the plier to all the major surfactant and deter- new process offers: gent manufacturers worldwide, and has • higher reaction rates, thanks to built no fewer than 1,600 plants in over 120 improved heat and mass transfer; countries since it was founded in 1960. • higher product quality, with consis- Desmet Ballestra’s film sulfonation tent molecular weight and very low technology has advantages over compet- impurities; Global supplier: a 450 t/d Desmet ing processes in terms of product quality, • lower operating pressure; Ballestra sulfuric acid plant in Egypt conversion rates, energy consumption, • greater safety, due to the absence of reliability, and maintenance costs. The rotating parts in contact with gas-phase acid. In the last few years the company has company has built what are possibly the alkylene oxides, and continuous wetting become well-known for integrated sulfuric world’s largest sulfonation plants, rated at which prevents hot spots and avoids acid plants with capacities of 100–2,000 24,000 kg/h as 100% active surfactant. accumulation of alkylene oxides in the t/d. These typically feature cogeneration With the addition of proprietary down- gas phase; and of electricity and the latest MECS Heat stream processes for dioxane stripping • ability to produce high-molecular-weight Recovery System, which allows up to 93% and drying, Desmet Ballestra’s sulfonation alkoxylates (e.g. PEG) in a single step. of the available heat to be re-used. technology forms the basis of turnkey Besides its core business in detergents Desmet Ballestra also supplies plants plants for detergent powder. These are and surfactants, Desmet Ballestra is for LAB (UOP’s Detal process), fertilizers available in capacities of 1–25 t/h as stan- increasingly active in other fields, using (potassium sulfate and superphosphates), dard, with larger sizes on request. technology developed in-house or licensed and detergent chemicals (sodium silicate, Desmet Ballestra has recently launched from well-known specialists such as UOP sodium sulfate, zeolite, sodium tripoly- a new alkoxylation process based on in petrochemicals and MECS for sulfuric phosphate). www.desmetballestra.com 24I-8||||||CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||||WWW.CHE.COM||||JANUARY 201012_CHE_010110_Italy.indd 8 12/21/09 3:08:08 PM
    • Desmet Ballestra Leading technologies for detergent, surfactant and chemical industry SURFACTANTS Anionics Sulphonation / Sulphation Vacuum Neutralization Drying Non Ionics Ethoxylation / Propoxylation Alkanolamides Amphoterics & Cationics Betaines Esterquats Aminoxides DETERGENTS Powder Spray Drying Tower Process NTD (non tower/agglomeration process) Liquids Batch / Continuous ORGANIC CHEMICALS Linear Alkyl Benzene Ethyl Alcohol Starch & Yeast Fatty Amines Methylesters for MES production INORGANIC CHEMICALS Sodium Silicate Sulphuric Acid Sodium & Potassium Sulphate Zeolite Sodium Tripolyphosphate Single & Triple Superphosphates Phosphoric Acid NPK PAC (Poly Aluminium Chloride) Contacts: Ph. +39 02 5083217 email: Dept.sales@ballestra.com www.desmetballestra.com Circle 24 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-24206x279-DSC-04.indd 1 4/12/09 10:42 XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 9 12/22/09 9:44:43 AM
    • 6_PETALS_100X297_nuke_eng_.pdf 30/10/2009 18.09.43 6 6 66 6 6 6 Italy Special Advertising Section 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A wider range of pumps for oil and gas 6 6 6 www.donadonsdd.com Acquisition has helped the Finder Group 6 6 66 6 expand in the hydrocarbons sector 6 T he acquisition of Cerpelli The HPMX centrifugal Pompe, a historic name in series: just one of Finder’s 6 66 6 6 6 the Italian pump industry, in the broad range of API pumps 6 second half of 2008 has allowed 6 for the oil and gas market. 66 6  6 the Finder Group to broaden its Finder also supplies API offering in pumps for oil and gas 6 applications. twin-screw and triplex 6 66-petals 6 6 piston pumps Cerpelli Pompe 6 was established in 1904. 6 Initial 6 6 produc- 6 scored direct + reverse 6 6 6 6 66 tion was 6 6 6 mostly dedicated 6 6 to the 6 6 6 6 shipyard 6 6 6 C business which flourished 6 6 M 6 6 in the nearby harbors 66 6 6 6 Y of La Spezia and Livorno. InCM the early 1950s, however, Cerpelli 6 introduced new lines of API centrifugal and 6 66 6 6MY 6 twin-screw pumps which it has sold into the oil andCY 6 6 gas industry ever since. 6 6 6 6 6 The acquisition brings to Finder Pompe new products to 6CMY 6 K 6 complement the company’s existing catalogue in the petroleum 6 business, as well as a long tradition of operations – and a large 66 population of pumps installed – in Europe and in the Middle East. 6 6 Cerpelli’s larger test facility will also allow the Finder Group to test 6 6 6 pumps of up to 2,250 kW. 6 The current Finder Group catalogue for the oil and gas market 6 ASK US consists of API 610–ISO 13709 centrifugal pumps, API 676 twin- screw positive-displacement pumps and API 674 triplex piston 6 6 6 6 66 pumps, the latter designed and manufactured by Finder’s French subsidiary, Finder Pompes, under the PMH brand name. 6 This broad and complete range has allowed Finder Group to 6 66 6 6 strengthen its position in the oil, gas and energy markets, and WHY?6 6 provided the opportunity for Finder to become a major partner for the main E&C companies worldwide. Over the last 10 years, Finder Group has experienced a sub- 6 66 stantial growth in sales to the process, oil and gas markets. Besides an already well-established presence in petrochemicals, Finder has won important contracts for refinery, FPSO, upstream 6 6 6 66 and platform applications worldwide, both directly with operating 6 companies and via major EPC contracts. 6 6 For the future, Finder intends to continue its policy of invest- ing to consistently upgrade both its production facilities and its 6 products. This will be possible, says the company, thanks to an 6 R&D department with an outstanding level of competence and 6 6 6 experience. The aim is to continue offering products of proven reliability, 6 while keeping the flexibility which has allowed Finder to meet its customers’ expectations by solving their application problems. Finder plans to increase sales and market share, with no loss of TEL.: +39 02 9011 1001 FAX: +39 02 9011 2210 technical or creative flexibility. www.finderpompe.com d o n a d o n s d d @ d o n a d o n s d d. co m Circle 25 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-25 100% Italian 12_CHE_010110_Italy.indd 10 12/21/09 3:15:59 PM
    • Developed for extremes. Our experience counts! Berndorf Band steel belts, made from high-tensile materials, have proven to be perfect for cooling applications in the chemical industry. SBS Steel Belt Systems uses these steel belts for its cooling and pastil- lating equipment. The SBS Rolldrop® transforms molten products into pastilles with diameters in the range Partner of Berndorf Band 5 to 10 mm. Among the advantages of the system are easy removal of the solidified pastilles from the belt, easy SBS Steel Belt Systems s.r.l. cleaning for quick product changeover, I-21040 Venegono Inferiore, Italy low-cost gaskets, easy assembly, Phone: (+39)0331/864841 Fax: (+39)0331/864959 rapid and low-cost maintenance, short info@steelbeltsystems.it downtime and low wear. www.steelbeltsystems.it Circle 26 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23021-26XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 11 12/22/09 9:45:23 AM
    • Stratophase Reduce rubber contamination in food with these elastomers Detectaseal (photo) is a new, FDA- compliant, metal-detectable elasto- mer designed to help food companies reduce the risk of rubber contamina- Precision Polymer tion during processing. Detectaseal Engineering fragments as small as 2 mm can be identified by conventional inline metal detection equipment, ensur- ing early warning of rubber con- tamination. The seals are avail- able as FDA-compliant grades of EPDM, nitrile and fluorocarbon MSA in elastomers, in blue and black, and in Europe standard and non-standard sizes for use in a broad range of process equip- ment. — Precision Polymer Engineer- ing (PPE) Ltd., Blackburn, U.K. www.prepol.com Ceramic membranes help filter surface-treatment effluents This firm’s new range of membrane plants for the surface-treatment in- dustries feature CeraMem industrial Elga strength membranes (photo). Com- Monitor fermentation Process Water pared to conventional polymeric mem- in realtime with this probe branes, CeraMem ceramic microfil- Developed in collaboration with the tration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) Center for Process Innovation (Wilton, membranes are less prone to fouling U.K.), the Insertion Probe variant of and have a greater resistance to high this firm’s SpectroSens system enables temperatures, as well as aggressive realtime monitoring of bioproduction cleaning chemicals and abrasion. fermentation processes. The multi- Membrane life is typically doubled, output SpectroSens Insertion Probe says the firm. The membranes are (photo) tracks compositional changes suitable for applications such as alka- and monitors temperature in the liq- line degreasing, cutting oil treatment Siemens Industry Automation uid. Multiple discrete readings can and electro-coat paint treatment. — be taken simultaneously at numer- Elga Process Water, Marlow, U.K. WirelessHart interface and a graphi- ous locations, providing more reliable www.elgaprocesswater.co.uk cal display with backlight function. All measurements and a reduced chance other process instruments from this of false positives. Using only light at A family of products for firm that do not have WirelessHart the point of measurement, the sensors WirelessHart communication interfaces can be integrated into Wire- are intrinsically safe and spark-free. For the first time, this firm has devel- lessHart communication with the Si- — Stratophase, Romsey, U.K. oped products for WirelessHart com- trans AW200 adapter. Finally, the new www.stratophase.com munication. The new product family IE/WSN-PA Link gateway manages comprises two transmitters, a gate- the WirelessHart network with all the A new version for this flowsheet way to Industrial Ethernet and soft- nodes and establishes the connection simulation software ware, as well as an adapter for process to the Simatic-based automation and The new HSC Chemistry 7.0 is a instruments in preparation. Both the control system via Industrial Ether- straightforward simulation tool (photo, new Sitrans P280 pressure transmit- net. — Siemens Industry Automation p. 24I-13) designed to guide process- ter and the Sitrans TF280 tempera- Division, Nuremberg, Germany development and research scientists. ture transmitter (photo) feature a www.siemens.com/industry Compatible with Windows Vista, Vista 24I-12 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation.13_CHE_010110_NPi.indd 12 12/22/09 10:06:04 AM
    • Outotec Research GEMÜ Disposable respirators for protection against aerosols Affinity FLS (photo, p. 24I-12) is a new generation of foldable dispos- able respirators. Its high-performance thin and light filtering media provide a comfortable fit even when used for longer periods. Affinity FLS offers protection against penetrating solid and liquid aerosol particles. Meeting requirements of EN 149:2001, the different types of masks conform re- spectively to protection levels FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3. A color-coding sys- tem ensures easy identification and helps the user to select the correct kind of mask for a given application. 64 and Windows 7, HSC Chemistry Flowsheet Module has four different — MSA in Europe, Berlin, Germany 7.0 is a software program for pro- modes: particles, reaction, distribution www.msa-europe.com cess flowsheet simulation, which also and experimental. The new Unit Icon contains 22 other calculation mod- Library comprises 515 high-resolution This globe valve now comes ules displayed as options in the main icons that have been created to visual- in smaller sizes menu, and 12 databases together ize process flowsheets. — Outotec Re- The GEMÜ 520 actuated globe and with extensive thermochemical, heat search Oy, Pori, Finland control valve (photo) is particularly OE0912737_MüllerGmbh_e.qxd 17.12.2009 15:24 Uhr Seite 1 transfer and mineralogical data. The www.outotec.com/HSC suitable for handling steam, air, CHEMCAD Process Simulation does the job! For perfect NEW ... easy to use, Release production 6.2 very fast and efficient! methods Handling equipment – Lifting, weighing, blending, pallet transfer – Mobile or stationary – Manual or fully automatic – Loads up to 4000 kg handled – Hygienic stainless steel – GMP-compliant design – ATEX conformity Chemstations Deutschland GmbH Müller GmbH - 79 618 Rheinfelden (Germany) phone +49 281 33 99 10 Industrieweg 5 - Tel. +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-0 - Fax +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-69 A Company of the Müller-Group info@mueller-gmbh.com - www.mueller-gmbh.com www.chemstations.de Circle 27 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-27 Circle 28 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-28 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 24I-1313_CHE_010110_NPi.indd 13 12/22/09 10:07:14 AM
    • New Products water and process lines on account of its membrane actuator. The existing sizes DN 65–150 are now extended to smaller nominal sizes DN 32–50. New actuator-valve body versions have also been developed to expand the range of Michael Smith Engineers GoatThroat Pumps applications. In DN 32–65, the valve can be used with operating pressures up to 40 bar with valve bodies in cast steel GP 240 H and stainless steel 1.4408. Other new options include valves that can be actuated with a considerably reduced control pressure of 1.5–4 bar. — GEMÜ Gebr. Müller Apparatebau GmbH & Co. KG, Ingel- fingen-Criesbach, Germany www.gemue.de A wide range of gear pumps gets extended even more Siemens Industry Sector The established range of Viking Ex- ternal Gear Pumps (photo) has been Spot leaks with this flow losses compared to conventional extended to include models that pro- video-based software couplings, says the firm. The Variacor vide flows from as little as 0.2 L/min ViaCC is a video-based software that coupling is ideal for connecting two up to 760 L/min. Available from this quickly and effectively detects leaks runs of rigid pipe or flexible hoses, or firm, the SG range now includes 29 in an industrial environment. This an end fitting, such as a nozzle or gun. models, and includes models rated for software-based sensor is an extension It can be used for changing the angle maximum continuous pressures of up to conventional sensors, and enables of flow direction, axially between 180 to 34 bar and maximum intermittent recognition of smoke, fumes, leaking and 90 deg, with full 360-deg swivel pressures up to 172 bar. As a result liquids and colors. ViaCC software at either or both ends. — Bete Ltd., of the wide range of models, configu- contains detection methods that Lewes, U.K. rations and material options, Viking can be freely combined and that are www.beteuk.com SG Series Gear Pumps are suitable suitable for detecting edges, colors, for applications such as centralized movements and so on. Up to twelve This sensor monitors lubrication systems; polyurethane cameras record and transmit about a wide range of conductivities metering and mixing; compressor lu- 200 images per second to each server The tecLine LF-4P (photo, p. 24I-15) brication; burner feed; pipeline sam- (photo). The automation state and the is a new cell with four-pin technology pling; heat transfer; and adhesive and live situation are directly coupled, for measuring conductivity. The device sealant dispersion. — Michael Smith which enables process data to be in- fills the gap between two-electrode Engineers Ltd., Woking, U.K. serted directly into a video image and cells and inductive measurement www.michael-smith-engineers.co.uk saved. Live images of a fault enable technology, and makes it possible to service to be better planned with ap- cover a very wide measurement range Conductive plastic pumps for propriate spare parts and tools. — from about 1 µS/cm to 600 mS/cm. The safe transfer operations Siemens Industry Sector, Industry So- cell consists of a sturdy PEEK plastic Available in March, the SCP-6500 lutions Div., Erlangen, Germany body with stainless-steel electrodes Pumps (photo) feature a lug with a www.siemens.com/industry inserted into the front. An integrated grounding wire on the front of the Pt1000 temperature sensor provides pumps, and made with conductive A coupler for increased the signal needed for temperature plastic, these pumps allow users hose maneuverability compensation. The cell is available of flammable liquids to ground the The patented Variacor coupling in different fitting lengths. — JUMO pumps, making them safe for use with (photo, p. 24I-15) provides free orien- GmbH & Co. KG, Fulda, Germany Class 1 and Class 2 flammables. All tation for hydraulic and pneumatic www.jumo.net components of this pump that come hoses and tools across a wide range in contact with the fluid are created of applications. The design of the A new diaphragm seal for with conductive plastic, so there is coupling ensures optimum flexibility, homogenization processes grounding of the liquid, the pump and, which results in less wear on hoses. The Model 999.30 diaphragm seal is with correct bonding, the container. — Also, increased maneuverability of available in combination with an in- GoatThroat Pumps, Milford, Conn. the hose means easier handling for telliGauge Series mechatronic pres- www.goatthroat.com the user, with lower pressure and sure gauge (photo, p. 24I-15). The 24I-14 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201013_CHE_010110_NPi.indd 14 12/22/09 10:09:49 AM
    • WIKA Alexander Wiegand VEGA Grieshaber Bete JUMO diaphragm seal is tailor-made for the extremely dynamic homogenization process. The damped instrument is designed for a static pressure of up to 2,500 bar. The combination with the intelliGauge provides a local display via a bourdon-tube pressure gage and an electrical output signal without the Parker Hannifin need for an external power supply. — WIKA Alexander Wiegand SE & Co. KG, Klingenberg, Germany www.wika.de A large-bore needle valve for viscous, contaminated media A new 0.5-in. bore instrumentation needle valve (photo) gives plant engi- neers the means to improve reliabil- ity, and save both money and space in process and instrumentation applica- tions involving viscous and contami- nated media. The new H-Series needle valve is available as either a discrete hand valve for controlling media flow, or integrated into a monoflange-style manifold for the safe “double-block- Emerson Process Management Hans Turck and-bleed” connection of instruments to process lines. The large flow path stainless-steel sensors are certified for abrasive materials or very high tem- of the 0.5-in. H-Series needle valve gas zone 1, and can be installed in the peratures. The device measures from makes it less prone to blockage, and tube via a T connector. The sensors de- the outside through a microwave- its metal-to-metal seal provides a tect flow status of gaseous media, such permeable window made of ceramic bubble-tight seal over a temperature as air, by evaluating the flow-induced or plastic. The barrier consists of a range from –55 to 538°C. — Parker temperature difference between the Vegamip T61 transmitter and one or Hannifin, Instrumentation Products heated probe and the medium. — Hans several Vegamip R61 receivers. The Div. Europe, Barnstaple, U.K. Turck GmbH & Co. KG, Mülheim an receiver measures the attenuation www.parker.com der Ruhr, Germany of the microwave signal, and gener- www.turck.com ates a switching signal from it. The Track air flow in larger pipes device can be used as a maximum- or with these sensors Detect level of bulk solids minimum-level sensor. — VEGA Grie- This firm’s ATEX-certified flow sen- without making direct contact shaber KG, Schiltach, Germany sors for gaseous media are now avail- The microwave barrier Vegamip 61 www.vega.com able with probe lengths of 100, 140 (photo) is designed for the require- and 220 mm. The new extended probes ments of the bulk solids industry. Wet chemistry moves into the (photo) significantly enhance the sen- The microwave barrier measures process for online monitoring sors’ functionality by allowing users without making direct contact with The Rosemount Analytical online to install the sensors in pipes with the medium, which is particularly wet-chemistry analyzers for sodium diameters of up to 440 mm. The IP67 advantageous when dealing with (photo), silica, phosphate, hydrazine Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 24I-1513_CHE_010110_NPi.indd 15 12/22/09 10:13:31 AM
    • New Products and ammonia are used for process monitoring in the power and ultra- pure water industries. The analyzers are easy to use. Pressing one button starts, calibrates and puts the instru- ment online. Routine reagent replace- X-Rite Europe ment and maintenance takes only 5 min every three months, and replac- ing the valve pump — the heart of the analyzer — takes about 15 min every two years. The addition of wet chemis- try analyzers (acquired from Scientific Instruments Inc. in May 2009) comple- Seidenader Maschinenbau ments this firm’s line of conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen sensors and ers, and so positioning accuracy can be analyzers. — Emerson Process Man- compromised. A solution to this prob- agement, Baar, Switzerland lem is a control-valve positioner pack- www.emersonprocess.eu age (photo), which facilitates exact positioning with fast response times Sample or dose reactors over the entire operating range. The with this syringe pump package consists of a positioner and The Atlas Syringe Pump XL is a vol- a hook-up of several volume boosters umetric dosing or sampling system with different output capacities. Clos- consisting of two syringes, with up to ing and opening times of less than 2 s six port valves. Each syringe can as- can be achieved over the entire posi- pirate or dispense independently from tioning range. The package has proven Samson Controls any valve port, allowing dosing of one itself for compressor bypass valves reagent to many reactors, or many re- (anti-surge valves) and in petrochemi- to at least four high-voltage electrodes agents to one reactor. With a flowrange cal applications involving moving-bed (photo), which allows the detection of of 5 µL/min up to 100 mL/min, it can adsorption processes. — Samson Con- cracks that have fully penetrated the be configured either into two refilling trols (London) Ltd., Redhill, U.K. glass while ignoring surface scratches. flows or one continuous flow, providing www.samsoncontrols.co.uk The High-Voltage module is fully in- reaction sampling, advanced pH con- tegrated in the company’s VI and MS trol and temperature-dependent dos- Fast, wireless data transfer families of inspection machines, al- ing. — Syrris Ltd., Royston, U.K. with this adapter lowing camera inspection before high www.syrris.com The new Bluetooth Ethernet Port voltage inspection. Only products that Adapter FL BT EPA AIR SET is a passed all camera inspections undergo Track product color and gloss rugged and reliable “wireless Ether- the check for cracks. — Seidenader without making contact net cable” to transfer control data to Maschinenbau GmbH, Markt Schwa- The VS450 non-contact spectropho- machine units that are either moved ben, Germany tometer (photo) is designed for color frequently or are mobile in industrial www.seidenader.de and gloss measurement on wet and dry environments. The newly developed samples, including cosmetics, paints, Bluetooth Lean Stack and the pri- An accurate way to feed soil, plastics and powders. The device ority assignment functions permit large quantities of bulk materials features an integrated gloss sensor fast, Profinet and Profisafe wireless The Model 26C Vibratory Feeder is a for relative gloss measurements, and data transfer with uptimes of 8 ms. rugged, a.c.-operated unit that enables when used with iMatch formulation — Phoenix Contact GmbH & Co. KG, linear, exact feeding of large quanti- software, provides wet-to-dry correla- Blomberg, Germany ties of bulk materials. These electro- tion for improved quality control and www.phoenixcontact.com magnetic feeders offer a cost-effective, formulation throughput. — X-Rite Eu- sanitary alternative to screw feeders, rope GmbH, Regensdorf, Switzerland Inspect vials visually says the manufacturer. The Model 26C www.xrite.com and with high voltage is designed for feeding up to 4 ton/h, Said to be the first implementation and features a totally enclosed, dust- A valve positioner package of visual inspection and high-voltage and moisture-resistant, patented elec- for large actuators crack detection combined in a single tromagnetic drive, which extends the The air output capacity required to machine, this module inspects vials and core life and makes cleaning easier. — achieve fast positioning in large actu- pre-filled syringes for cracks and leaks. Eriez, Erie, Pa. ators (diaphragm areas of 1,400–2,800 A precise handling system orients the www.eriez.com ■ cm2) is too much for normal position- containers at an angle of 90–110 deg Gerald Ondrey 24I-16 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201013_CHE_010110_NPi.indd 16 12/22/09 10:14:45 AM
    • Circle 29 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-29XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 1 12/22/09 9:41:53 AM
    • Omega Engineering ITW ActiveTouch Parker-Hannifin Protect braided hoses with these sleeves This company offers heat-shrink coverings (photo, top) to protect process hoses both from contami- nation and overall wear and tear. Their colors can be used as a code to help identify hoses. Also from this firm are fire sleeves (photo, bottom), which are sized to fit and maintain the outer hose tempera- ture for safer handling. Hose cov- Argonide Fairchild Industrial Products erings are offered in sizes from 0.25 to 1.25 in. — Parker-Hannifin cations requiring greater accuracy, the these pumps allow users of flammable Corp., Fort Worth, Tex. TA8800 offers 0.2% or better accuracy liquids to ground the pumps, making www.pageintl.com in a similar stainless-steel housing. A them safe for use with Class 1 and wide variety of options are available, Class 2 flammables. All components of Harsh environments will not including special electrical connectors, this pump that come in contact with harm these pressure transmitters optional pressure ports, temperature the fluid are created with conductive The TD8600 and TA8800 Series (photo) compensation and exotic wetted mate- plastic, so there is grounding of the precision pneumatic-to-current pres- rials. — Fairchild Industrial Products liquid, the pump and, with correct sure transmitters are designed for harsh Co., Winston-Salem, N.C. bonding, the container. — GoatThroat applications such as tire manufactur- www.fairchildproducts.com Pumps, Milford, Conn. ing, pulp and paper, test equipment www.goatthroat.com and factory automation. They can be Conductive plastic pumps for used with either pneumatic or hydrau- safe transfer operations Remove suspended solids to lic systems. The TD8600 Series offers Available in March, the SCP-6500 10 microns with this filter 0.5% accuracy and has a hermetically Pumps feature a lug with a ground- FlowTex is a high-performance ter- sealed housing that is constructed from ing wire on the front of the pumps, tiary filter that removes suspended laser-welded stainless steel. For appli- and made with conductive plastic, solids as small as 10 microns, and is 24D-2 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation.11_CHE_010110_NPd.indd 2 12/21/09 1:58:59 PM
    • CHEMICAL PLANT OWNERS/OPERATORS Discover How the Latest Technologies Can Help You Cut Costs, Leverage Limited Resources and Improve Productivity Across the Entire Design, Build and Operate/Maintain Value Chain WHY SHOULD YOU ATTEND? Hear from INDUSTRY LEADERS on best-of-breed plant asset lifecycle solutions. Gain UNPARALLELED 16TH ANNUAL STRATEGIC INSIGHTS at the O/O & EPC roundtables. Receive PERSONALIZED TOURS/DEMOS of emerging technologies. NEW for 2010! DIGITAL The Plant Asset Lifecycle Event OFFSHORE – Asset Lifecycle Solutions for Rigs, Ships, Platforms, Pipelines & Other March 1-3, 2010 Offshore Assets Hilton Americas-Houston Connect with your peers at TOP-CALIBER RECEPTIONS. Houston, Texas For more infomation, visit www.digitalplantexpo.com or call 832-242-1969. SPONSORS Organized by: Official Publications: EXHIBITORSXX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 3 12/22/09 9:42:50 AM
    • New Products suitable for both small- and large-flow applications. The patented design in- corporates a fixed disc with a ro- tating suction head that never touches the cloth media, thus extending the life of the media. Flow enters the filter from a pipe and completely surrounds the discs. Turbulence from the incoming wastewater keeps solids suspended and prevents premature settling. As solids accumulate on the cloth filter media, Blackmer Pump the flow becomes restricted, causing Exair the liquid level to rise. Backwashing is automatically triggered when the of that vibration. When the button ity efficiently transfers products from level reaches a predetermined point. A surface is touched by a bare finger or barge or ship into storage tanks while vacuum head then rotates across the gloved hand, the ultrasonic vibration is efficiently stripping both suction and surface of the disc, removing captured dampened and the transducer detects discharge lines to minimize product solids from the media. — Entex Tech- the change within milliseconds. Firm- loss. The HXL pumps feature self-ad- nologies Inc., Chapel Hill, N.C. ware built into the printed circuit board justing vanes, which eliminate slippage www.entexinc.com of the transducer includes the capabil- caused by normal wear, and the capa- ity to identify and predict problems, bility to self-prime. so they are always Replace lenticular filters such as foreign material interference ready to operate without time-wasting with these cartridges within the switch area, and adapts to priming routines, while an internal re- NanoCeram-LR high-performance the change. One of the first applica- lief valve protects against excess line pleated filter cartridges (photo, p. 24D-2) tions is a standard QWERTY keyboard pressure. HXL models are available in have been specifically designed and en- for use in sterile environments. — ITW 6-, 8- and 10-in. sizes with operating gineered as drop-in replacements for ActiveTouch, Buffalo Grove, Ill. speeds up to 350 rpm and maximum lenticular filters. They will fit most com- www.itwactivetouch.com rated capacities of 755, 1,228 and 2,300 mercial lenticular housings, and are said gal/min, respectively. — Blackmer to show greater dirt-holding capacity, Stainless-steel external trim is Pump, Grand Rapids, Mich. higher efficiency and wider operating standard with these ball valves www.blackmer.com pH range versus other charged lenticu- The compact, light-weight BVP70/ lar filters. Each NCLR incorporates the BVP80 Series of actuated ball valves This back pressure regulator is patented non-woven filter media ma- (photo, p. 24D-2) feature a stainless- designed for ultra-low flowrates trix infused with nano-alumina fibers, steel external trim and FKM O-rings The LF Series back pressure regula- creating an electropositively charged as standard. The series is designed tors can perform over a wide 10,000:1 depth filter. NanoCeram is capable of to operate using an air supply in the flowrate window and can handle pres- removing small particles (including col- range 50–125 psi. The direct valve- sures between 0.02 and 2,000 psig. The loidal iron), bacteria and viruses from stem coupling to actuator shaft mini- instruments are ideal for instrument water at high flowrates. Silt density mizes backlash, says the manufac- and gas analysis applications and can index (SDI) values averaging less than turer. Electric actuators feature two operate with valve flow coefficients as _ 0.5 and turbidity levels less than 0.01 1/2 NPT conduit ports and integral low as 1x10 7. These regulators solve NTU are achieved. — Argonide Corp., thermal overload protection. — Omega chatter and low-flow stability prob- Sanford, Fla. Engineering Inc., Stamford, Conn. lems in many gas research applica- www.argonide.com www.omega.com tions, including gas chromatography. They can exhibit low-flow precision Unbreakable switch technology Use this pump to evacuate well below 1 mL/min. The body is con- finds application in keyboards liquid storage terminals structed of stainless-steel 316, and the ITW ActiveMetal switches (photo, p. HXL sliding vane pumps (photo) are regulators are available with three 24D-2) have been introduced to this designed specifically to rapidly and ef- different types of diaphragms, SS316, firm’s ActiveTouch line of switch prod- ficiently evacuate product from large PTFE, and Viton. — Equilibar LLC, ucts. The patented pushbutton switch liquid storage terminals, enabling fast Fletcher, N.C. employs a low-voltage subminiature product changes that react to market www.equilibar.com transducer, which generates mega- opportunities. The pumps can handle hertz frequency vibration to the push- large volumes of a wide range of non- This airflow source can reach button a thousand times per second corrosive liquids, from thin solvents to surfaces up to 96-in. wide and detects the decay (or ringdown) heavy oils. Strong suction-lift capabil- Long Super Air Knives (photo) pro- 24D-4 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201011_CHE_010110_NPd.indd 4 12/21/09 2:08:51 PM
    • duce a laminar sheet of airflow to dry, on magnetostrictive technology, passed the final audit for TÜV/ATEX cool or blowoff surfaces up to 96-in. which makes it ideal for oil and gas, certification. The motors are 7.5-in.- wide. The blowers feature a compact food and beverage and other appli- dia., two-stage, peripheral bypass vac- design with no moving parts and that cations that require process control, uum motors. The single-phase, two- minimizes the use of compressed air. leak detection or inventory control. pole universal motor series is totally It is ideal for use on wide industrial With a low-power design, the H-Se- enclosed, externally fan-cooled. That parts, webs and conveyors. The Long ries sensors can be multi-dropped on motor is combined with a centrifugal Super Air Knives produce a uniform, a RS 485 network, providing Modbus blower to produce vacuum airflow high-velocity and high-volume curtain connectivity to a RTU or PLC con- characteristics suited for vacuum- of air that is fully adjustable from a troller. The sensor delivers high res- blower applications. The motors are gentle continuous flow to a hard-hit- olution (0.01 in. across full span) and available in both 120- and 230-V a.c. ting blast. Long Super Air Knives are is capable of providing product level, models and incorporate class B insu- available in four sizes — 60, 72, 84 and interface level and temperature lation in the armature and field wind- 96 in. — and can be constructed from measurement in virtually all tank ings. — Ametek Floorcare & Specialty aluminum or stainless steel. — Exair sizes (up to 60 ft. tall) on a variety Motors, Kent, Ohio Corp., Cincinnati, Ohio of liquids, such as crude oil, solvents, www.ametekfsm.com www.exair.com water, diesel, kerosene and gasoline. — OleumTech Corp., Irvine, Calif. Spot leaks with this This level sensor is based on www.oleumtech.com video-based software magnetostrictive technology ViaCC is a video-based software that Launched last month, the H-Series Specialty motors certified for quickly and effectively detects leaks hard-wired continuous level sensors hazardous duty in an industrial environment. This complement this firm’s existing wire- This firm’s P/N 122055-00 (114587) software-based sensor is an extension less liquid-level transmitters. The H- and 122056-00 (114589) hazardous- to conventional sensors, and enables Series is a digital level sensor based duty vacuum motors have recently recognition of smoke, fumes, leaking MONITOR VISCOSITY SIMPLY SENSE MIXER MOTOR HORSEPOWER WITH UNIVERSAL POWER CELL EASY INSTALLATION PROFILING A PROCESS VERSATILE 24 POWER DECREASE 22 SHOWS BATCH IS DONE 20 18 POWER 16 SENSOR SENSITIVE 14 12 10 DRY MIX ADD LIQUID HIGH SPEED LOW SPEED MIXER CONVENIENT OUTPUTS 8 MOTOR 6 BEGIN HIGH SPEED MIX 4 2 0 BATCH 1 BATCH 2 BATCH 3 CALL NOW FOR YOUR FREE 30-DAY TRIAL 888-600-3247 WWW.LOADCONTROLS.COM Circle 30 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-30 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 24D-511_CHE_010110_NPd.indd 5 12/21/09 2:09:56 PM
    • Cleveland Vibrator New Products liquids and colors. ViaCC software cleanroom environments contains detection methods that can and is U.S. Food and Drug be freely combined and that are suit- Administration- and U.S. able for detecting edges, colors, move- Department of Agricul- ments and so on. Up to twelve cam- ture-compliant for food eras record and transmit about 200 applications. The vibrator images per second to each server. The has permanently lubri- automation state and the live situa- cated bearings and oper- tion are directly coupled, which en- ates from 10 to 100 psi. At ables process data to be inserted di- 80 psi, the product generates 18,000 vi- and check for leaks in hard-to-see com- rectly into a video image and saved. brations per minute with a 55.2-lbf force ponents without disassembly. The blue Live images of a fault enable service output, while consuming 2.0 ft3/min of LED is designed for fluorescent leak to be better planned with appropri- air. The device is designed for food and detection while the white light is ideal ate spare parts and tools. — Siemens pharmaceutical applications, such as for component inspection. The Cobra-4’s AG, New York, N.Y. powder filling, hopper-flow assistance shaft is 4-mm wide and 36-in. long, and www.siemens.com/industry and tablet packaging. — Cleveland Vi- it comes with an angled inspection mir- brator Co., Cleveland, Ohio ror and three AAA alkaline batteries. — This vibrator has permanently www.clevelandvibrator.com Spectronics Corp., Westbury, N.Y. lubricated bearings www.spectroline.com The new CVT-P-22 Mini Turbine Vi- Blue- and white-light LEDs pro- brator (photo) delivers twice the force vide illumination for this scope Disposable respirators for outputs of other miniature models The CB-400 Cobra-4 borescope (photo, protection against aerosols above 50 psi. Constructed with an ac- p. 24D-8) features a dual head blue- Affinity FLS is a new generation of fold- etal plastic and stainless-steel exte- and white-light LED (light-emitting able, disposable respirators. Its high- rior parts, the vibrator is suitable for diode) to allow technicians to inspect performance thin and 15:24 Uhr Seite 1 OE0912737_MüllerGmbh_e.qxd 17.12.2009 light filtering Excellence in solids-liquid separation and vacuum drying For perfect production methods Handling equipment – Lifting, weighing, blending, PRESSOFILTRO® No heel thanks to pallet transfer Nutsche Filter-Dryer – Mobile or stationary “Whirl Snake” – Manual or fully automatic High containment high efficiency turbine – Loads up to 4000 kg handled OEL < 1 µg/m³ – Hygienic stainless steel – GMP-compliant design COMBER COMBER USA, INC. – ATEX conformity Agrate Brianza (Milan) / Italy Charlotte, North Carolina salesdept@comber.it comberusa@aol.com Müller GmbH - 79 618 Rheinfelden (Germany) Industrieweg 5 - Tel. +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-0 - Fax +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-69 www.comber.it / www.comberservice.ie A Company of the Müller-Group info@mueller-gmbh.com - www.mueller-gmbh.com Circle 19 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-19 Circle 27 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-27 24D-6 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201011_CHE_010110_NPd.indd 6 12/21/09 2:12:42 PM
    • Quadro Engineering common industrial from the equivalent of less than 0.5% control hardware and up to 100% relative humidity, and fea- software. With solar tures a high-definition alphanumeric power and satellite display that shows the measured hu- connections, WIPAT midity, dew point, water activity and can operate without other hygrometric variables. — Mi- reliance on phone chell Instruments Inc., Rowley, Mass. lines or fiber optic www.michell.com/us cable. — Satel-West, media provides a comfortable fit even Cupertino, Calif. This water quality system when used for longer periods. Affinity www.satel-west.com has a smart controller FLS offer protection against penetrat- The G Series water quality system, ing solid and liquid aerosol particles. A new hygrometer based on reverse osmosis (RO) mem- Meeting requirements of EN 149:2001, is built for easy portability branes, operates with this company’s the different types of masks conform The Optidew Transportable is a dew- Smart Controller technology, which respectively to protection levels FFP1, point hygrometer that operates on monitors the performance of the equip- FFP2 and FFP3. A color-coding system the optical dew-point measurement ment, stores historical operating data ensures easy identification and helps principle and is easily portable. It is and alerts users of water quality or sys- the user to select the correct kind of designed for drift-free measurement tem issues. Smart Controllers are easy mask for a given application. — Mine of the performance of desiccant dehu- to install and can operate independently Safety Appliances Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. midifiers in a number of applications. or linked to control room equipment. The www.msanorthamerica.com Housed in a specially designed case, G Series RO products are said to elimi- the small and lightweight instrument nate 98% of dissolved minerals, particles Screen, delump and discharge is fully self-contained. The instrument and organics from water for applications without feeder equipment offers a wide measurement range, such as improving the taste of drinking The FlexSift S10 (photo) is said to enable higher capacities and better product flow than conventional sift- ers because of its ability to screen, delump and discharge solids with- out the need for feeder equipment. Constructed with minimum number of parts, the FlexSift S10 is designed for easy clean-up and faster screen maintenance. The S10 can be readily coupled with most bulk bag unload- ers and mixer dischargers, and can be customized to suit many applications. The vibration-free design of the S10 lowers noise, and reduces power and maintenance. — Quadro Engineering Corp., Waterloo, Ont. www.quadro.com This monitoring system can operate with solar power The WIPAT Remote Patrol and Moni- toring System is a long-range, drop-in- place wireless video monitoring sys- tem that has the option of operating on solar power. The monitoring system is designed for use in electric power installations, oil and natural gas pipe- lines, water and wastewater treat- ment plants and public infrastructure areas. It can provide video clips, still images, event logging and access con- trol, and its configuration allows large- scale networking and integration with Circle 31 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-31 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 24D-711_CHE_010110_NPd.indd 7 12/21/09 2:26:01 PM
    • New Products HF Inverting Filter Centrifuge Cutting edge centrifuge technology for filtration, washing and drying of solid/liquid suspensions • Increase production • Improve productivity - Thin Cake Fluke Processing • Eliminate Operator Exposure - Full water, decreasing scaling in boilers, Containment humidifying, washing and water re- • Effective Automated CIP claiming. — Culligan International • Widest Range of Applications - Hardest Co, Rosemont, Ill. to Easiest Filtering Products www.culligan.com • Lowest Possible Moistures - PAC ™ Technology • Dry Product Inside the Centrifuge - This lubricant is ideal PAC™ Technology for heavy-duty applications Silicone Lube is designed to pro- vide lubrication and protection on Conical Vacuum a wide range of surfaces in heavy- Dryer - Mixer duty applications. The product is Advanced technology highly concentrated and is said to for simultaneous extend the life of metal, plastic, multi-function wood, rubber, vinyl and more drying and mixing by eliminating the sticking, binding and squeaking caused by constant friction. Silicone • Full Containment Operation • Largest Heat Transfer Surface Area Lube is non-staining and is suit- • Automatic CIP able in areas where chlorinated, Spectronics • Handles the Widest Range of Materials solvent-based alternatives may be • Variable Volume Batch Sizes too harsh. It protects from moisture, with wired legacy HART (highway • Gentle Low Shear Drying & Mixing and dries tack-free. — B’laster Chemi- addressable remote transducer) pro- • Quick & Trouble Free Product cal Co., Valley View, Ohio tocol instruments. Upgrading devices Discharging www.blasterproducts.com with the THUM adapter can avoid the expense and complexity of accessing Pennwalt The pressure range HART data through traditional wired Super-D-Canter of this gage has expanded means. The THUM adapter is a wire- Cutting edge continuous The PPC4 pressure controller (photo) less device that can retrofit on almost centrifuge technology and calibrator has an expanded pres- any two- or four-wire HART device, for separation of sure range, 0.15 psi to 2,000 psi, includ- without special power requirements, to slurries into liquid or ing gage-pressure equivalents and low- enable wireless transmission of mea- solid phases. pressure differentials. It is designed for surement and diagnostic information. • Only (1) drive motor testing pneumatic pressure instruments THUM adapters extend predictive in- • High Abrasion Points are fitted with in calibration laboratories and manu- telligence into new areas of the plant, replaceable parts • Advanced Polymer injection system facturing environments. The PPC4’s and are said to offer new opportunities • Most economical cost graphical interface supports 11 lan- for process improvements. With the Ideal for: guages. It is said to be durable enough THUM adapter, users can transform • Ethanol Stillage Dewatering for mobile applications and standard any HART instrument into a wireless • Sludge Thickening & Dewatering shipping. — Fluke Corp., Everett, Wash. device to enable expanded visibility in • Chemical Intermediates & Fine Chemical www.fluke.com applications such as tank gaging, radar • Production of Plastics (PVC Dewatering) level, ultrasonic level, flow, valves, liq- • Clarification of Liquids • Distillery Stillage A wireless adapter allows uid and gas analytical, pressure and access to HART data temperature. — Emerson Process Man- The wireless THUM adapter helps agement, Marshalltown, Iowa. users see diagnostics and process in- www.emersonprocess.com ■ formation that had been inaccessible Scott Jenkins Circle 32 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-32 24D-8 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201011_CHE_010110_NPd.indd 8 12/21/09 2:28:01 PM
    • People WHO’S WHO Sharp Vaughan Ezeuzoh Fleming Borghoff Robert (Bob) T. Sharp is named presi- Foster Wheeler AG (Zug, Switzer- manager at specialty fluorochemicals dent of Emerson Process Manage- land) appoints Clive Vaughan CEO, producer Halocarbon Products ment, Europe (Baar, Switzerland). Upstream Oil and Gas Group, in the Corp. (River Edge, N.J.). company’s global engineering and Paul MacGregor, vice-president of construction group. Polymer additives maker Songwon operations and project services for Industrial Co. Ltd (Ulsan, Korea) TransCanada Pipelines, Ltd. EagleBurgmann U.S. (Houston) appoints Peter Fleming sales director is elected chair of the Pipeline names Philip Peck sales director, and for the Middle East and Africa. Research Council International Patrick McCann manager of service (Arlington, Va.). center operations. Thomas Borghoff becomes managing director of sales for The Miriam Cortes-Caminero becomes ex- ChemLogix, LLC (Blue, Bell, Pa.) Beumer Group (Beckum, Germany), ecutive director of AIChEs Society promotes Francis Ezeuzoh to CFO. a manufacturer of conveying, pallet- for Biological Engineering izing and packaging systems.  ■ (New York). Shaun Julian is appointed account Suzanne Shelley “QUALITY PRODUCTS DESIGNED AND TESTED TO SATISFY CUSTOMER NEEDS.” At Valve Concepts, Inc., we realize that quality can’t be inspected into a product. Instead, it starts in the factory, where we employ an ISO 9001:2000 Quality Assurance Program to ensure compliance to international standards. Our commitment to engineering excellence also extends to our own state-of-the art, full-scale test facility, where we collect and analyze flow performance data. We’re comparing the results against our own standards — which are often higher than those stated in API requirements. It’s just one more way that “We simply make it right.” Darrin Vanderbilt, Engineering Lab Manager 7 Years Industry Experience www.cashco com Cashco, Inc., P.O. Box 6, Ellsworth, KS 67439-0006, Ph. (785) 472-4461, Fax: (785) 472-3539 Innovative Solutions Circle 14 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-14 CAS-179A.indd 1 11/25/08 2:49:35 PM Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 2514_CHE_010110_WW.indd 25 12/22/09 10:24:12 AM
    • Cover Story Feature Report Capital And Production Costs: Improving the Bottom Line Thane R. Brown Universities of Dayton and Cincinnati Decisions made in early phases of a project affect (Retired from Procter & Gamble) production costs for years to come. The disciplined T he chemical process industries (CPI) invest large amounts of method described here taps into potential savings capital each year and spend even more to produce the goods they sell. In 2007, CPI companies large ECONOMIC DESIGN MODEL (with permission from CRC Press) enough to be in the Fortune 500 list Define objectives Create options Analyze & select invested more than $100 billion of cap- an option ital and spent more than $1.2 trillion Define Define Select Create an Analyze Select an making their products. Most of this business design and option list each option objectives objectives define option money is committed by decisions made technical functions in the early stages of process develop- Continue ment and plant design. This article to the next phase presents a disciplined method, called Economic Design, for decision making, of engineering early on in a project, that can lead to significant savings for many years. To demonstrate the size of invest- What’s the Translate Reach clarity Create a Eliminate the Of the ments being discussed, the CPI com- business the business about what comprehensive options not technically task? task into technical list of options meeting the feasible panies referred to above are listed in technical functions without technical options, requirements are needed evaluating objectives or pick the one Table 1 along with their 2007 capital the ideas not conforming with the best investment and cost of the products Do not select to the technical economics process forms function definition made (see the “Cost of Products” box Estimate the for further explanation). While this Investments list does not include smaller compa- and production costs of the nies, it does capture the majority of technically capital and production costs spent in feasible options these industries. As mentioned, most Figure 1. This model enables engineers to reduce capital and production costs by of this money is committed as soon as adjusting their decision making process engineers make key decisions during product development, process devel- production cost structure. From that, I concluded a more disci- opment and the feasibility and con- •  eciding to build a batch rather D plined process that would foster early ceptual phases of plant design. Often, than a continuous process has on- attention to costs and better attention their decisions have longterm, lasting going, unchangeable capital- and to option analysis, would lower costs impact as shown in these examples: production-cost ramifications. for most projects and would better bal- •  eciding to use a high-purity raw D •  n a smaller scale, selecting a posi- O ance capital and production costs. Not material commits a company to tive displacement pump instead of surprisingly, it worked. higher raw material costs than does an ANSI centrifugal pump results As a result of this experience, I be- the selection of a lower grade mate- in permanently higher capital, de- lieve capital and production costs with- rial. However, use of a lower grade preciation and maintenance costs. out the use of this method can be as material could require added pro- Over the years, I have observed and much as 5% above optimum. Since the cessing to clean up that material or worked with many different project largest chemical processing companies to process recycle streams caused teams on all sizes of projects. What I spent more than $100 billion of capi- by the lower grade material. Either learned is that the capital and produc- tal in 2007, this equates to as much $5 way, the company’s raw material tion costs are very dependent upon the billion that could have been saved and cost structure gets set. amount of attention the project leader invested elsewhere. Additionally, the •  eciding to manufacture a raw D and the design team pay to costs. non-optimum cost of products (or pro- material rather than buy it forever Teams with a high level of cost disci- duction costs) amounts to as much as changes a company’s capital and pline had lower costs and vice versa. $60 billion each year. These two stag- 26 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201015_CHE_010110_DL.indd 26 12/21/09 12:36:08 PM
    • TABLE 1. CAPITAL and COST of PRODUCTION SPENDING for the THE COST OF PRODUCTS LARGER CHEMICAL RELATED COMPANIES, 20071 Industry (All amounts are in millions) % of Cost of % of Included in product costs are the follow- ing components: Raw materials: In-freight; product ingre- Company Revenues Capital Sales Production Sales dients; catalyst and solvents; byproduct Chemicals credits Dow Chemical 53,513 2,075 3.9 46,400 86.7 Packaging materials: In-freight; product DuPont 29,378 1,585 5.4 21,565 73.4 packaging (such as drums, bags, pails, 3M Co. 24,462 1,422 5.8 12,735 52.1 plastic bottles, fiber cartons and corru- PPG Industries 11,206 353 3.2 7,087 63.2 gated containers) Air Products 10,038 1,055 10.5 7,362 73.3 Manufacturing: Operating labor Huntsman Corp. 9,651 665 6.9 8,111 84.0 (wages); utilities; employee benefits; su- Monsanto 8,563 509 5.9 4,277 49.9 pervision (wages and benefits); labora- Eastman Chemical Co. 6,830 518 7.6 5,638 82.5 tory; maintenance; insurance and taxes; Praxair 9,402 1,376 14.6 5,557 59.1 operating (consumable) supplies; plant Rohm & Haas 8,897 417 4.7 6,430 72.3 overhead; depreciation; and contract Sherwin-Williams 8,005 166 2.1 4,407 55.1 manufacturing Ashland 7,785 154 2.0 6,447 82.8 Product delivery: Shipping costs ❏ Celanese 6,444 288 4.5 4,999 77.6 Avery Dennison 6,308 191 3.0 4,585 72.7 Hexion Specialty Chemicals 5,810 122 2.1 4,994 86.0 have a return on investment (ROI) Mosaic 5,774 292 5.1 4,848 84.0 that equals or exceeds the company’s Ecolab 5,470 307 5.6 2,692 49.2 hurdle rate. This is the basis of eco- Subtotals/Averages 217,536 11,495 5.3 158,134 72.7 nomic design. Note that balancing Food Products does not use lowest capital cost, low- Archer Daniels Midland 44,018 1,198 2.7 40,781 92.6 est production cost, highest rate of Kraft Foods 37,241 1,241 3.3 24,651 66.2 return or other economic measures as General Mills 12,442 460 3.7 7,955 63.9 decision-making criteria. Sara Lee 12,278 529 4.3 7,552 61.5 Conagra Foods 12,028 425 3.5 8,890 73.9 the Economic Design Dean Foods 11,822 241 2.0 9,084 76.8 The Economic Design method en- Kellogg Co. 11,776 472 4.0 6,897 58.6 ables engineers to reduce capital and Heinz 9,002 245 2.7 5,609 62.3 production costs by adjusting their Land O’Lakes 8,924 91 1.0 8,158 91.4 decision making process. The model Campbell Soup 7,867 334 4.2 4,571 58.1 (Figure 1) has three phases: setting Hormel Foods 6,193 126 2.0 4,779 77.2 project objectives; creating a thorough Wm. Wrigley Jr. 5,389 251 4.7 2,535 47.0 and comprehensive list of options; and Hershey 4,947 190 3.8 3,315 67.0 doing a complete economic analysis of Subtotals/Averages 183,927 5,803 3.2 134,777 73.3 the technically workable options. Fea- Beverages tures unique to the Economic Design Pepsico 39,474 2,430 6.2 18,038 45.7 method include the following: Coca-Cola 28,857 1,648 5.7 10,406 36.1 •  hases are integrated into a com- P Anheuser-Busch 18,989 870 4.6 10,836 57.1 plete decision making and project Molson Coors Brewing 8,320 428 5.1 3,703 44.5 management process. Subtotals/Averages 95,640 5,376 5.6 42,983 44.9 •  he method is ideal for decision T 1. Taken from each company’s 2007, Form 10-K (Continues on p. 28) making in the very early stages of a project, including product and pro- gering amounts dimensionalize what perience says is very often the case), cess development, feasibility and might be saved by adjusting the way one should use economics to select conceptual phases. Large amounts of decisions are made during the various the best of these options. money are at stake in these phases development stages leading up to and 3.  conomic decisions are best made E because the decisions made set the including plant design. on the basis of balancing capital future economic framework. The disciplined method described in and production costs, which means •  ignificant attention is paid to the S this article enables engineers to tap deciding if it is better to spend creation of a list — more thorough into this potential. The three key fea- more capital and have lower pro- than is typical — of design options. tures of the method are as follows: duction costs, or if it is better to The lower-cost, more economic de- 1.  o find the best option, one needs to T spend less capital and have higher signs flow directly from the thorough- diverge early in a project, to consider production costs. ness and quality of the option list. multiple options before converging During a project, the last item is con- •  nalyses and comparisons of options A to a decision. This requires creating sidered again and again as options are use after-tax cash flows to calculate an option list more comprehensive explored. The decision requires find- either net present value (NPV) or and thorough than is typical. ing out whether or not it is justifiable after-tax annual cost (AC). These 2.  hen there is more than one work- W to spend capital to reduce production calculations use a company’s hurdle able technical option (which my ex- costs. To be justifiable, an option must rate as the discount rate. Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 2715_CHE_010110_DL.indd 27 12/21/09 12:37:55 PM
    • TABLE 1. (Continued from p. XX) CAPITAL and COST of PRODUCTION SPENDING for the LARGER CHEMICAL RELATED COMPANIES, 20071 Cover Story (All amounts are in millions) Industry % of Cost of % of Company Revenues Capital Sales Production Sales Household/Personal Products Project objectives Procter & Gamble 76,476 2,945 3.9 36,686 48.0 Objective setting is included in the Kimberly-Clark 18,266 989 5.4 4,388 24.0 Economic Design model because engi- Colgate-Palmolive 13,790 583 4.2 11,397 82.6 neering work too often begins before Avon Products 9,845 279 2.8 3,941 40.0 the purpose of the project is really Estee Lauder 7,038 312 4.4 1,775 25.2 clear. The lack of clarity typically stems Clorox 4,847 147 3.0 2,756 56.9 from situations such as the following: Subtotals/Averages 130,262 5,255 4.0 60,943 46.8 the engineers don’t get input from the International Paper 21,890 1,288 5.9 16,060 73.4 business managers, which results in Weyerhaeuser 13,949 680 4.9 11,375 81.5 an unclear business rationale for the Subtotals/Averages 35,839 1,968 5.5 27,435 76.6 project; the project leader believes ev- Petroleum Refining erything is clear when that is not the Exxon Mobil Corp. 390,328 15,387 3.9 231,383 59.3 case; or the project team talks about Chevron Corp. 214,091 16,678 7.8 150,241 70.2 its objectives but does not write them Conoco Phillips 187,437 11,791 6.3 125,112 66.7 down, resulting in later confusion. Valero Energy 95,377 2,260 2.4 81,645 85.6 When project objectives are not set Marathon Oil 62,800 4,466 7.1 49,104 78.2 well, problems occur as the objectives Sunoco 44,470 1,179 2.7 39,971 89.9 get sorted out via trial and error dur- Hess 31,647 3,578 11.3 22,573 71.3 ing project execution. These projects Tesoro 21,915 747 3.4 20,308 92.7 experience a series of design changes, Murphy Oil 18,424 1,949 10.6 16,195 87.9 which most often cause schedule de- Western Refining 7,305 277 3.8 6,376 87.3 lays and cost increases. Frontier Oil 5,189 291 5.6 4,340 83.6 A project team needs objectives to Subtotals/Averages 1,078,983 58,603 5.4 747,248 69.3 ensure those involved in the project Pharmaceuticals agree upon the purpose. Good objec- Johnson & Johnson 61,095 2,942 4.8 17,751 29.1 tives are (a) developed from the input Pfizer 48,418 1,880 3.9 11,239 23.2 of the key stakeholders — business and technical managers — and the Abbott Laboratories 25,914 1,656 6.4 11,422 44.1 project team, (b) written and distrib- Merck & Co. 24,198 1,011 4.2 6,141 25.4 uted to each stakeholder, (c) realistic Wyeth 22,400 1,391 6.2 6,314 28.2 and measurable, and (d) updated as Bristol-Myers Squibb 19,348 843 4.4 6,128 31.7 project conditions change. Updating Amgen 14,771 1,267 8.6 2,548 17.3 usually occurs at the beginning of Eli Lilly 18,634 1,082 5.8 4,249 22.8 each project phase. Schering-Plough 12,690 618 4.9 4,405 34.7 I suggest setting objectives in two Subtotals/Averages 247,468 12,690 5.1 70,197 28.4 steps by first setting business objec- TOTALS/AVERAGES 1,989,655 101,190 5.1 1,241,717 62.4 tives and then translating them into 1. Taken from each company’s 2007, Form 10-K technical objectives. Business objec- tives answer questions such as the ever is appropriate for the project. termediate schedule requirements following: What is the business reason Once a project’s technical leaders as dictated by the business objec- for the project? Is it to introduce a new have worked with business man- tives, for example, when the pilot or improved product, to decrease costs, agement to set the business objec- plant construction needs to be fin- increase production capacity, and so tives, the technical leaders and their ished so that process development on? What are the capacity require- management translate these into can proceed on schedule. ments of the project? What production technical objectives. The two sets of •  conomics: This is a restatement of E volume must the process be able to objectives need to be completely com- business objectives plus any added produce? Must it all be on stream at patible. By their nature, the techni- items important to the technical one time or can it be phased in over cal objectives will go into more detail community. For example, if there time? What schedule needs are there? than the business objectives and will were limits on research, develop- When does the new product need to be include the following: ment or engineering spending, they available for sale, when does the test •  usiness needs: This usually re- B would be covered here. market need to begin, when do the states the business reason and adds •  echnical factors: This section T cost savings need to start, and so on? needed technical details. covers items, such as key sources of What are the economic needs of the •  apacity: This often restates the C technical data (pilot plant reports); project? Is there a minimum accept- capacity requirements and adds how ancillary and utility systems able rate of return, is there a capital technical details, such as spelling should be handled; health, safety spending limit, is there a production out the target operating efficiency of and environmental considerations; cost limit, and so on? Are there other the plant or process. and so forth. requirements? These include what- •  chedule: This usually details in- S Four examples of business and tech- 28 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201015_CHE_010110_DL.indd 28 12/21/09 12:38:38 PM
    • nical objectives for the process devel- the hydrogenated part of the prod- Provide these data to the financial opment and feasibility engineering uct is not to exceed $0.292/lb; Fin- department so they can determine phases of an oil hydrogenation project ished product production cost is not whether Product X is feasible. As are given below (with permission from to exceed $1.27/lb; Capital spending a part of the study, develop a mile- CRC Press). Note how the business for national and test market facili- stone schedule for the funding, de- and technical objectives differ from ties is not to exceed $6 million. sign, construction and startup of each other and how the objectives •  ther: Follow the company’s health, O the test market and national facili- evolve from project phase to project safety and environmental policy. ties. Assume a one-year test mar- phase. A detailed description of set- Example 3: Technical objectives ket. Assuming Product X meets the ting project objectives can be found in (process development). economic factors below and is eco- Chapter 7 of Ref. 1. •  usiness need: Develop raw mate- B nomically feasible, you should also Example 1: Business objectives rial specifications and a hydroge- prepare appropriation requests to (process development phase). nation process (including catalyst fund test market construction, na- •  usiness plan: There appears to be a B selection) for the new oil product, tional conceptual engineering and market opportunity for an extension Product X. long-lead-time equipment purchase. of our present product line of oils. •  chedule: Pilot plant construc- S •  chedule: Complete the feasibility S Develop a process for the product tion must be completed within six and appropriation requests within (code named “Product X”). months. This should permit pro- three months. •  rojected volume: At this stage, o- P p cess development to be complete •  conomic factors: The ROI must be E tential volume is very uncertain. Es- by January 2004, enabling a start at least 15%. Production cost for the timates range from 200 to 700 mil- of national production in late 2006. hydrogenated oil is not to exceed lion lb/yr. We will need to do further Sample product for consumer test- $0.292/lb and for the finished prod- consumer testing to more accurately ing must be available by July 2003. uct is not to exceed $1.27/lb. Capi- estimate volume. •  conomic factors: The production E tal spending, for test market and •  iming: Complete the development T cost of the hydrogenated oil cannot national production, cannot exceed work so the national introduction of exceed $0.292/lb. The finished prod- $6 million. Product X can begin by late 2006. uct production cost is not to exceed •  echnical factors: Product X contains T Product for consumer testing will be $1.27/lb. a specially hydrogenated blend of needed as defined by the consumer •  echnical factors: Product char- T 70/20/10 soybean/cottonseed/saf- testing schedule. acteristics are given in a research flower oils. Operating conditions and •  conomic factors: We expect we E report. The projected capacity the hydrogenation endpoint are spec- will have to sell Product X at the (200–700 million lb/yr) would indi- ified in the pilot plant report. Opera- same price as our existing products. cate a continuous process. However, tion will be 24 h/d, 7 d/wk and 50 wk/ Therefore, finished product produc- you should work with the plant yr. The other two weeks will be used tion costs cannot exceed $1.27/lb. design engineers to determine for maintenance shutdowns. Develop the process accordingly. whether a batch or continuous pro- •  ealth, safety and environmental: All H Example 2: Business objectives cess will be best from an economic regulations and company policy will (feasibility engineering phase). standpoint. This will probably in- be followed. There are no health haz- •  usiness plan: Determine the eco- B volve deciding how many process ards. H2 handling is the only special nomic feasibility for Product X. locations are best. Plant operation safety risk. Environmentally, spent Include the cost of test market fa- will be 24 h/d, 7 d/wk and 50 wk/ A3 catalyst will be returned to the cilities in the study. The feasibility yr. The other two weeks will be used manufacturer for reclaiming. Ensure response should include a prelimi- for maintenance shutdowns. the fat settling traps have sufficient nary project schedule starting with •  ealth, safety and environmental: H capacity to keep the amount of oil in the end of feasibility through the All regulations and company policy the wastewater at levels treatable by start of national production. Assume will be followed. Since the hydroge- the sewage treatment plant. a one year test market. nation catalyst will most likely con- •  rojected volume: National volume P tain heavy metals, your work must Creating a list of options is estimated at 400 to 600 million consider how to properly dispose of The heart of Economic Design is a lb/yr. Base the feasibility on a volume and reclaim the catalyst. thorough and comprehensive list of of 600 million lb/yr. Test market vol- Example 4: Technical objectives options. Without a list, finding the ume is estimated at 6 million lb/yr. (feasibility engineering). most economic technical option be- •  iming: Complete the study within T •  usiness need: Develop a feasibility B comes a game of chance. Given the three months. If the project is fea- grade design and estimates for the importance of the option list, it is sur- sible, begin test market shipments test market and national manufac- prising that option creation often falls within nine months. We wish to begin turing facilities needed to produce short of the mark. I believe this occurs national shipments by late 2006. Product X. Assume volumes of 6 mil- for several reasons. First, there are •  conomic factors: ROI of at least E lion lb/yr for test market and 600 usually heavy schedule demands on 15%; National production cost for million lb/yr for national production. engineers. A tight schedule makes the Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 2915_CHE_010110_DL.indd 29 12/21/09 12:40:04 PM
    • Catalyst Cover Story 150 psig H2O 220°F 300°F 250°F steam H2O Filter press Feed 120°F 250°F 220°F 120°F Hydrogenated oil oil study of options difficult, as it seems there is not enough time to do any- 350°F thing other than find some workable H2O Catalyst Catalyst H2 surge tank answer. While short schedules will Cooling at times be the correct path, decision jacket makers need to weigh what that will Figure 2. An engineer might develop a flowsheet like this one to satisfy the busi- cost in terms of increased capital and ness and technical objectives given in Examples 1 and 3 production costs. A second reason is that engineers have a desire to quickly TABLE 2.Technical Functions develop answers for their designs. By tion options for the technical functions and Unit Operations their nature, engineers are good prob- on a flowsheet within minutes. With- Technical Type of Unit lem solvers who enjoy finding answers out the guides, this would take most Function Operation to design questions. This creates a ten- engineers days to complete. Separate solids Pressure filter dency to converge to answers, at times The third tool is a set of questions from the oil faster than is appropriate. intended to expand an engineer’s un- Heat oil Shell-and-tube Another reason options aren’t con- derstanding of the process. A few ex- heat exchanger sidered is that many companies have amples of questions are as follows: React oil with Vertical, multi- standardized the design of their plants How do the upstream unit operations hydrogen stage stirred col- and processes. When that is the case, or processes affect the unit opera- umn reactor engineers are often reluctant to exam- tion being considered? What different ine options that would change the stan- grades and sources of raw materials exploration of other alternatives elimi- dardized designs, even when improved are available, and how do they affect nates many options from consideration, technology is available or when eco- the process? Should a product or raw some of which are just as technically nomic conditions have changed. There material be bought or made? If it must good and might be better economi- may also be pressures from within the be made, should a contract processor cally. For example, the following would company not to change anything. And make it or should one’s company make not have been considered: a batch pro- finally, option list creation is just plain it? The premise behind these kinds of cess; plate-and-frame heat exchangers; hard to do. questions is that increased under- static mixers; a continuous, well-mixed Option-creation tools. Brainstorm- standing will lead to improved designs reactor or other configurations of a con- ing and its variations are often used and additional options. tinuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); for generating options. There are three Flowsheet development. The meth- coils inside the reactor for removing the other easy-to-use tools that will help odology used to develop flowsheets heat of reaction using the feedstream bridge the option creation gaps men- greatly affects thoroughness and com- (as opposed to recirculating water) as tioned above. All bring discipline to pleteness of an option list. Consider the reactor coolant; an enclosed ver- the option creation process. Requiring the following example. tical-tube filter, which would permit minimal effort and time expenditure, When asked to design an oil hy- high temperature filtration (reducing these tools promote divergence before drogenation process that will satisfy filter size); or a disc centrifuge. design answers are selected, promote the business and technical objectives To counter this kind of premature higher levels of understanding of the given in Examples 1 and 3 of the pre- convergence to design solutions, Eco- design and help spark creativity. vious section, an experienced engineer nomic Design starts the flowsheet cre- The first tool is a bit different meth- might sketch the flowsheet shown in ation process with block flow diagrams odology for flowsheet development. It Figure 2. The process is workable and showing the technical functions in the focuses on the technical purpose, or uses standard equipment. Given that, process and not specific unit opera- the technical function, of each step design work could proceed based on tions or equipment types. These block in the process rather than on specific the flowsheet. diagrams are called technical function unit operations. Once the technical Reflect, however, upon what happens flowsheets (TFFS). TFFS methodology functions are selected, the engineer when an engineer uses Figure 2 as the helps to slow convergence to design analyzes the process and studies op- starting flow diagram. As drawn, the specifics until there has been a thor- tions. These actions culminate in a flowsheet shows a continuous process; ough look at different options. Table 2 process flow diagram. The technical shell-and-tube heat exchangers for all illustrates the difference between tech- function method allows the engineer the heat transfer operations; a multi- nical functions and unit operations. to consider options before selecting stage, stirred column reactor with a Note that the technical function unit operations. cooling jacket; a circulating water sys- descriptions are verb-object combina- The second tool is a set of eight unit tem to cool the reactor; preheating the tions. For example, separate (the verb), operation guides. These list most of the feedstream with hot oil from the reac- solids (the object). Unit operation de- unit operations available for different tor; and catalyst removal via a plate- scriptions are nouns, often modified technical functions, such as drying or and-frame filter operating at 120°F. by an adjective. Additionally, technical reacting. Using the guides, an engi- While all these design choices are function descriptions are less specific neer can develop a list of unit opera- workable, picking them prior to the and more generalized than the unit 30 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201015_CHE_010110_DL.indd 30 12/21/09 12:41:24 PM
    • Technical Function Flowsheet, Oil Hydrogenation Technical Function Flowsheet, Oil Hydrogenation (with permission from CRC Press) (with permission from CRC Press) Heat oil to Final issue reaction 1st issue Catalyst temperature Cool reactor so it operates isothermally H2 vent to Heat oil to Hydrogenate oil Remove atmosphere reaction to convert the catalyst so temperature tri-unsaturates oil is clear Pressure to di-unsaturates Batch or CSTR Heat oil to reactor to filter or reaction hydrogenate oil sedimenting temperature to convert the centrifuge to tri-unsaturates remove Feed oil H2 Catalyst Cool oil to catalyst for to di-unsaturates storage reuse and so temperature Feed oil oil is clear H2 Cool oil to Slurry storage Figure 3. A first issue of a technical function flowsheet Fresh catalyst temperature (TFFS) might look like this. Note how it differs from the flow- catalyst in feed oil sheet shown in Figure 2 Spent catalyst for Oil to Figure 4. A final issue of the TFFS shows storage reclaiming that the design issues have been resolved operation descriptions, opening the describes the basis for the selection of tion shown in Figure 3, “hydrogenate opportunity for option creation and ex- operating conditions [2]. oil to convert the tri-unsaturates to di- amination. TFFSs show each function Unit Operation Guides. Use of the unsaturates”. Additional data include in the process in its correct order and TFFS methodology sets the stage for the reaction temperature, pressure, hy- all major flowstreams, including the option list creation. When it is time to drogen usage and the fact that a finely direction of their flow. Figures 3 and select unit operations for the different divided nickel catalyst is used at a spe- 4 are examples of TFFSs for oil hy- technical functions, the Unit Opera- cific concentration in the feed oil. Since drogenation. Contrast Figure 3, which tion Guides [1] will help an engineer the technical function in question is a shows what the first issue of a TFFS to define most of the potential options. reaction, the Reaction Guide would be would look like, to Figure 2, noting the The guides list only the more common located. This guide has six different freedom the TFFS gives the engineer unit operations, so atypical operations phase options including gas-liquid, to identify and explore options. may not be included. For example, the liquid-solid, gas-solid, liquid-liquid or Figure 4 is the final issue of the Mass Transfer Guide does not include one liquid, solid-solid or one solid, and TFFS. Contrasting it to the first issue reactive distillation, a less common gas-gas or one gas reactant [3]. of the TFFS one notes that the engi- operation. Eight guides are available Since our example is a catalyzed neer has answered many design ques- covering the following topics: blend- gas-liquid reaction, we would go to the tions, such as the venting of H2 to the ing-mixing; drying (water removal gas-liquid column in the guide (shown atmosphere and the reclaiming of only); heat transfer (including evap- in the box titled “Options for the hy- spent catalyst; has narrowed reactor oration); mass transfer (including drogenation reactor”). A caution, do selection and catalyst removal to two crystallization); material transport; not yet start evaluating the options; choices each; and has left a number of mechanical separation; reactions; and save this for the option analysis phase items open, such as the type of heat size modification. Each is subdivided of the Economic Design model. If eval- transfer equipment to be used, the by the phases that are transformed uation and idea generation are done heat recovery scheme and the method by the technical function. For exam- concurrently, the evaluating will stifle of cooling the reactor. It is best to leave ple, the Blending-Mixing Guide has idea generation; and the quality of open as many items as possible until five phase subdivisions: gas-liquid, the option list will suffer. Without the more detailed design begins. That way liquid-solid, gas-gas, liquid-liquid and guides, developing an option list like the engineer can make final choices solid-solid. Having defined a technical this would be very time consuming and based upon the most current technol- function, which would include know- would probably not be as complete. In ogy and economics. ing the phases involved, one can sim- fact, seldom are lists this complete to To keep track of and communicate ply go to the appropriate guide and be found. In the next model phase, one a design, the engineer needs to docu- find a list of the unit operations that evaluates each option, first technically, ment a lot more data than shown on should be considered. The guides also then economically. the TFFS. Thus, the TFFS is backed include the references used to compile A list this long just for the reactor up by material and energy balances the lists and some additional perti- might seem daunting, but the first-cut (often based on pilot plant data) and nent comments. technical analysis usually goes rather a detailed table called a Technical To better illustrate the use of guides, quickly and eliminates many of the Function Definition. This table, ar- we will use the Reaction Guide — one options. Remember, the goal is to cre- ranged by technical function, explains of the more complex guides — as an ate a comprehensive list, one that in- the purpose of each function, lists the example. Let us say that the assign- cludes options that wouldn’t necessar- important operating conditions (flow, ment is to develop a list of possible ily get on most lists. This is the root of temperature, pressure and so on) and unit operations for the technical func- truly creative and new ideas, some of Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 3115_CHE_010110_DL.indd 31 12/21/09 12:42:13 PM
    • options for the hydrogenation reactor Cover Story T his list is taken from the gas-liquid column of the Reaction Guide [1, 3]. It gives the engineer an easy-to-find resource for options to consider for the process design. • Batch reactor • Fixed catalyst bed •Continuous stirred tank which will produce better-than-typical • Static mixer • Trickle catalyst bed reactors (CSTR) results and profits. •  hell-and-tube heat ex- S • Ebulating catalyst bed – Tanks in series changer, tube side • Rising-film reactor – Vertical, multi-stage Question lists. Intended to increase • Packed column • Falling-film reactor agitated vessel the depth of understanding about • Tray tower •Continuous well-mixed – Horizontal, compart- a process, a series of questions will • Spray tower reactor mented, agitated vessel lead to the creation of more options • Venturi mixer • Membrane reactor and higher quality designs. There are • Pump impeller three sets of questions given in Ref. 1: general process, process interactions and feasibility/conceptual. The first Table 3. Economic variables analysis two are more general in nature than Cost Variables Does the Variable Comments the feasibility/conceptual questions. Change? As such, they would be used more Investments often during process development or Capital Yes Varies dependent insulation thickness early in plant or process design. Working capital No Ignore The general process and process Startup expense No Ignore interaction questions address broad Supplier advances/ royalties No Ignore project issues, such as the following Production costs examples: Should a product or inter- Raw materials No Ignore mediate be bought or made? Should Packaging materials No Ignore the process be batch or continuous? Product delivery No Ignore What grade and purity of a raw ma- Manufacturing, including the following costs: terial should be purchased? Should Operating labor No Ignore recycle or purge streams be used, and Employee benefits No Ignore do those streams need to be treated Supervision No Ignore before reuse or disposal? How does Laboratory No Ignore this unit operation affect the down- Utilities Yes Varies dependent upon the energy loss stream operations? through the insulation I have repeatedly found that ques- Maintenance Yes Varies as a function of the capital tions like these, ones that lay the foun- Insurance and taxes Yes Varies as a function of the capital dation for a project, are not addressed Operating supplies No Ignore well because the answer seems obvi- Plant overhead No Ignore ous, and there does not seem to be Depreciation Yes Capital/Insulation life enough time to answer them, or be- cause no one thought to ask the ques- no capital to be written off. When the still need to be dealt with. Examples tions. I have also seen them addressed market is successful, you can build of additional questions include the fol- late in a project, in which case the whatever facilities are needed to pro- lowing: How many sites are economi- answer may well dictate a fundamen- duce the material internally. If your cally optimum and where should they tal change in direction that is usually company has cash flow restrictions, be located? Are there materials used painful to implement. When this hap- the cash flow from buying the mate- or made in the process that are haz- pens, the questions are sometimes an- rial is less than the cash flow from ardous from a health, safety or envi- swered superficially so as to not upset capital procurement and construction. ronmental standpoint or that need the project. I have also seen attempts Buying might also make sense if it environmental treatment? If so, can to suppress an answer when the pain allows your company to get into the they be eliminated, be used in reduced of change was very great. Thus, there market place faster. Your own plant quantities, or be replaced by less haz- is a need to thoroughly deal with the can be built later. This also has the ad- ardous or non-hazardous materials? questions early in the project. vantage of lowering the market risk. Economically optimum siting is Let us consider the “make or buy” Additionally, you might make part worth some added discussion. Decid- option in a bit more detail. If the prod- and buy part. That lets you fully load ing on the number of sites involves uct or intermediate is something a your facility and use the supplier for the balancing of capital and produc- supplier can deliver to your plant for production swings. tion costs. Because of economies of less money than you can make it, the Since we are considering questions scale, having more sites usually re- choice is simply to buy it. When, how- to ask while engineering is still in its sults in higher capital, startup and ever, you can make it for less than you early stages, the feasibility and con- manufacturing costs. When plants are can buy it, the answer is not so simple. ceptual questions will be broad, but sited based on supplier and customer If the product has a high market risk, are focused on the design of the plant. locations, having more sites decreases buying the material until the market Some of the questions from the gen- in-freight and product shipping costs, is proven might make more sense. eral process list, such as make versus because the plants are closer to the That way, if the market fails, there is buy and batch versus continuous, may suppliers and customers. 32 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201015_CHE_010110_DL.indd 32 12/21/09 12:46:52 PM
    • Economic design point, continuous data COST VARIABLE CHECKLIST -985 X Economic U -990 se the following checklist to ensure that all dependent eco- design -995 nomic variables are considered. NPV, $1,000 -1,000 point Investments. Capital; working capital; startup expenses; sup- -1,005 plier advances and royalties -1,010 Figure 5. Production costs. Raw materials; packaging materials; man- -1,015 When many -1,020 = NPV technical op- ufacturing (including operating labor, employee benefits, su- calculation -1,025 tions are avail- pervision, laboratory, utilities, maintenance, insurance and points -1,030 able, a plot helps taxes, operating supplies, plant overhead, depreciation); -1,035 to pinpoint the product delivery 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 (With Permission from CRC Press) Outlet temperature, °F economic optimum Analyzing and selecting tion cost estimating, one only needs to easy comparison of multiple options, Once a list of options exists, one enters estimate the costs that will be differ- because they can take into account the analysis and selection stage of the ent as the values of the independent uneven cash flows and because they Economic Design model. This is a two- variable change. The checklist in the can be calculated using a company’s phase process with technical analysis box titled “Cost variable checklist” will hurdle rate. followed by economic analysis. help ensure one considers all the de- The 5th step outlined above men- Technical analysis. In technical pendent economic variables. tions the economic design point. This analysis, one examines each option As an example, if one were trying to is simply the option having the high- to determine whether or not it can find the economic thickness of insu- est NPV or AC. Quite often, these val- meet the technical needs of the pro- lation for 3-in. pipe, the independent ues at the economic design point will cess. These needs are defined by the variable would be insulation thick- be negative, because most of the cash project objectives, quality and operat- ness and one would select the different flows that are different from option ing efficiency specifications, capacity thicknesses to be examined. For each to option are costs, and thus negative. requirements and so on. Any option thickness (each value of the indepen- When there are a discrete number of that cannot meet the technical needs dent variable), one would also calcu- options, such as in the example of the is eliminated. Remaining options are late the energy loss. Using the check- insulation thickness, the economic de- then analyzed for best economics. En- list in the box, the engineer decides sign point is the insulation thickness gineers employ many different ways which costs will change as the values having the highest NPV or AC. When to make their technical assessments. of the independent variable vary. This there are an infinite number of options, For example, they may use plant op- is summarized in Table 3. such as picking the most economic erating data; results from bench-scale Thus, for each insulation thick- outlet temperature in a heat-recovery tests, pilot plants, semi-works plants, ness, one estimates capital, utility, heat exchanger, one should plot NPV or or full-scale plants; other company ex- maintenance, insurance and taxes AC versus the independent variable to perience; the experience of a process and depreciation costs. In the fourth locate the optimum. This is illustrated expert; and process design and unit step, these costs are used to calculate in Figure 5.  ■ operation books or articles. either NPV or AC for each thickness. Edited by Dorothy Lozowski Economic analysis. Usually there’s In the fifth and last step, the thick- more than one item left on the option ness having the highest NPV or AC is References list after technical analysis. When that selected. This is the option having the 1. Brown, Thane, “Engineering Economics and Economic Design for Process Engineers”, is the case, one uses economic analy- best economics and is therefore, the CRC Press, 2006. sis. This is a five-step process. First, economic design point. 2. A table showing the technical function defi- select the independent and dependent Calculation methods. A few com- nitions corresponding to the TFFS in Figure 4 can be found by searching the title of this variables for the economic study. Sec- ments are in order about calculation article on www.che.com ond, pick the initial values for the in- methodology. 3. The full Reaction Unit Operation Guide can be found by searching the title of this article dependent variable. If these values do When estimating costs (the 3rd step on www.che.com not locate the economic optimum, re- mentioned in the previous section), cycle and select another set of values. during option analysis early in a proj- Author Third, for each value of the indepen- ect, there are not many details avail- Thane Brown is presently dent variables, roughly size and select able. Study-grade-estimating methods chairman of the Advisory Com- mittee for the Chemical Engi- the equipment involved, and estimate (Chapters 3 and 4 in Ref. 1) are de- neering Dept. at the Univer- sity of Dayton (Email: trbnjb@ the capital cost of the equipment, any signed to create reasonably accurate earthlink.net). He has taught other investments and the production estimates when little design data are plant design and engineering economics at the Universities costs. Fourth, convert the cost data available. More detailed design and es- of Dayton and Cincinnati as from step three into after-tax (AT) timating techniques are just not needed an adjunct professor. Prior to teaching, Brown worked for cash flows, and calculate the net pres- when analyzing most options. Procter & Gamble for over 36 ent value (NPV) or the annual cost When calculating NPV or AC (the years in a variety of engineering and manufac- turing roles primarily in the food-and-beverage (AC) for each value of the independent 4th step mentioned earlier), I espouse business and in health, safety and environmental engineering. His last position there was director, variable. Fifth, select the value hav- using after-tax cash flows, because this North American Engineering. Brown has recently ing the largest NPV or AC. That is the bases the calculations on the money published a book on engineering economics and design [1], and has written a number of articles best option, the economic design point. that actually flows out of and into a on engineering economics, batch pressure filtra- In the third step of rough equipment company’s bank account. Using NPV tion and heat transfer. He is a registered profes- sional engineer of Ohio and holds a B.S.Ch.E. design, and investment and produc- or AC makes sense as both permit the from Oregon State University. Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 3315_CHE_010110_DL.indd 33 12/21/09 12:47:50 PM
    • Feature Report Engineering Practice Wastewater Treatment: Energy-Conservation Opportunities Abtin Ataei Graduate School of the Environment Consider these options to improve energy efficiency and Energy, Science and Research Branch of I.A.U. and reduce the cost of treating wastewater T ypical wastewater-treatment Sludge storage Sludge thickening plants (WWTP) — both industrial Flotation sludge Methanol and municipal — consume large amounts of energy, which can Primary Sand filter Sludge represent 50% or more of the facility’s treatment sludge Surplus sludge and flotation variable operating and maintenance Fluidized Chemical Sea costs. Most employ biological processes precipitation Bioreactors bed that rely on energy-intensive aeration Grit systems whose energy consumption is chamber approximately 0.5 kWh per m3 of ef- Sand fluent treated. This article discusses trap a variety of design and operating Primary settlling Aeration basins Mid setting End settling improvements that can be under- taken to reduce energy consumption Tunnel Sludge recycling (and related costs) during wastewater Aerating compressors treatment. Case study results from Main pumps Screen representative WWTP scenarios are presented throughout the discussion. Figure 1. The main components of the reference WWTP used to develop the case The specific energy-conservation examples provided in this article are shown here options presented here are organized into five specific proposals, each of into carbon dioxide and water, while ganisms are separated as sludge in an which is discussed in detail below: some part of the matter is degraded adjacent settling basin [2]. •  ptimize aeration and oxygen O into methane gas [2]. The activated-sludge treatment transfer Under aerobic conditions — the process. By comparison, biological •  se variable frequency drives U more commonly used approach for treatment systems that use the acti- (VFDs) to adjust the speed of elec- wastewater treatment — oxygen must vated-sludge process keep the sludge tric motors to meet process demand be supplied to support the biological (which contains the microorganisms) •  eplace old electric motors with R processes. Here again, the organic ma- suspended in the basin, and rely on more-energy-efficient ones terial is oxidized into mainly carbon some type of aeration device to de- •  aximize the production and use of M dioxide and water, and some part of liver air or oxygen to the wastewa- biogas as a fuel the organic material is used to sup- ter, in order to support the metabolic •  esign an efficient, distributed D port bacterial growth. processes of the aerobic microorgan- effluent cooling system Anaerobic biological treatment isms. To achieve an adequate rate of is usually performed using either a organics degradation, a portion of the Typical system components fixed-film process or activated-sludge sludge is continuously recycled and a The biological treatment of wastewa- process [2]. small amount of sludge is periodically ter is carried out by microorganisms, The fixed-film biological treat- removed [2]. mainly bacteria, which degrade the ment process. These systems let the The aeration process. During both organic matter under either aerobic or wastewater pass through a substrate, fixed-film and activated-sludge pro- anaerobic conditions [1]. The degraded while the entire treatment stream is cesses, the organisms feed on organic matter is then bound into flock parti- oxygenated. The culture of microor- substances, reducing the amount of cles and separated as sludge. ganisms that grows on the substrate organics in the wastewater. Addition- Under anaerobic conditions, biologi- consumes the organic matter in the ally, bacteria transform ammonium, cal degradation is carried out in the wastewater. As the layer of microor- originating from urine, into nitrate. absence of oxygen, so the microorgan- ganisms grows thicker, it periodicaly Such nitrification is a vital part of on- isms use nitrate as the oxidizing agent. sloughs off and ends up in the waste- going purification. The organic substances are oxidized water effluent stream. The microor- Air is often supplied using indi- 34 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201016_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 34 12/22/09 1:48:41 PM
    • Nomenclature a1,2,3, Cp  Specific heat of water Ka  Tower characteristic, TC Total cost, $/yr b1,2,3, at constant pressure, kg/m3 s Ur Utility rate, $/kWh c1,2,3  Mass transfer coefficient kJ/kg°C Kel Eliminator coefficient W Cooling tower width, m constants Ef Economic factor m Flowrate, kg/s Z Cooling tower height, m Acr Cross-sectional area, m2 Eee  Efficiency of energy- Mair Average molecular Afan Fan casing area, m2 efficient motors, % weight of air, kg/kmol Greek letters Afr Tower frontal area, m2 Estd Efficiency of standard n Adiabatic factor η Efficiency Ai  Heat and mass transfer motors, % P Power, kW ρ Density, kg/m3 area, m2 h Enthalpy, kJ/kg Pin  Pressure of inlet air to Aic  Area-independent initial ha  Heat transfer coefficient the compressor, atm Subscripts cost, $ of air, kW/m2°C Pout Pressure of outlet air to a Air ACS Annual cost savings, $/yr hd  heat transfer coefficient the compressor, atm c Compressor AES  Annual energy savings, of water, kW/m2°C Q Heat transfer rate, kW fan Fan kWh/yr HPS  Motor horsepower R  Gas constant, in Inlet C  Unit conversion factor, rating, hp kJ/kmol K out Outlet kw/hp hrs  Annual operating hours, Ry  Eliminator characteristic, opt Optimum Celec Electricity cost, $/kWh h/yr m–1 w Water Ci  Initial cost of tower per IC Initial cost, $ SP Simple payback time, yr i Interface unit volume, $/m3 LF Load factor as decimal T Temperature, °C vidually controllable, high-capacity the air flow significantly in that part In this case, inefficiency results from compressors, which produces an air- of the process [3]. This allows the both operating an aeration system flow that corresponds to the amount bacteria to use the nitrate to oxidize at excessively high dissolved oxygen of biological oxygen demand (BOD) waste BOD. levels, and from the poor mechanical in the inlet stream. Aeration systems Aeration equipment. As noted, the efficiency that results when blowers (discussed below) also provide mixing, equipment used to deliver oxygen to are constantly throttled to operate at which helps to keep solids suspended. the aeration system is typically pro- reduced outputs. vided by surface aerators (such as A comparison of guaranteed shaft Adjusting key variables low-speed mechanical aerators, direct- horsepower (hp) values from compet- Another variable that can be opti- drive surface aerators, and brush-type ing blower manufacturers, at specified mized to reduce energy use is the surface aerators [3]), or by diffused humidity, temperature, and turndown solids-retention time (SRT) of the ac- aeration systems (such as low-pres- air flows, reveals some surprising re- tivated-sludge process. The ability to sure, high-volume compressors or sults. For instance, while some facili- maintain a high or low SRT typically blowers, air piping systems, and dif- ties may feel that the use of a positive- has a corresponding effect on both the fusers that break the air into bubbles displacement blower with a VSD will amount of excess sludge that must be as it is dispersed through the tank). provide an efficient system at reduced wasted from the process, and the over- Positive-displacement, and single- air flows, the energy use required for all energy requirement for aeration. and multi-stage centrifugal blowers such a setup is much higher compared For instance, if a facility is not re- are commonly used. to an alternate approach that uses quired to nitrify the stream, and Some aeration equipment com- an efficient, single-stage centrifugal sludge-disposal costs are not high, bines diffusers with mechanical aera- blower controlled with damper con- then reducing the SRT may provide tors. Submerged turbine aerators use trols. In fact, the latter approach can a cost-effective way to lower the total sparger rings to deliver diffused air be- provide impressive savings. volume of suspended solids in the neath mechanical mixers. As the bub- Efforts to compare the guaranteed mixed liquor or reduce the number of bles rise, the mixers shear the coarse shaft-brake horsepower values of aeration tanks in service. bubbles and provide mixing, too. Many competing manufacturers are chal- However, to meet their discharge diffuser styles are available. lenging. The most accurate method is limits, many facilities are required The value relating oxygen satura- the ASME Power Test Code PTC-9 for to meet limitations on ammonia ni- tion in wastewater to that of clean positive-displacement blowers, and the trogen in the effluent, and thus must water is the beta value (ß). Generally, ASME PTC-10 for centrifugal blowers. operate their aeration systems care- for wastewater effluent, a beta value When individual aeration systems fully to ensure that a certain level of of 0.95 to 1.0 is considered ideal. are reviewed for energy-saving oppor- nitrification occurs. Unfortunately, ni- While many facilities opt for fine- tunities, operators often overlook the trification often raises oxygen demand bubble, diffused-aeration systems to fact that, in addition to providing aer- substantially. improve system efficiency, the blowers ation, this equipment provides mixing One way to reduce energy use for fa- used by these systems are often over- to keep solids in suspension. cilities that must nitrify their waste- sized to guarantee a margin of operat- Some facilities have successfully water stream is to create an anoxic ing capacity. They often end up being used a combination of high-efficiency (oxygen-deficient) zone at the head operated at less than 50% of their de- mixers (for instance, those rated at end (inlet) of the aeration basin. This signed capacity, using variable-speed 0.23 hp/1,000 ft3 or more), in conjunc- approach is best applied at plants drives (VSDs) or throttling valves to tion with aeration equipment, to opti- using the activated-sludge process. control air flows in order to maintain mize their overall aeration process. In First, an anoxic zone zone is created a target dissolved-oxygen level on the this scenario, the mixers can be used — typically involving 15% of the total order of 4 to 5 mg/L (the ideal range is during periods when mixing energy aeration tank volume — by reducing closer to 1.5 to 2.0 mg/L). requirements are highest, in order to Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 3516_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 35 12/22/09 1:49:12 PM
    • Table 1. A comparison of energy intensity Table 2. Capital and O&M for three main aeration technologies costs of new equipment required for Proposal 1 Parameters Coarse-bubble Micro diffusers Surface aeration diffusers Item Capital Annual cost, $ cost, $ Specific rate, kg O2/kWh 1 2 Not applicable Compressing 100,000 6,400 kWh/d 5,500 2,750 system Compressed 250,000 16,000 maximize treatment efficiency while •  kg BOD removed requires 1 kg 1 air tank minimizing overall energy demand. of O2 transferred in the biological O&M annual cost 10,000 The activated-sludge process. Ac- treatment process Total annual cost 32,400 tivated-sludge systems involve very •  h/d of off-peak electricity required 8 complex biological processes [4, 5, 6]. •  lectricity costs are: peak at $0.08/ E More than 80% of the energy is con- kWh; off-peak at $0.02/kWh •  ompress air during off peak hours C sumed in the biological aerated reactor •  eration rates are uniform through- A and use it during peak hours (BAR). Oxygen demand within a BAR out the day (24 hours) •  valuate the new energy cost E can be met in various ways, but most •  he process configuration is ex- T •  alculate any added investment and C aeration devices currently being used tended aeration operations and maintenance costs in activated-sludge processes may be •  nvestments are spread over 20 I required to make the upgrades classified as diffused, dispersed, or years, at 5% annual interest rate Use most efficient aeration technol- surface aeration systems. ogy. The advantages of micro-diffusers The process produces effluents with Proposal 1. are shown in Table 1, which compares relatively low levels of carbonaceous Optimize aeration and the energy intensities of the two main organics (characterized as BOD) and oxygen transfer aeration technologies (coarse-bubble suspended solids. At the same time, Today,’s most widely used aeration versus micro-diffusers). however, the excess sludge that is pro- technologies are listed here [7]: Compress air during off-peak duced might yield biogas (CH4 + CO2) Surface aeration uses brush aeration, hours and use it later. To assess the during anaerobic digestion. As dis- horizontal rotation or vertical rotation overall energy cost, the compression cussed below (in Proposal 4), this bio- to force air into the liquid by the genera- energy must first be calculated. Dur- gas may be used to heat the digester, tion of violent turbulence at the surface. ing off- peak hours, the two aspects of to produce steam, to produce electric- Submerged air diffusion uses coarse- compressed air production discussed ity, or to run direct-drive equipment. bubble systems or micro-diffusers to next must be evaluated. This is one big advantage of using an- compress air and transfer it via pipes First, determine the amount of aerobic digestion. to a distribution system installed aeration that is required for the nor- By contrast, aerobic digestion pro- along the bottom of the basin. mal operation of the plant. To do this, cesses do not produce sufficient quan- Experience shows that in most cases, calculate the energy use of continu- tities of biogas to offset fuel or electric- horizontal surface aerators are capa- ous micro-diffuser air supply during ity needs meaningfully. ble of transferring between 1.4 to 1.45 8 hours of off-peak time using the fol- In many regions, electricity costs kg O2 per 1 kWh, while aeration sys- lowing expression: are structured in such a way that tems that rely on brushes are typically usage during peak hours incurs rates able to maintain a ratio of roughly 1.6 2, 750kWh/d that are many times higher than rates to 1.7 kg O2 per 1 kWh [7]. 8off-peakh/d 24 h/d incurred during off-peak periods. This In general, air diffusion systems 917kWh/d creates a strong incentive for opera- may be characterized as coarse (large) tors to devise ways in which power bubble systems, which diffuse air consumption from the grid can be through rather large holes in a distri- Next, calculate the amount of air re- maximized during off-peak periods bution pipe, or micro-diffuser systems, quired for compression to maintain and minimized during peak periods. which produce finer bubbles. Coarse- desired aeration levels during peak Such efforts include attempts to op- bubble systems provide relatively low hours. To do this, calculate the energy timize the selection and use of energy- oxygen transfer rates (on the order of use required for these 16 h/d (assumed intensive aeration devices, process 1 kg O2 per 1 kWh). By comparison, peak-hours operation) , as follows: flow configurations, and biogas utili- the newer micro-diffuser technol- zation, to enable maximum operation ogy produces smaller bubbles, whose 16 kgO 2 during off-peak hours. larger surface area increases the rate 5, 500(kgO 2 /d) 3, 667 To evaluate potential opportunities of oxygen transfer to 2–3 kg O2/kWh. 24 d for reducing energy costs in this way, a sample biological WWTP will be used Peak versus off-peak For micro-diffusers, the common ef- as a case study throughout the bal- air compression ficiency ratio of kg air per kg O2 is ance of this article (Figure 1). To assess the potential impact of taken as 6.7 [7], thus giving a total air General data for this facility are: maximizing air compression during amount of 24,570 kg air. This is the • Flow equals 10,000 m3/d off-peak hours (to capitalize on lower amount of air that needs to be com- • BOD in is 600 mg/L electricity costs), follow these steps: pressed during 8 off-peak hours. • BOD out is 50 mg/L •  se the most efficient aeration tech- U Using Equation (1) [3], the elec- • BOD removed is 5,500 kg/d nology (micro-diffusers) whenever tricity required to produce the above These assumptions were used: possible amount is 250 kW. 36 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201016_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 36 12/22/09 1:49:43 PM
    • Table 3. Comparison between standard-efficiency (SE) Table 4. Capital and O&M motors and energy efficient (EE) motors [9] Costs of New Equipment Motor Purchase cost, $ Efficiency, Annual Simple Required for the Power (hp) % savings pay- Generation Proposal Made in back the Case Study time Item Investment Annual SE EE Difference SE EE kWh $ Years cost, $ cost, $ Gas gen- 250,000 16,000 10a 614 795 181 86.5 91.6 2,103 210 0.86 erator 25a 1,230 1,608 378 88.1 94.2 6,004 600 0.63 Gas holder 70,000 4,480 50a 2,487 3,207 720 90.6 95 9,352 835 0.86 O&M costs for both 10,000 100a 5,756 7,140 1,384 90.7 95.7 18,822 1,882 0.74 Total cost 30,480 200b 11,572 13,369 1,797 94.6 96.1 10,782 1,078 1.67 300b 15,126 18,385 3,259 94.6 96 15,111 1,511 2.16 ularly well-suited for VFDs. For appli- cations where flow requirements vary, Note: Based on 16-h/d operation at 75% load and 0.1 $/kWh. a. Standard-efficiency and premium-efficiency motors from Reliance. the traditional method for modulating b. Energy-saver and standard-efficiency motors from General Electric. flow is to throttle it, using mechanical devices, such as flow-restricting valves as the $40,000/year saving, minus the or moveable air vanes. However, this n ma RT Pout costs added for the extra equipment). approach is akin to driving a car at full P (kW ) 1 Carrying out the same calculation speed while using the brake to control Mair n c Pin  (1) methodology using a coarse-bubble speed — it uses excessive energy and diffuser instead of a micro-diffuser often creates punishing conditions for All terms are defined in the Nomen- system — and hence using a coeffi- the equipment. clature box; values used for the case cient of 1 kg O2/kWh — yields an an- Conversely, VFDs on pump motors study are as follows: nual saving in electricity cost on the allow operators to accommodate fluc- ma = 24,570/8/3,600 = 0.853 order of $80,000, but requires addi- tuating demand over time, running R =  8.314 kJ/k molK tional annual investment and O&M pumps at lower speeds and drawing T = 90 K 2 cost of about $55,000. Thus the net less energy while still meeting pump- MAir = 9.7 kg/kmol 2 energy cost savings is about $25,000 ing needs. WWTP equipped with VFDs n =  0.283 for the first year. can maintain desired dissolved oxygen ηc = .9 0 (DO) concentrations more consistently Pin = 1 atm PROPOSAL 2. over a wide range of flowrates and bio- Pout =  atm 10 USE VARIABLE-FREQUENCY logical loading conditions, by using au- Thus, the total energy shifted from DRIVES (VFDs) tomated controls that link DO sensors peak to off-peak hours is then 250×8 As noted earlier, a VFD is an electronic to VFDs on the aeration blowers. = 2,000 kWh/d. controller that adjusts the speed of an In general, the energy savings re- Aeration energy costs for this facil- electric motor. Most industrial alter- sulting from VFDs can be significant. ity are then calculated as follows: nating-current (a.c.) induction motors Even a small reduction in motor speed For 24-hour aeration are designed to operate with a current (say 20%) can significantly increase 917 kWh/d × $0.02/kWh = $18.34/d that alternates in the direction of flow energy savings (by 50% or more). and 50 or 60 times per second (Hz). If this Any pump motor that does not usu- 1,833 kWh/d × $0.08 $/kWh = frequency of alternation is changed, ally need to be run at full speed can $146.64/d the speed of the motor speed changes. substantially reduce its energy use Total = $18.34/d + $146.64/d = $165/d By controlling the a.c., frequency by using a VFD. For instance, a 25-hp For 8-hour compression during and voltage using a VFD, the operator motor running 23 hours per day at off-peak hours gains more efficient, continuous con- adjusted speeds using a VFD (for in- 917 kWh/d × $0.02/kWh = $18.34/d trol, closely matching motor speed to stance, 2 hours at 100% speed; 8 hours and the specific demands of the work being at 75%; 8 hours at 67%; and 5 hours at 2,000 kWh/d × $0.02/kWh = $40/d performed [8]. And, VFDs offer a “soft 50%) can reduce energy use by 45%. Total = $18.34/d + $40/d = $58.34/d start” capability, ramping up the At $0.10 kWh, this translates to a sav- The simple calculations carried out motor to its desired operating speed ings of $5,374 per year. above show that nearly $107 per day in a more gradual fashion. This helps While the initial cost for VFDs may — totaling $40,000 per year — can be to avoid abrupt starts that can sub- seem expensive, rapid payback is com- saved, simply by compressing the air ject motors to high torque and current mon, and reduced maintenance and during off-peak hours and then using surges — up to 10 times the full load longer equipment life can also contrib- it during peak hours. current. Avoiding surges not only re- ute to overall lifecycle savings. And, Note that this energy-saving proposal duces stress on the motor system, but many utilities offer financial incen- will require the addition of a compres- reduces maintenance and repair costs, tives that can help to WWTP operators sion system and a tank to store com- and extends the motor life, as well. offset up front costs to install VFDs. pressed air. Average capital, operation In recent years, the use of VFDs has However, operators should note that, and maintenance costs for these sys- been growing to reduce energy use as- VFDs are not necessarily well-suited tems are shown in Table 2. As shown, sociated with pumping and aeration for all wastewater-treatment applica- the total, net energy-cost saving for the operations at WWTP — two energy- tions, such as applications where flow first year is about $8,000 (calculated intensive applications that are partic- is relatively constant. Therefore, it is Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 3716_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 37 12/22/09 1:50:18 PM
    • Equation 5: (5) Feature Report important to calculate the potential tion that meets your operating ing wastewater treatment can also benefits for each application based on requirements be used to either generate energy or system variables such as pump size, •  or single-shift operations in ser- F manufacture chemicals that can then variability of flow, and total head [8]. vice for 2,000 h/yr, replace all low- be sold for use external to the plant, or efficiency motors below 30 hp with the biogas stream itself can be sold to Proposal 3. Replace premium-efficiency motors. Con- external parties. motors with energy- sider repairing motors above 30 hp To maximize energy saving associ- efficient ALTERNATIVES •  or two-shift operations running at F ated with biogas capture, two issues Because pumps and blower motors ac- 4,000 h/yr or more, replace all low- must be considered: Maximizing bio- count for 80–90% of the energy costs efficiency motors below 100 hp with gas quantities and optimizing biogas at WWTP, energy-efficient motors can premium-efficiency motors. Con- utilization. Each is discussed below. play a major role in reducing a facil- sider repairing motors above 100 hp Maximizing biogas quantities ity’s operating costs. Although the ini- •  or motors in continuous operation F Suspended solids in wastewater are tial cost of an energy-efficient motor running at 8,760 h/yr or more, re- known to contribute a large part to can be 15–30% higher than that of a place all low-efficiency motors with the total BOD load, yet they also have comparable standard motor, the long- premium-efficiency motors a high capacity for biogas production. term savings usually offset the higher The most common ways to reduce aer- capital cost in two years or less. Over Proposal 4. MAXIMIZE ation energy costs while maximizing a lifetime, the energy costs to operate THE PRODUCTION AND USE biogas are listed below [10]: a continuous-duty standard motor are OF biogas as a fuel Primary settling. Properly designed 10–20 times higher than the original Anaerobic digestion is one of the most primary settling ponds can reduce in- motor price [8]. widely used processes for stabilizing fluent BOD by as much as 35%, which Use the following formulas to calcu- biosolids during wastewater treat- creates a direct 35% reduction in the late the annual energy savings (AES) ment. The process involves the decom- aeration requirements. Using anaero- and simple payback — that is, the position of the organic constituents of bic digestion, the reduced BOD load time required for the savings from the the biosolids via bacteria that thrive can be converted into biogas at a con- investment to equal the initial cost — in the absence of oxygen. Apart from servative conversion ratio of 0.4 m3 that can result from selecting a more- residual solids, the main products of biogas per 1 kg of BOD removed. As efficient motor. anaerobic digestion are water and a noted earlier, the main constituents of biogas stream composed of methane, WWTP biogas are methane (60%–70%) 100 100 carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and and CO2 (30%–40%), thus the caloric AES ( E)( HPS)( LF )( hrs) Estd Eee other minor gaseous compounds. value of 1 m3 of biogas is 5,000–6,000  (2) This biogas has a heat value of kcal. To be conservative, we use 5,000 ACS = (AES)(Ur) (3) roughly 20.5 MJ/m3 — about 60% of kcal for our case study. the heat value of natural gas. Where Secondary settling. During aerobic SP = IC/ACS (4) applicable (in accordance with site- digestion, the sludge that settles in Table 3 provides a comparison between specific requirements or restrictions), secondary settling ponds is already some common standard-efficiency mo- biogas may be used as a fuel source, partly digested. However, these bio- tors and energy-efficient motors. Not either off-site or within the plant, solids still have substantial value for surprisingly, the table shows that to improve the energy efficiency of additional biogas production (which, energy-efficient motors often pay for wastewater-treatment processes. as noted earlier, is about 0.1 m3 biogas themselves over time. The most easily adaptable in-plant per 1 kg of BOD digested). Rebuilding (also called rewinding) uses for biogas are as a primary or To demonstrate these numbers re- an electric motor involves replacing backup fuel for general process heat- lated to our case study, we assume the the internal components. Although ing, for space heating and cooling, for following: failed motors can usually be rewound powering engines used to drive equip- BOD removed during primary set- as existing components age, it is often ment directly and engines coupled tling is 5,500 kg BOD/d × 0.35 (be- worthwhile to eventually replace with generators to drive equipment cause primary settling can reduce damaged motors, and this provides remotely, and for powering engines influent BOD by as much as 35%) = a good opportunity to install newer coupled with generators to produce 1,925 kg BOD/d. Using the conversion energy-efficient models. Here are a general-purpose electrical power. At ratio 0.4 m3 biogas per 1 kg of BOD few rules-of-thumb to consider when the WWTP, byproduct biogas can also removed, this is converted into about deciding whether to rewind a motor or be captured to offset the fuel require- 770 m3 of biogas with a caloric value purchase a new one: ments for solids incinerators, boilers of 3,850,000 kcal/d. •  eplace an existing premium motor R used for the pasteurization of digested Thus, in our case study, the biogas if the repair cost is more than 60% of biosolids, and gas-fired biosolids dry- produced from the digestion of second- the cost of a new one ers that are often used as part of the ary sludge can be calculated this way: •  or intermittent- or low-usage ap- F wastewater-treatment train. (5,500-1,925) kg BOD/d × 0.1 m3 bio- plications, use the lowest-cost op- In general, biogas generated dur- gas/kg BOD = 357.5 m3 biogas per day. 38 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201016_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 38 12/22/09 1:51:16 PM
    • Effluent E1 Effluent E1 streams streams T1 effluent streams, °C Effluent effluent streams, °C E2 CT E2 CT composite Temperature of Temperature of curve E3 E3 T2 A. Centralized cooling system B. Distributed cooling system T3 Tenv FIGURE 2. When a centralized cooling approach that will experi- ence energy losses by mixing effluent streams with low tempera- tures (shown in Figure 2a) cannot be avoided, a distributed cool- Disposable heat, kW Disposable heat, kW ing system (shown in Figure 2b) should be considered to reduce energy losses FIGURE 3. A key aspect of the ODEC process is the construction of the effluent profile composite This amount has an equivalent energy According to this proposal, the curves. These curves are necessary to identify the value of 1,787,500 kcal/d. facility can generate 200 kW in maximum and minimum limitations for the flowrate Accordingly, the whole potential 10 hours during peak periods — of the inlet stream to the cooling tower (the feasible of biogas generation in this WWTP representing 200 kWh it does not region). The optimum flowrate for the inlet stream to is about 5,637,500 kcal/d, which is need to buy from the national the cooling tower should be found in this feasible region in Stage 3 roughly equivalent to 6,556 kWh/d. grid at a rate of 0.08$/kWh. At $160/d, this saves $58,400/yr. T (°C) General-purpose power gen As shown in Table 4, the T1 Min. flowrate The efficient capture and use of by- cost to operate the power Effluent effluent streams, °C without product biogas will require greater system in the plant will be Tout,min composite evaporate Temperature of curve loss effect use of general-purpose power-gener- $30,480/yr, so the net benefit ation systems right at the facility to is $58,400–$30,480=$27,920 TPinch Min. flowrate make best use of the byproduct biogas. (rounded to $28,000) per year. with evaporate T2 loss effect If systems are designed properly, bio- Tenv gas production from WWTP involving Proposal 5. Design Max. flowrate Tout,min secondary treatment can be sufficient a distributed efflu- TWS to provide up to 60–80% (or more) of ent-cooling system the facility’s total power needs. At most WWTP, temperature Disposable heat, kW In our case study, the production of restrictions often call for a cool- 6,556 kWh/d energy that results from ing system to be used to make FIGURE 4. Once the effluent composite curve has been identified, users can identify feasible maximizing biogas generation can be the streams suitable for dis- operational boundaries for designing the distrib- converted to electricity using a gas en- charge to regional waterways uted cooling system gine with 32% efficiency. Accordingly, (such as rivers, lakes, estuaries from this value, 2,000 kWh/d of elec- or coastal water). Desired tempera- By contrast, a distributed cooling tricity can be generated (which could ture reductions can be accomplished system (such as that shown in Figure be supplied to the plant as 200 kW of by simply installing cooling equip- 2b) should be considered as another electricity per hour for each 10-h oper- ment and cooling all effluent streams way to improve the energy efficiency ation and most cost-effectively be used prior to discharge. However, this can of the WWTP. Using this approach, to offset power consumption from the be expensive and inefficient. some nof the effluent streams are grid during peak hours). The invest- For most WWTP facilities, the abil- sent to the cooling tower while oth- ments cost for the gas engine is about ity to design a distributed cooling sys- ers bypass it. Downstream of the cool- $250,000. tem (one in which the various effluent ing tower, all streams are eventually In some locations, it is also possible to streams are partially treated by the blended, so that the final stream is sell this electricity back to the grid. Be- cooling tower, to achieve the same end at a temperature that is suitable for cause biogas production tends to vary result), allows for a smaller cooling discharge. This allows for the use of a throughout the course of a day, it is a tower to be used, compared to what is smaller cooling tower and lower en- good idea to buffer biogas by the use of required for a conventional, central- ergy costs without compromising the a gas holder (a vessel that allows opera- ized effluent-cooling system. This has final discharge temperature. tors to collect biogas as it is produced favorable capital and operating cost The new Optimum Design method of but use it at a predictable rate). To han- implications. a distributed Effluent Cooling (ODEC) dle the 1,130 m3/d of biogas produced in Reducing the temperature of efflu- system provides a systematic approach the case study (that is, the summation ent streams prior to discharge often for identifying the most cost-efficient of 375.5 m3/h biogas produced from the relies on a centralized cooling ap- way to cool effluent streams of varying digestion of secondry sludge plus the proach, whereby all streams are sim- temperatures at a WWTP to meet the 770 m3/h of biogas produced from the ply passed through a cooling tower target discharge temperature, with- reduced BOD load during primary set- (Figure 2a). In this approach, the cool- out wasting energy by simply cooling tling), a 600-m3 gas holder, in which ing tower must be large because the them all uniformly. Using the ODEC more than 12 hours of biogas produc- flowrate of the blended inlet stream methodology, the optimum distributed tion could be buffered, would be appro- is high and the temperature driving cooling system is identified in five priate. The cost related to the installa- force for cooling is low. This approach stages. During the first stage, an ef- tion of a 600-m3, double-membrane gas also has high energy requirements for fluent composite curve is constructed, holder is about $70,000 (Table 4 ). pumps and air blowers. such as that shown in Figure 3 [11]. Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 3916_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 39 12/22/09 1:51:44 PM
    • Table 5. Effluent Stream Data Used for Optimum Design of the Effluent Cooling System in the Feature Report Start Case Study Effluent Flowrate, kg/s Temperature, °C Water and air 1 83.33 60 conditions The cooling load requirements of in- FIGURE 5. 2 83.33 45 dividual effluent streams are graphi- Achieving an Assume Z 3 111.11 32 optimum cooling cally represented on a plot of tempera- tower design re- ture versus disposable heat, as shown quires an iterative Calculate ma in Figure 3a. All effluent streams calculation, fol- are combined into a single composite lowing the logic Calculate ha1,out T = Z + dZ curve by summing individual effluent shown here No disposable heat loads within the same Assume Ta,out temperature intervals (Figure 3b). Calculate ha2,out Yes Adjust Ta,out Tw,out – Tw,out, Calc Calculate During the second stage, the feasi- Acr ble region is identified. The goal is to design the distributed cooling system No Yes ha1,out – ha2,out that minimizes the overall cost to re- Calc. Ti, dTw ,Tw,out Stop duce effluent temperatures. First, the dz optimum flowrate for the inlet stream to the cooling tower must be defined, Equation 13: and maximum and minimum limita- tion should be identified, to create the “feasible region” (Figure 4). The maximum flowrate for the inlet (13) stream to the cooling tower is the sum- mation of the flowrates of all effluent streams. This maximum amount is During the final stage of the ODEC Changes in the air-humidity ratio the upper boundary of the feasible re- methodology, the cooling tower is de- and the saturated-humidity ratio, gion. The lower portion of the feasible signed to meet the targeted tempera- both of which are a function of water region is the minimum flowrate of the tures and flowrate conditions of all temperature, vary from the top to bot- inlet stream to the cooling tower that inlet and outlet streams. tom inside the tower and are given by can provide the allowable discharge As discussed below, the operating Equations (8) and (9): temperature to the environment after cost and the capital cost of the cooling mixing with the bypassed effluent tower have a different impact on the streams. overall cost of the distributed cooling  (8) In the third stage, the optimum system [12], so efforts to design a dis- flowrate of the inlet stream to the cool- tributed cooling system will require ing tower is determined by exploring operators to reconcile tradeoffs be- the feasible area that was identified tween these two costs.  (9) during the second stage. The total cost of the cooling tower, Once the optimum flowrate of inlet as the objective function, is expressed For the air-water system, heat and stream to the cooling tower has been in Equation (5) [13] (Box, p. 38). mass transfer coefficients are repre- indentified, the modified cooling net- sented as a function of air and water work is designed (in the fourth stage of Cooling tower design model flowrates. The related coefficients are the ODEC methodology) to achieve the In a countercurrent, wet cooling tower, given in Equations (10–12) [14]: target overall temperature reduction. the process typically consists of a gas In the fourth stage, we need to use phase (air) flowing upward and a liq-  (10) the “grouping rules” (first introduced uid phase (water) flowing downward, by Kim in 2001 [11]), which state that with the tower internals creating a  (11) the temperature related to the conflu- large interface between these two ence of the effluent composite curve phases. The rate of energy transferred  (12) and the cooling tower supply line from the water is equal to the rate of should be considered. According to the energy gained by air (Equation 6): The optimum heat and mass trans- rules, all effluent streams with tem- fer area can be calculated by Equation peratures above this amount should (13) [13]. (See the box above for Equa-  (6) be sent to the cooling tower, while the tion 13.) ones with lower temperatures should The air flowrate of the tower can be The optimum cross-sectional area is bypass the cooling tower entirely. Fi- determined using Equation (7) (using given by Equation 14: nally the effluents with temperature a known water flowrate that is deter- equal to that temperature should be mined in the third stage):  (14) entered to the cooling tower partly to achieve the targeted flowrate for the  (7) It is assumed that the cooling tower inlet stream to the cooling tower. frontal area and cross-sectional area 40 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201016_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 40 12/22/09 1:52:17 PM
    • Table 6. Comparison of design parameters and costs for the conventional design method & ODEC Design Flowrate, Inlet tempera- Outlet tempera- Operating cost, Capital cost, Total cost, method kg/s ture, °C ture, °C k$/yr k$/yr k$/yr Conventional 277.77 44.31 30 45.52 41.79 87.31 ODEC 169.00 51.07 27.55 31.51 30.31 61.82 Total cost cost. Efforts to determine the op- 63 60°C 83.33 kg/s timum water flowrate must con- 5.89 kg/s 53 sider this tradeoff. The optimum Cost, k$/yr Operating cost cooling line (which achieves the 43 169 lowest total cost) will be one that 33 45°C kg/s is located between the maximum Capital cost 83.33 kg/s and minimum flowrates. 23 Packing Table 6 compares design pa- 13 137 157 177 197 217 237 2.34 kg/s rameters and costs for a cen- 163.11 kg/s Flowrate, kg/s tralized cooling system and one FIGURE 6. Overall cost impact of the 32°C 30°C designed using the ODEC meth- 111.11 kg/s 108.77 kg/s odology. distributed cooling system (in terms of both capital and O&M requirements) To achieve the targeted cooling- as a function of water flowrate. These FIGURE 7. Shown here is the optimum ef- tower supply flowrate, Effluent 1 relationships indicate that optimum fluent network determined by the ODEC, on and Effluent 2 streams should water flowrate will require making a the basis of the modified grouping design rules identified during the analysis be passed through the cooling tradeoff between capital costs and operating costs tower completely and the Efflu- ent 3 stream should be partially will be roughly equal. If the design •  he eliminator characteristic is cooled and partially bypassed. Figure T is for a rectangular cooling tower, the 2.8 × 105 m–1 7 shows the optimum effluent network frontal area is given by Equation (15): •  he eliminator friction coefficient produced with the ODEC on the basis T is 4.6 of the modified grouping design rules.  (15) • The operating period is 8,600 h/yr To achieve the optimum cooling tower •  he environmental temperature Conclusion T design, an iterative calculation is re- discharge limit is 30°C The ability to maximize energy savings quired, as shown in Figure 5. • The wet-bulb temperature is 20°C plays an important role in the reduction •  he minimum approach tempera- of overall wastewater-treatment costs. T Illustrative example ture is 5ºC Engineers should identify available en- Using the effluent streams whose data Figure 6 shows the effect of water ergy-saving approaches during the de- are shown in Table 5, the following ex- flowrate on the capital and operating sign phase and collaborate with plant ample illustrates the optimum design costs of the distributed cooling system. staff to evaluate, select and implement of the effluent-cooling system, using As shown, tradeoffs are often incurred. the most appropriate strategies. the proposed ODEC design method. For instance, an increase in the flow- The options discussed here can help The following parameters were used: rate may reduce the cooling tower operators to keep their energy costs to • The electricity cost is 0.08 $/kWh capital cost but increase the operating a minimum, helping to reduce WWTP- related energy costs to 50% of the ini- References 10. Otterlo, J.W.H., and Graaf, J.H.J.M., Practical experience with power generation at wastewa- tial value (that is, values on the order 1. Ingildsen, P. and Olsson, G., “Get More Out ter treatment plants in the Netherlands, Pro- of 0.2 –0.3 kWh/m3, or a cost reduction of Your Wastewater Treatment Plant,” ISBN ceedings, Energy Savings in Water Pollution 87-87411-01-6, Danfoss Analytical, 2001. Control, IAWPRC, September, Paris, 1983. of $0.016/m3 of wastewater). ■ 2. Kemira, “Handbok i Vattenvård,” Divisionen 11. Kim, J., Savalescu, L., and Smith, R., Design Edited by Suzanne Shelley Vattenvård, Kemira Kemi AB, Helsingborg, of cooling systems for eIuent temperature 1998. reduction, Chem. Eng. Sci., 56: 1811–1830, 3. Perry, H.J., “Chemical Engineers’ Handbook,” 2001. Author McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950. 12. Prasad, M., Economic up gradation and opti- Abtin Ataei is an Assistant 4. Alex, J., Ogurek, M., and Jumar, U., Simu- mal use of multi-cell cross flow evaporative Professor in the Graduate lation of energy consumption in wastewa- water cooling tower through modular perfor- School of the Environment ter treatment, The 2nd IWA Conference in mance, Applied Thermal Eng., 24:579–593, and Energy, Science and Instrumentation, Control and Automation, 2004. Research Branch of I. Azad Busan, Korea, 2005. University (I.A.U.; Danesh- 13. Söylemez, M.S., On the optimum sizing of gah Blvd., Ashrafi Esfahani 5. Copp, J.B., The COST Simulation Bench- cooling towers, Energy Conservation and Ave., Ponak Square, P.O. Box: mark, Office for Official Publications of the Mgt., 42:783–789. 2001. 14515-775, Tehran, Iran; European Communities, Luxembourg, 2002. 14. Ataei, A., Panjeshahi, M.H., Gharaie, M., Tel: +98-912-4383885, Fax: 6. Hammer, M., “Waste and Wastewater Tech- Performance Evaluation of Counter-Flow +98-21-44465383; Email: a- nology,” 5th edition, ISBN 0-13-097325-4, Wet Cooling Towers Using Exergetic Analy- ataei@hotmail.com). He holds Prentice Hall, 2004. sis, Transactions of the Canadian Society for M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in energy engineering Mechanical Eng., 32:499–511, 2008. from the Science and Research Branch of I.A.U. 7. Kadar, Y., and Siboni, G., Optimization of en- Prior to joining the faculty of I.A.U. in 2003, he ergy economy in the design and operation of 15. Panjeshahi, M.H., Ataei, A., Gharaie, M., Parand, R., Optimum design of cooling water was a consultant for several Iranian sugar fac- wastewater treatment plants, 17th Congress tories, a senior researcher at Sharif Energy Re- of the World Energy Council, Texas, Septem- systems for energy and water conservation, Chem. Eng. Research & Design, 87:200–209, search Institute at Sharif University of Technol- ber 1998. ogy (Tehran). He has published more than 80 2009. 8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, research papers in Iranian and international sci- Wastewater Management Fact Sheet (En- 16. Coulson, J. M. and Richardson, J. F., “Chemi- entific journals and congresses. Recently, he was ergy Conservation), Office of Water, EPA- cal engineering: Fluid flow, heat transfer and a post-doctoral researcher in the Green Energy 832-F-06-024, 2006. mass transfer,” Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1996. Center, Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Col- 9. U.S. Department of Environmental Protec- 17. Kröger, D. G., “Air-cooled heat exchangers lege of Engineering, Kyung Hee University (South tion, Bureau of Land & Water Quality, O&M and cooling towers,” PennWell Corp. Okla- Korea), researching energy and water-minimiza- Newsletter, 2002. homa, 2004. tion techniques in the process industries. Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 4116_CHE_010110_SAS.indd 41 12/22/09 1:52:49 PM
    • Engineering Practice Feature Report Pressure Relief Requirement During External Pool-Fire Contingency Santosh Arvind Katkar Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. A practical overview of the important factors R elief system design is an im- that need to be considered when designing portant engineering activity throughout the chemical pro- a pressure relief system cess industries (CPI). The main purpose of this task is to design a sys- Codes and standards Relieving temperature is the tem- tem that protects process equipment The most important codes, standards perature at the inlet of the pressure re- and piping against all possible causes and recommended practices that pro- lief device during relieving conditions. of overpressure. It should relieve the vide basic information on relief system Effective fire height is the height up excess pressure safely so as to protect design are as follows: to which the area is to be considered personnel working in the facility from •  PI STD 520 Part I: Sizing, selec- A for fire exposure. This is based on the accidents, prevent damage to equip- tion, and installation of pressure- assumption that flames of a pool fire ment and adjoining property, and com- relieving devices in refineries are not likely to impinge for long dura- ply with government regulations. •  PI RP 520 Part II: Sizing, selection, A tions above this height. The principle causes of overpres- and installation of pressure-reliev- Fire zone is an area of the process sure and guidance of plant design to ing devices in refineries plant where fire is assumed to be pre- minimize the effect of these causes •  NSI/API STD 521: Pressure-reliev- A vailing at one instance. That means all are discussed in-depth in API STD ing and depressuring systems equipment in this area are assumed to 521 [1]. Among these causes, the ex- •  PI STD 2000: Venting atmospheric A be engulfed by fire at once. ternal pool fire is a contingency that and low-pressure storage tanks is very complex and dynamic in na- •  IERS Technology: Emergency D Fire case consideration ture. (A pool fire is a turbulent diffu- relief-system design using DIERS Considering the significant damage sion fire burning above a horizontal (Design Institute of Emergency Re- caused by fires, designing each pressure pool of vaporizing hydrocarbon fuel lief System) Technology [2] relief system for the fire contingency is where the fuel has zero or low initial •  FPA 30: Flammable and combus- N a must. However, based on engineering momentum.) Although it is very diffi- tible liquids code practices, fire contingency can be omit- cult to cover every aspect of this con- In addition to these, other API, ASME, ted in some of following circumstances: tingency, important aspects are pre- NFPA and OSHA standards, codes as •  hen equipment is not located in or W sented in this article for non-reactive well as local codes are also used in re- adjacent to areas containing flam- systems. Reactive systems are beyond lief system design. mable chemicals the scope of this article and interested Most process engineers base their •  hen equipment is located above a W readers should refer to DIERS Meth- relief-system calculations on API stan- certain level from the grade or plat- odology [2]. A sample calculation and dards and recommended practices. form where potential accumulation modeling results using commercial Guidelines and equations from these of flammable liquid may occur. Ac- software are also presented at the standards are referred to in this article, cording to API STD 521 [1] this level end of this article. but no attempt is made to cover each is 7.6 m (25 ft) whereas according to design situation or confirm any design NFPA [4] this level is 9.14 m (30 ft) Background standard or recommended practice. •  hen heat input from fire is insuf- W Relief system design involves enor- ficient to vaporize the liquid in the mous efforts by process engineers who Important definitions equipment within the reasonable need to refer to all major engineer- The definitions of important terms amount of time required for correc- ing documents [such as process flow used in this article are as follows: tive actions by operators diagrams (PFDs), piping and instru- Relieving pressure is the pressure •  hen equipment can be emptied W mentation diagrams (P&IDs), heat at the inlet of the pressure-relief de- safely when such fire occurs and material balance and layout] as vice during relieving conditions and well as applicable codes, practices and is equal to the sum of the valve set Assumptions standards. Among the tasks involved pressure and the overpressure. Refer The exact behavior of the system im- are the design of pressure relief de- to API STD 520 Part I [3] to deter- pacted by an external pool fire is very vices, inlet-outlet piping, knockout mine the relieving pressure during complex and is dependent upon vari- drums, flares and vent stacks. present contingency. ous factors, such as plant operation, 42 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201017_CHE_010110_EP1.indd 42 12/22/09 10:31:26 AM
    • Table 1. Effective Wetted Surface Area Nomenclature Type of No. equipment Wetted Surface Area Remark Q  Heat input during external pool Liquid full fire, W 1 Total vessel surface area up to effective fire height - vessels F Environmental factor 2 Surge drums 50% of total vessel surface area Note 1 Aws Wetted surface area, m2 Knockout Notes 1 k  Thermal conductivity of insulation 3 25% of total vessel surface area drums and 2 at mean temperature, W/mK Surface area based on high liquid level in bottom Tf  Temperature of vessel contents at Tray 4 plus surface area corresponding to liquid holdup of - relieving temperature, °C columns each tray up to effective fire height dins Thickness of insulation, m Surface area based on high liquid level in bottom W Relief rate, kg/h Packed 5 plus surface area occupied by packing up to effec- - l Latent heat of vaporization, J/kg column tive fire height M  Molecular weight of fluid, kg/kmol Greater of the wetted area is equal to 75% of the P1 Relieving pressure (bara) Horizontal 6 total surface area or the surface area up to a   Pn Normal operating pressure, bara tanks height of 9.14 m above grade A’ Exposed surface area, m2 Vertical Total surface area of the vertical shell to a height of Tw  Recommended maximum wall tem- 7 Note 3 tanks 9.14 m (30 ft) above grade perature of vessel, K Greater of the wetted area equal to 55% of the total T1 Relieving temperature, K Spheres and 8 surface area or the surface area up to a height of - Tn Normal operating temperature, K spheroids 9.14 m (30 ft) above grade. s Surface tension, kg/s2 Safety valve on shell side: Surface area of ex- g Gravitational constant, m/s2 Shell-and- changer based on higher liquid volume fraction in Note 5 tube heat rL Density of liquid, kg/m3 9 shell side within effective fire height rV Density of gas, kg/m3 exchangers (Note 4) Safety valve on tube side: Surface area of channel Ue  Kutateladze entrainment velocity, Note 6 heads m/s Bare area of tubes within the effective fire height h Free board height, m Air Coolers plus projected area of tube bundle (only for in- 10 Note 8 (Note 7) duced draft type units) for tubes above effective fire height recommended by API STD 521 [1] Notes: for environmental factors used in 1. If level is controlled consider surface area up to effective fire height. 2. If no liquid inventory, then should be treated as gas filled vessel. the equations to determine the heat 3. Wetted area in contact with foundations or ground need not to be considered. load due to fire 4.  resent contingency to be considered for shell-and-tube heat exchangers depending upon their P likelihood of getting blocked-in. •  redit for insulation can only be C 5. No credit generally taken for heat removal from tube side. taken if the insulation is a fire- 6. Any additional heat gain from shell side fluid also needs to be considered in calculations. 7.  nly for liquid cooling and condensing services where liquid in not likely to drain in fire O proofing insulation that meets cer- contingency. 8.  or air coolers since fins are destroyed within the first few minutes of exposure to fire, bare tube F tain criteria (discussed below) area is to be considered in calculations. Relief load calculation fire detection philosophy, shutdown (2,500 to 5,000 ft2), as recommended Equipment containing liquids or gases procedure, fire-fighting system and so by API STD 521 [1] will behave differently under the ef- on. Even though these topics are cov- •  ll of the relief valves in one par- A fect of fire. Equipment containing liq- ered in standards and codes, there are ticular fire zone are assumed to re- uids with a “reasonable” boiling point some conflicts in them and, moreover, lieve at the same time and at their has the benefit of a good heat-transfer they cannot cover all situations in de- maximum relieving flowrates. This rate between the equipment walls and tail. However, based on these standards is an important assumption during the contained liquid, resulting in a and engineering experiences, the fol- sizing calculations for relief-system slow temperature rise at the walls. On lowing assumptions can be considered discharge piping the other hand, for the equipment con- in order to simplify the procedure to •  he amount of heat absorbed by T taining gases, vapors or supercritical determine the pressure relief load: equipment exposed to fire will de- fluids, there will be a poor heat-trans- •  ach piece of equipment engulfed E pend on many factors, such as type fer rate between the equipment walls in the fire is assumed to be isolated, of fuel, equipment shape and size, and the contained fluid, which results which means all heat and material fire proofing and so on. However, in a very rapid temperature rise of inputs and outputs are assumed heat input will be determined from equipment walls. Therefore, separate to be stopped. This assumption empirical correlations that are based procedures are to be followed to deter- is based on the general plant op- on test runs by applicable standards mine the fire case relief loads for these erational practice to shut down the •  ince depressurizing systems and S different situations. plant whenever fire is detected procedures can fail in the event of a •  he area exposed for fire is consid- T fire, no credit for such system is rec- Equipment containing liquid ered the only area of equipment that ommended during sizing the relief The following procedure is adopted for is within the effective fire height device for fire contingency determining the relief loads for equip- •  otential external fire is assumed to P •  imilarly, an effective water del- S ment containing liquids: occur in only one particular fire zone uge system depends on many fac- 1. Determination of wetted area. •  n the absence of any governing fac- I tors, such as freezing weather, high All empirical equations used to de- tors, such as design and installa- winds, clogged systems, reliable termine the heat absorption rate are tion of a process facility, a fire zone water supply and equipment sur- based on the wetted surface area, Aws, area is assumed to be 230 to 460 m2 face conditions. Hence, no credit is exposed to fire. As a general practice, Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 4317_CHE_010110_EP1.indd 43 12/22/09 10:32:07 AM
    • Equations for calculating heat absorption rate I. Equipment with design pressure greater than 1.034 barg (15 psig) Table 2. Environmental Factors A. For equipment with adequate drainage Sr. Insulation conduc- Type of equipment Factor and fire fighting facility no. tance, W/m2K 1 Bare Vessel / Tank   1.0 Q = 43, 200 ⋅ F ⋅ Aws82 0.  (1) 22.7 0.3 B. For equipment without adequate drain- 2 Insulated vessel / tank 11.4 0.15 age and fire fighting facility 5.7 0.075 Q = 70, 900 ⋅ F ⋅ Aws82 0. 3 Water Spray - 1  (2) 4 Depressurization and emptying facility - 1 Adequate drainage facility here can be defined as the facility that shall be able to 5 Earth covered storage - 0.03 carry the flammable/combustible liquid and 6 Below Grade Storage - 0 firewater away from the equipment. Ad- equate fire fighting facility can be defined Table 3. for tanks without weak roof-to-shell attachments as the facility that shall be activated as soon Wetted surface area, m2 Design pressure, barg Heat input, W as the fire begins. Aws < 18.6 ≤ 1.034 Q = 63,150Aws The environmental factor F in equations above and hereafter is the credit factor pri- 18.6 ≤ Aws ≤ 93 ≤ 1.034 Q =224 200Aws0.566 marily for fire proofing insulation and not 93 ≤ Aws < 260 ≤ 1.034 Q = 630,400Aws0.338 for general thermal insulation. The general 260 ≤ Aws Between 0.07 and 1.034 Q =43,200Aws0.82 thermal insulation is destroyed by combus- 260 ≤ A ≤ 0.07 Q = 4,129,700 ws tion during first few minutes of exposure to fire. The fire proofing insulation, however, is Table 4. For single-wall refrigerated storage tanks such that it meets the following criteria: Wetted surface area, m2 Design pressure, barg Heat input, W •  unctions effectively up to the approximate F Aws < 18.6 ≤ 1.034 Q = 63,150Aws temperature of fire for up to two hours •  hall not be dislodged by fire fighting 18.6 ≤ Aws < 93 S ≤ 1.034 Q = 224,200Aws0.566 streams 93 ≤ Aws < 260 ≤ 1.034 Q = 630,400Aws0.338 Table 2 is quick reference for environmental 260 ≤ Aws ≤ 1.034 Q = 43,200Aws0.82 factors to be used based on API STD 521 [1]. Equation (3) is based on thermal con- ductivity and thickness of insulation can be used to determine the able about them in literature. During early stages of fire, heat gain environmental factor. will be utilized for expansion of vapors between the walls. It will take several hours for vaporization of liquid in these tanks.  F= ( k ⋅ 904 − Tf ) (3) 66, 570 ⋅ δins III. Air Coolers  As suggested by API STD 521 [1] the following equations are to be used for air coolers in liquid cooling service. II. Equipment having design pressure from A. For air coolers with adequate drainage and fire fighting vacuum to 1.034 barg (15 psig) facility A. For non-refrigerated aboveground tanks i. For tanks with weak roof-to-shell attachment: These tanks do Q = 43,200 ⋅ Aws  (4) not require any emergency venting as roof to shell connection fails preferentially to any other joints. B. For air coolers without adequate drainage and fire fighting ii. For tanks without weak roof-to-shell attachment: The equa- facility tions in Table 3 can be used, depending on wetted surface area and design pressure. Q = 70,900 ⋅ Aws  (5) B. Refrigerated aboveground and belowground tanks i. For single-wall refrigerated storage tanks: The equations in Due to the large surface area of air coolers, their heat-absorption Table 4 can be used, depending on the wetted surface area and rates are very large resulting in the requirement of extremely large design pressure. fire-case relief load. This is the reason process engineers employ ii. For double-wall refrigerated storage tanks: Fire case analysis the other means of mitigating the fire relief for them, such as loca- of such tanks is very complex and very little information is avail- tion and an automatic water-deluge system.  ❏ API STD 521 [1] guidelines can be used corresponding to larger diameter pipes [1] are for pressure equipment, and to determine the wetted surface area. associated with process equipment or equations mentioned in API STD 2000 Table 1 is a consolidated guideline for 10–15% of the calculated wetted area [7] are for atmospheric and low pres- wetted surface area to be considered, is to be considered in calculating the sure tanks. The box above provides a based on available Refs. [1, 5 and 6] total wetted surface area for fire. summary of the key equations based and engineering practices. Engineer- 2. Determination of heat absorp- on the API standard. ing judgment, however, will be needed tion rate. Various empirical equations 3. Determination of latent heat of by the design engineers in evaluating to calculate the heat absorption rate, vaporization. Before determining the surface area exposed to fire. Q, are available in the literature; the the final relief rate, the engineer has Since the associated liquid-filled appropriate equation based on appli- the important task of determining the piping will also contribute to vapor cable conditions needs to be used. The latent heat of vaporization of the con- generation, either the surface area equations mentioned in API STD 521 tained liquid. 44 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201017_CHE_010110_EP1.indd 44 12/22/09 10:32:45 AM
    • Engineering Practice For equipment containing a single 4. Determination of relief rate. After calculated by following equation. component liquid, the latent heat determining the of heat input, Q, the of vaporization can be easily deter- relief rate, W, can be easily calculated P  T1 =  P  ⋅ Tn 1 mined based on relieving conditions. based on following simple equation:   (8)  n The relieving conditions are the re- W = 3, 600 ⋅ Q (6) lieving pressure and corresponding λ Equipment that is internally insulated boiling temperature. and contains a single phase (above However, for vessels containing Equipment containing gases, critical point) at relieving conditions multi-component liquids, determin- vapors or supercritical fluids has to be treated in the same manner ing an accurate value of latent heat As mentioned above, the heat trans- as the equipment containing gases. of vaporization is quite difficult. For fer between equipment walls and the such vessels, composition of liquid and contained fluid is very poor when the Equipment containing vapor changes as the lighter fractions contained fluid is a gas, vapor or su- low liquid inventory evaporate early during fire. Relief rate percritical fluid. This results in a very Low-liquid-inventory equipment can — and ultimately the relief device size rapid temperature rise in the equip- be defined as the equipment in which calculation that is based on initial ment walls causing equipment failure all the contained liquid could vapor- latent heat and other physical prop- due to heat stress even before the in- ize within 15 to 20 min. If the vessel erties — is not always conservative, ternal pressure reaches the set pres- pressure when the last drop of liquid so a time-dependent model is recom- sure of a pressure-relief safety valve. vaporizes is less than the device set mended by API STD 521 [1]. Section 5.15.4.1 of API STD 521 [1] pressure, then the relief load to be With computer simulation programs clearly indicates that the pressure re- considered is based on the procedure readily available to today’s process de- lief device does not provide sufficient for gas filled equipment. However, if sign engineers, latent heat of vapor- protection from equipment rupture. the vessel pressure when the last drop ization can be easily and accurately The other means of protection for such of liquid vaporizes is more than relief determined if proper care is taken vessels are as follows [1 and 13]: device set pressure, the relief load to during the use of these programs. •  ooling the equipment surface by a C be considered will be the maximum of Further information on getting con- water-water deluge system relief load calculated based on consid- servative properties, including latent •  roviding automatic vapor depres- P ering liquid filled or gas filled vessel. heat of vaporization with step-by step surizing systems Refs. [13 and 14] can be consulted for a vaporization, can be found in Refs. •  ocating equipment such as to elim- L more detailed description and the re- [6 and 15]. One simplified and fairly inate or reduce the effect of fire quired equations for such vessels. conservative approach is to determine •  nstalling external fire-proofing I the relief device area, considering that insulation Equipment containing the vessel is filled with a single com- •  sing reliable fire-monitoring system U high boiling liquids ponent each time, and selecting the and a rapid-action fire-fighting team This equipment behaves similar to maximum relief area among them. Even though it is unlikely that a that containing gases, and a pressure This approach is widely used for mul- pressure relief device will protect the relief device is not likely to provide tipurpose vessels typically used in equipment, the empirical equation to sufficient protection from equipment pharmaceutical industries. determine the relief rate as suggested rupture. In order to protect equipment In case computer simulation pro- by API STD 521 [1] for this type of in this situation, the design tempera- grams are not available, Figure A.1. equipment is as follows: ture must be higher than the boiling from API STD 521 [1] can be used for  1.25  temperature of the contained liquid at single component paraffins, mixtures W = 2.77 ⋅ MP1 ⋅  A′ ⋅ (Tw − T1 )  relieving pressure. This is very rare, of paraffins that have slightly different   T11.1506  (7) and hence, other means of protection   relative molecular weights, isomer hy- need to be used, as discussed above drocarbons, aromatic compounds and This equation is modified to suit the for gas filled equipment. The relieving cyclic compounds. The vapor pressure unit system used in this article and capacities, however, are determined in this figure is the relieving pressure is based on various assumptions that based on thermal expansion if the of the system, and correspondingly the need to be consider before using it. vessel is liquid full, and a procedure relieving temperature and latent heat The temperature Tw is the recom- similar to those explained above are is to be determined based on the aver- mended maximum wall temperature, adopted if the vessel is not liquid full. age molecular weight of components. 593°C (1,100°F), that can be used for Refer to API STD 521, section 5.14 [1] In case of relieving conditions near carbon-steel plates. The exposed sur- for calculating the relief load due to the critical region, the latent heat of face area, A, is calculated in the same hydraulic expansion of liquid. vaporization approaches zero as sen- way as the wetted surface area earlier, sible heat dominates. For such condi- based on possible source of fire. Mixed phase relief tions API STD 521 [1] suggests using a Relieving conditions in this case One of the significant problems that minimum latent heat value of 115 kJ/ are the relieving pressure, as defined a process engineer needs to deal with kg (50 Btu/lb) as an approximation. earlier, while relieving temperature is is to design the relief system in pres- Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 4517_CHE_010110_EP1.indd 45 12/22/09 10:33:12 AM
    • Data: Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . : Horizontal Vessel type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Cylindrical with Engineering Practice ellipsoidal ends Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . : None Vessel radius R . . . . . . . . : 2.5 m Vessel length (TL-TL) L . : 10.0 m ND 8 in. Sch 40 Vessel elevation. . . . . . . . : 1.0 m length 5.0 m ent contingency for single phase (vapor the height between Maximum initial liquid or liquid) or for mixed phase (vapor- the vessel nozzle on Level H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 3.0 m PSV-01 6Q8 liquid). Generally a mixed phase flow which relief valve is Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : Benzene requires a larger relief area than vapor mounted and the liq- Relief valve set or liquid phase flow. Traditionally it has uid level. If the fill pressure Ps . . . . . . . . . . : 3.5 barg Vessel design ND 6 in. Sch 40 been assumed that relief is generally a level at relieving con- pressure PD. . . . . . . . . . : 3.5 barg length 1.5 m vapor phase relief in the present con- ditions is above the tingency. However, it has been found calculated minimum that relief can be two-phase relief de- free-board height, V-01 pending upon the following factors: venting is to be consid- 1. Nature of liquid. It is the foamy ered as mixed phase 5m 3m or non-foamy behavior of the liquid venting. The following that results in the possibility of hav- equations from Ref. ing mixed phases during pressure re- [10] are used to cal- lief. It has been observed that relief culate the minimum from non-foamy liquid is generally a free-board height. 10 m 1m vapor phase relief. API STD 521 [1] also says that a relief system need not be designed for two phases for non- foamy systems. However, it is not pos- sible to predict the foamy behavior of  (9) Figure 1. The vessel and data for Example 1 liquid from mere physical properties; hence the conservative approach is to In this equation Ue is the entrainment Example Calculations consider the liquid as foamy whenever velocity — known as the Kutateladze Two examples are illustrated here, one there is doubt. A few guidelines to entrainment velocity [11] — and is for a vessel containing liquid and an- classify liquid as foamy are as follows: calculated from Equation (10). other for vessel containing gas. Com- •  iquids having viscosity greater L mercial simulation software is used to than 100 cP generate the properties required. The • Liquid containing surfactants  (10) absolute barometric pressure for both • Dirty liquids containing solids problems is assumed to be 1.0132 bar. •  ulti-component liquids with wide M range of boiling points Fire duration Vessel containing liquid • Chemically reacting liquids One of the aspects that has not been The first example concerns a horizon- •  iquid with more than one liquid L discussed much in the standards is tal vessel containing benzene. The di- phase the need to consider the duration of mensions and other data needed for 2. Initial fill level. Even though a fire and the present contingency to- the calculation are shown in Figure 1. liquid might be non-foamy, it has been gether. Based on the duration for a fire Determination of wetted surface observed that if the initial fill level fighting team to take an action against area. Ref. [12] is used to determine in the vessel is above a certain level, present contingency, the fire duration the wetted surface area of partially pressure relief can be mixed phase. can be ignored if vessel pressure at filled vessels. The wetted surface area So far there are no well defined stan- the end of this duration is not going to of shell is given by dards available above which mixed- reach the relief-valve set-pressure. phase relief is to be considered. Guide- The duration for the fire fighting lines as provided in Ref. [8] however team to take an action will depend  (11) can be used for non-reactive systems upon the complexity of the plant and for low-pressure storage tanks. A con- should not be more than 15–20 min servative approach is to consider the [13]. This duration is based on the two-phase relief when initial liquid fact that an un-wetted steel plate, 25 = 88.61 m2 level is above 20% for foamy liquids mm (1 in) thick, takes about 12 min to The wetted surface area of the two and above 80% for non foamy liquids. reach 593°C (1,100°F) and 17 min to elliptical heads is given by Equation However, small vessels having diam- reach 704°C (1,300°F) when the plate (12), (see box, p. 47), where F is the eters less than 3 m do require more is exposed to an open fire [1]. Hence, fractional liquid level (= H/2R) and e is free board height. present contingency can be eliminated the eccentricity of the elliptical head (= Many references are available for for those vessels having vessel pres- 0.866 for the common case of a 2:1 el- predicting the possibility of mixed sure at the end of 20 min, well below lipse). Entering the values into Equa- phase behavior. One of the simplest the relief device set pressure. This du- tion (12) gives 31.10 m2. The wetted approaches is as explained in Ref. [9]. ration of 20 min needs to be confirmed area for the vessel is therefore 88.61 + This is based on calculating a mini- and mentioned in the relief system 31.10 = 119.71 m2. The wetted area for mum free-board height, h, which is design basis. the piping is assumed to be 10% of the 46 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201017_CHE_010110_EP1.indd 46 12/22/09 10:33:50 AM
    • Relief flowrate Table 5. Example 2 Data 43,000 Placement Vertical 38,000 Relief rate, kg/h 33,000 Vessel Type Cylindrical 28,000 with hemi- 23,000 spherical ends 18,000 Insulation None 13,000 Vessel radius, R 1.0 m 8,000 3, 000 Vessel length (TL-TL) 6.0 m L 157 172 186 190 194 198 201 214 218 222 226 228 240 0 20 40 60 80 120 140 156 Time, min Vessel elevation 2.0 m Fluid Air Figure 2. Simulation results for Example 1 showing the relief rate over time when the vessel is engulfed in an external fire Relief valve set 7.5 barg pressure, Ps Equation 12 Normal operating 5.5 barg pressure, Pn Normal operating 35°C temperature, Tn Maximum wall tem- 593°C perature, Tw calculated wetted area, or 11.97 m2, so Determination of relief rate. Input- 2πRL = 2π(1)(6) = 37.70 m2 the total wetted area is 119.71 + 11.97 ting the values obtained above into The exposed surface area of heads is = 131.68 m2. Equation (6), the relief rate, W, is the area of a sphere Determination of heat absorption W = 3,600 Q/l rate. Assuming that the facility has = 3,600 [(2,363.1)/347] 4πR2 = 4π(1)2 = 12.57 m2 adequate drainage and a fire fighting = 24,516 kg/h The exposed surface area for piping, system in place and the vessel is de- A commercial simulation program is again assuming 10% of calculated signed for 3.5 barg pressure, Equation available to simulate the vessel en- wetted area, is 5.03 m2. Therefore, the (1) can be used here to determine the gulfed in external fire. Figure 2 is total wetted surface area is heat input, Q: the vent flowrate for the above men- tioned vessel with respect to time 37.70 + 12.57 + 5.03 = 55.29 m2 Q = 43, 200 ⋅ F ⋅ Aws82 0. using such a program. This program Determination of relieving condi- Q = 43,200 (1)(131.68)0.82 works in rating mode, and hence, the tions. The relieving pressure, P1 is = 2,363,144 W details of safety relief valve and in- 1.21 x Ps (21% overpressure) = 2,363.1 kW let-outlet piping as shown in Figure = 9.075 barg Determination of the latent heat of 1 are used to get the profile plotted vaporization. Latent heat of vapor- in Figure 2. The relieving temperature, T1 , is de- ization is obtained through commer- termined from Equation (8) to be cial simulation software at relieving Vessel containing gas T1 = (P1/Pn)Tn conditions, which are as follows. The data for this second example are = [(9.075 + 1.0132)/(5.5 + 1.0132)] Relieving pressure = P1 listed in Table 5. (35 + 273.16) = 477.3 K = 204.1°C. = 1.21 Ps (21% overpressure) Determination of wetted surface = 4.325 barg area: Equations from Ref. [12] are The relief rate, as determined from Relieving temperature = T1 again used to determine the exposed Equation (7), is = 145°C (from simulation program) surface area of vessels. The exposed W = 2.77[28.84  (9.075 + 1.0132)]1/2 Latent heat of vaporization = l surface area of shell is the area of a  {55.2[(593 + 273.16) – 477.3]1.25/ = 347 kJ/kg (from simulation) cylinder with radius R. (477.3)1.1506} W = 3,733 kg/h. n References: 9. Fauske, H. K. Properly Size Vents for Non- reactive and Reactive Chemicals, Chem. Eng. Edited by Gerald Ondrey 1. Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Sys- Prog., February 2000. tems, ANSI/API Standard 521, 5th ed., Janu- ary 2007. 10. Epstein, M., others, The Onset of Two-Phase Venting via Entrainment in Liquid-Filled 2. Fisher, H. G., others, Emergency Relief System Storage Vessels Exposed to Fire, J. Loss Prev. Author design using DIERS Technology, AIChE, 1992. Process Ind., 2 (1), p. 45, 1989. Santosh Arvind Katkar is 3. Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pres- 11. Kutateladze, S. S., Elements of the Hydro- a process engineer at Jacobs sure-Relieving Devices in Refineries, Part-I, dynamics of Gas-Liquid Systems, Fluid Me- Engineering Group Inc. (29, API Standard 520, 8th ed., December 2008. chanics — Soviet Research, 1, p. 29, 1972. International Business Park 4. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, #03-01, Acer Building, Tower 12. Doane, R.C. Accurate Wetted Areas for Par- A, Singapore – 6009923. NFPA 30, 2008 ed. tially Filled Vessels, Chem. Eng, December Phone: +65 6890 4967; Fax: 5. Ludwig, E. E. “Applied Process Design, Vol- 2007, pp 56–57. +65 6899 1619; Email: San- ume 1,” 3rd ed., Gulf Publishing, 1995. 13. Wong W. Y., Improve the Fire Protection of tosh.Katkar@jacobs.com). He 6. Wong W. Y., Fire, Vessels and Pressure Relief Fire Vessels, Chem. Eng., October 1999, pp. has over 8 years of experience Valves, Chem. Eng., May 2000, pp. 84–92. 193–196. in petroleum refining, petro- 7. Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure 14. Mofrad S. R. others, Designing for Pressure chemical and other process Storage Tanks, API Standard 2000, 5th Edi- Release during Fires — Part 1, Hydrocarbon industries with leading engineering organiza- tion, April 1998. Process, November 2007, pp. 65–67. tions such as Fluor Daniel India and Lurgi India. 8. Fisher, H. G., and others, Protection of Storage 15. Mofrad S. R. et. al. Designing for Pressure He earned his M.Tech from Indian Institute of Tanks from Two-Phase Flow due to Fire Expo- Release during Fires – Part 2, Hydrocarbon Technology (Delhi) and B.Tech from University sure, Process Safety Progress, July 1995. Process, December 2007, pp. 117–121. Department of Chemical Technology (Jalgaon). Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 4717_CHE_010110_EP1.indd 47 12/28/09 6:54:42 AM
    • Engineering Practice Feature Report Updating the Rules For Pipe Sizing Total costs $/time Fixed Cost The most economical velocity in piping has costs Pumping shifted downward over the last 40 years power cost Optimum Alejandro Anaya Durand, Francisco Javier Pacheco Román, Maria Jose de Villafranca Casas, Ricardo Gabriel Suárez Suárez, Pipe diameter, D Adriana Shunashi García Cornejo, Juan Sampieri Espinoza, Figure 1. Fixed costs rise as the pipe Daniela Jara Carranza, Luis Francisco Villalobos diameter increases. Power costs fall as the Vazquez de la Parra pressure drop falls. The sum of these two Faculty of Chemistry, UNAM has a minimum P ipe sizing calculations include velocity is intrinsically related to fluid Fixed costs are practically indepen- certain values that are time properties and a host of economic pa- dent of time and production volume. dependent, such as costs. While rameters, including energy and pipe Examples of these are rent, taxes and some costs rise, others decrease material costs. It’s important to re- depreciation. Operational costs, on over time. It is the designer’s task member that pipe diameter is directly the other hand, are the variable costs, to ensure that the total cost is mini- proportional to its cost. which typically include raw materials, mized. For fluid flow calculations, heu- Since 1968 prices have dramatically man power and energy services, and ristic criteria are often used, which is changed due to inflation. In 1998 it fixed operational costs. the main reason why these values was demonstrated that the most eco- A practical way to find the optimal must be updated from time to time. In nomical velocity in piping had shifted cost is to plot capital and operational this article, recommended velocities downward over the preceding 30 years costs (with the same scale) and then are updated for several materials of [2]. In that paper, recommended ve- add these values to form a new function construction, and other velocities for locities were recalculated using the that will have a minimal value (the op- new materials are calculated, using Generaux equation [1] with param- timal value) as shown in Figure 1. the Generaux Equation [1], shown in eters and costs of 1998 derived by the the box on p. 50. Marshall & Swift Index (see p. 64) [3]. Optimum equation Process design is one of the most Similarly recommended velocities are Although there are several rules for important tasks in engineering. In the updated in this article. We compare calculating the optimum pipe diame- development, optimal use of resources 1998 values with the actual calculated ter, this paper only considers the Gen- must be accomplished in order to ones (2008) and calculate new values eraux equation, shown in the box on p. reach equilibrium between minimum for pipe materials other than steel, 50. This equation determines the fluid cost and maximum efficiency. such as brass and aluminum. velocities required to obtain the most Engineers tend to use heuristic for- economic pipe diameter. mulas to make quick estimates. Such Defining optimum calculated estimations are accurate For pipe design, several criteria Updated recommendations enough for grasping a quick overview have to be taken into account. Com- Price changes have a great impact on of the desired process. mon criteria used are recommended the parameters used in the Generaux Some of these calculations involve velocity, economics and other opera- equation. Table 1 shows the influence certain factors that change over the tional parameters. of the change in energy and material years. Nevertheless, the values fre- Ultimately, an economical criterion costs as measured by the Marshall quently used as inputs in these equa- is the decisive factor for determining a & Swift Index [2]. Some of the val- tions are over thirty years old, driving pipeline design. This particular analy- ues of these parameters were derived estimations even further away from sis is meant to find the lowest total in order to obtain updated ones that reality [2]. cost, which is the sum of capital and could be more in line with 2008 costs. An example of these phenomena is operational costs. By determining this Figure 2 and Table 2 show a com- the determination of the recommended minimum a number of variables are parison of the velocities calculated. velocity for a fluid in pipe sizing. The also minimized. Updated fluid velocities of carbon-steel 48 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201018_CHE_010110_EP2.indd 48 12/22/09 10:44:51 AM
    • Table 1. Values Used in the Generaux Equation Recommended fluid velocities at different diameters Carbon Stainless Carbon Stainless Alumi- for carbon steel, 2008 costs Brass Terms steel steel steel steel num 8 2008 D = 6 in. 1998 1998 2008 2008 2008 Recommended 7 D = 8 in. velocity, ft/s n 1.35 0.7793 1.472 0.924 0.769 0.907 6 D = 10 in. x 29.52 130 6.607 30.7 22.26 32.3 5 D = 12 in. Le’ 2.74 2.74 2.74 2.74 2.74 2.74 4 D = 4 in. M 0.102 0.102 0.064 0.064 0.064 0.064 E 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 3 D = 2 in. P 150 150 150 150 150 150 2 K 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 1 Y 365 365 365 365 365 365 0  0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Z 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Density, lb/ft3 F 6.7 7.5 6.5 7.4 7.1 7.2 Recommended fluid velocities a+b 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 at different viscosities, 2008 costs a’ + b’ 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 8.00 7.50 7.00 Viscosity Recommended Recommended fluid velocities, 1998 to 2008 costs velocity, ft/s Recommended velocity, ft/s 6.50 = 0.2 cP˝ 20.00 6.00 Viscosity Carbon 5.50 = 0.5 cP˝ 15.00 1998 5.00 Carbon 4.50 Viscosity 2008 4.00 = 1 cP 10.00 3.50 Stainless Viscosity steel 2008 3.00 = 2 cP 5.00 Stainless 0.00 steel 1998 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 Density, lb/ft3 Density, lb/ft3 Figure 4. Plots of recommended velocities versus different Figure 2. Comparison between the recommended fluid ve- viscosities and diameters show that viscosity has no significant locities from 1998 & 2008 influence in recommended velocity. At higher diameter, eco- nomic velocities are also higher Recommended velocities for liquids, 2008 costs 11.00 Table 2. Updated Recommended Fluid Velocities Recommended Stainless (2008 Costs) velocity, ft/s 9.00 steel Carbon Steel 2008 Aluminium 7.00 Density, lb/ft3 100 62.4 50 1 0.1 0.075 0.01 5.00 Brass Viscosity, cP 1 1 1 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 Carbon Recommended 3.00 3.57 4.11 4.38 17.38 34.34 37.39 67.85 steel velocity, ft/s 0 20 40 60 80 100 Stainless Steel 2008 Density, lb/ft3 µ = 1 cP; D = 1 ft Density, lb/ft3 100 62.4 50 1 0.1 0.075 0.01 Recommended velocities for gases Viscosity, cP 1 1 1 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 with viscosities close to 0.02 cP, 2008 costs Recommended 5.42 6.23 6.65 26.37 52.10 56.73 102.95 velocity, ft/s 63 Recommended Stainless velocity, ft/s steel Aluminum 2008 43 Density, lb/ft3 100 62.4 50 1 0.1 0.075 0.01 Aluminium Viscosity, cP 1 1 1 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 23 Brass Recommended Carbon 4.48 5.15 5.50 21.79 43.06 46.88 85.08 velocity, ft/s 3 steel 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Brass 2008 Density, lb/ft3 µ = 0.2 cP; D = 1 ft Density, lb/ft3­ 100 62.4 50 1 0.1 0.075 0.01 Viscosity, cP 1 1 1 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 Figure 3. Recommended velocities for gases (a) and liquids Recommended (b) according to 2008 prices. Recommended velocities tend to velocity, ft/s 5.43 6.25 6.67 26.44 52.25 56.89 103.24 decrease as years pass by pipe are about 48% lower than the energy costs increase in an inversely Using the set of fluid velocities for 1998 recommendations; the same goes proportional way, recommended veloci- 1998 shown in Figure 2, the recom- for stainless-steel pipe with a 45% de- ties tend to shift down over time despite mended velocity is V = 11.32 ft/s. The crease. The influence of diameter and involving a higher initial investment in cross sectional area of the pipe, S, is viscosity is shown in Figures 3 and 4. piping design (material costs). calculated as S = Q/V = 0.557/11.32 = 0.0492 ft2 Cost evolution Sample calculation No. 1 In the midst of comparison between en- Consider a pipeline for the following This cross section is reasonably close ergy and capital costs, the energy cost conditions. to that of a 3-in dia., stainless-steel has proved to have a greater impact. • Pipe: stainless steel Schedule-40 pipe. This cost can be defined by the variable • Flow: Q = 250 gal/min = 0.557 ft3/s However, using the set of fluid ve- K, which surprisingly has increased • Liquid: water at 60°F locities for 2008 shown in Figure 2, the by a factor of 1.75 since 1998. While • Density: r = 62.4 lb/ft3 recommended velocity value is signifi- Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 4918_CHE_010110_EP2.indd 49 12/22/09 10:47:00 AM
    • Generaux Equation Nomenclature a  Fractional annual depreciation on pipeline, dimensionless b  Fractional annual maintenance on pipeline, dimensionless a’ Fractional annual depreciation on Le’ Factor for friction in fitting, equivalent Q Fluid flow, ft3/s pumping installation, dimensionless length in pipe diameter per length of S Cross sectional area, ft2 b’ Fractional annual maintenance on pipe, 1/ft V Velocity, ft/s installation, dimensionless X Cost of 1 ft of 1-ft-dia. pipe, $ C  Installed cost of pipeline, including M Factor to Y Days of operation per year (at 24 h/d) fittings, $/ft express cost of Z Fractional rate of return of incremental D Inside pipe diameter, ft  piping installation, in terms of investment, dimensionless E  Combined fractional efficiency of yearly cost of power delivered to the Φ Factor for taxes and other expenses, pump and motor, dimensionless fluid, dimensionless dimensionless F  Factor for installation and fitting, n Exponent in pipe–cost equation ρ Flow density, lb/ft3 dimensionless (C = XDn), dimensionless μ Fluid viscosity, cP K  Energy cost delivered to the motor, P Installation cost of pump and motor, $/kWh $/hp cantly lower V = 6.23 ft/s, calculating Q/V = 0.0696 ft2. This cross section is energy and material costs. However be- the cross-sectional area of the pipe S reasonably close to that of a 3.5-in.- tween both factors, energy cost has more = Q/V = 0.0894 ft2. This cross section dia., carbon-steel Schedule-40 pipe. significance in the total cost than ma- is closer to a 4-in.-dia. stainless-steel However, using the set of fluid ve- terial cost. It is important to remember Schedule-40 pipe. A larger pipe diame- locities for 2008 shown in Figure 2, the that these costs vary depending on the ter is justified with the updated lower recommended velocity value is lower, inflationary surge at the current time, recommended velocities. V = 4.1 ft/s, and the cross sectional and so do the economic fluid velocities. area of the pipe is S = Q/V = 0.136 ft2. In general terms, recommended veloci- Sample calculation No. 2 This cross-section is closer to a 5-in.- ties in fluids have decreased between For this case let us use a pipeline for dia., carbon-steel Schedule-40 pipe. As 40 and 50% since 1998. n the following conditions: found in the first example calculation Edited by Gerald Ondrey • Pipe: carbon steel above, a larger pipe diameter is justi- • Flow: Q = 250 gal/min = 0.557 ft3/s fied with the updated, lower recom- References 1. Perry R. H. and Chilton. C.H. “Chemical En- • Liquid: water at 60°F mended fluid velocities. gineer’s Handbook,” 5th Edition. pp. 5–30 • Density: r = 62.4 lb/ft3 McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973. 2. Anaya Durand A., and others, Updated Rules Once again, using the graph of fluid Conclusions for Pipe Sizing, Chem. Eng. May 1999, pp. velocities for 1998 (Figure 2), the rec- Revised values for the recommended 153–156. ommended velocity is V = 8 ft/s. The fluid velocities as given in this article 3. Marshall and Swift Equipment Cost Index. Chem. Eng. September 2008, p. 76, and simi- cross-sectional area of the pipe is S = have proven to be highly sensitive to larly in all issues back to 1998. Authors Alejandro Anaya Durand Adriana Shunashi García Ricardo Gabriel Suárez (Parque España No. 15b Col. Cornejo (1era Cda Ezequiel Suárez (Industria 6, Col. Condesa, C.P. 06140, Mexico, Ordoñez No. 14 Col. Copilco Florida c.p.01030, Alvaro D.F. Email aanayadurand@ El Alto, C.P. 06340, Coyoacán, Obregón, México, D.F., Méx- hotmail.com) is a professor México, D.F., México; Phone: ico; Phone: 52 55 40 80 96 of chemical engineering at 52 55 18 70 76 40; Email: 9; Email: gabosuarez88@ the National University of janaya_20@hotmail.com) is gmail.com) is a fifth-semester Mexico (UNAM), and has a fifth-semester chemical chemical engineering honor over 48 years experience in engineering honor student student at UNAM. He is vice project and process engineer- at UNAM. She is an active president of the UNAM stu- ing. He retired from Instituto member of IMIQ. dent section of IMIQ. Mexicano del Petroleo in 1998 after holding top positions. For 43 years he has Daniela Jara Carranza Juan Sampieri Espi- been an educator in chemical engineering in sev- (Escultores No. 42 Col. Cd Sa- noza (Avenida Universi- eral universities in Mexico, and presently he is télite, C.P 01021, Naucalpan dad 2014, Col. Copilco, c.p. also a consultant at several engineering compa- de Juarez, Estado de México, 04350, Coyoacán, México, nies. He has published over 250 papers related México; Phone: 52 55 36 60 D.F., México; Phone: 52 40 to engineering and education; is a Fellow of the 15 58; Email: aikasan2001@ 13 41 51; Email: giovse_19@ AIChE; a member of National Academy of En- gmail.com) is a fifth-semester hotmail.com) is a fifth-se- gineering; and has received numerous chemical chemical engineering honor mester chemical engineering engineering awards Mexico. He holds a M.S. in student at UNAM. She is an honor student at UNAM. He project engineering from UNAM. active member of IMIQ. is an active member of IMIQ. Maria Jose de Villafranca Casas (2da Cda de Tantoco #4 Francisco Javier Pacheco Luis Francisco Villalo- Frac. La Presilla Col. M. Con- Román (Avenida Universi- bos Vazquez de la Parra treras, México, D.F.; Phone: 52 dad 2014, Col. Copilco, c.p. (Rincon de los Arcos 95, Col. 55 56 52 42 14; Email: mjdev 04350, Coyoacán, México, Bosque Residencial del Sur, illafrancacasas@hotmail.com) D.F. , México; Phone: 52 55 c.p. 16010, Xochimilco, Mex- is a fifth-semester chemical 33 73 87 27; Email: erev_20@ ico, D.F.,Mexico; Phone: 52 55 engineering honor student at hotmail.com) is a fifth-se- 29 09 52 02; Email: luisfran UNAM. She is an active mem- mester chemical engineering ciscovillalobos@gmail.com) ber of IMIQ and works as an honor student at UNAM. He is a fifth-semester chemical intern at CMM (Mario Molina is an active member of IMIQ. engineering honor student at Center for Strategic Studies UNAM. He is an active mem- in Energy and the Environment). ber of IMIQ. 50 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201018_CHE_010110_EP2.indd 50 12/22/09 1:42:28 PM
    • Solids Processing A ‘Sound’ Solution to Material Flow Problems Figure 1. AACs are offered in a wide Audiosonic acoustic cleaners use high-energy, variety of sizes. Larger models are of- fered in either straight or curved designs low-frequency sound waves to eliminate particulate buildup, without damaging equipment Wave Donald F. Cameron Generator Primasonics International Ltd. P Bell articulate buildup and other efficiency throughout the plant. Section material flow problems are Reliability: Minimize kiln stoppages common hurdles wherever dry and increase mean time between fail- materials find application in ures by preventing up- and down-stream Figure 2. An AAC consists of a wave the chemical process industries (CPI). blockages in fans and other units. generator and a bell section. The wave Since manual intervention is costly in Output: Aid constant material flow generator creates the so-called base terms of downtime, and can be quite and prevent blockages from occurring tone, and the variety of bell sections hazardous for the personnel involved, in a wide range of plant sectors, from amplify and convert it into a particular dedicated equipment is an attractive blending right through to storage. fundamental frequency (60–420 Hz) way to either prevent or remove flow Quality: Improve blending accu- dard compressed-air supply for the blockages. Equipment options include racy, reduce cross-contamination and energy source. Compressed air enters vibrators and air cannons and a lesser- maximize bulk storage by keeping the the wave generator and forces the only known, yet sound solution known as product fresh. moving part, an ultra high-grade tita- audiosonic acoustic cleaners (AACs). nium diaphragm, to oscillate very rap- Design basics, considerations idly within its specially designed hous- About AACs Simply put, AACs employ sound waves ing. These rapid oscillations create the AACs employ high-energy, low-fre- to prevent and eliminate flow prob- base tone, and the different bell sections quency sound waves to eliminate par- lems. To understand how AACs work, convert, amplify and distribute the base ticulate buildup and facilitate maxi- it is first important to consider some tone into a range of selected, key funda- mum material flow. Also known as fundamentals of sound. Sound can be mental frequencies (Figure 2). sonic horns (Figure 1), these pneumat- described as the passage of very rapid A periodic “sounding” (typically ically operated devices generally pro- pressure fluctuations through a me- 5–10 s every 10–60 min) is all that is duce sound waves within the 60–420 dium by means of a vibrating force. required to achieve the desired goal. Hz frequency range. The human ear does not actually hear Larger models are usually available AACs are non-intrusive, and can sound but uses a pressure sensitive either in straight or curved styles. be employed wherever ash, dust, mechanism to detect very-rapid pres- Specific design considerations in- powders or granular materials are sure fluctuations. The creation of sound volve the wave generator (the vibrat- processed, generated, stored or trans- simply requires two things: a vibrating ing source), the bell section (the trans- ported. Reasons for installation gener- source and a transmission medium. mission medium) and the frequency. ally echo the CPI’s top priorities: An acoustical sound energy level, The wave generator. The wave gen- Safety: Avoid the necessity for person- also known as a sound pressure level erator usually contains a titanium nel to enter process equipment by pro- (SPL) is normally measured in a deci- diaphragm clamped within the wave viding constant, safe, remote cleaning. bel (dB), which is a logarithmic unit. generator body. Compressed air, ap- Environment: Reduce opacity spik- Generally speaking AACs have an plied for a few seconds at periodic ing by employing acoustic cleaners in energy level around 150 dB. It is this intervals, produces a base tone. This place of harsher mechanical systems sound energy that is absorbed into base tone is then amplified by the bell in electrostatic precipitators, filters the bonded material causing a series section and transmitted to a particu- and so on. of very rapid pressure fluctuations, lar fundamental frequency in relation Productivity: Maintain material flow which result in the instant debonding to the bell section design and length. and prevent blockages in many pro- of the material particles — both from The bell section. The shape of the cess and storage areas. themselves and from any surface. bell section is also a very important de- Efficiency: Provide an effective, low- AACs are extremely simple in their sign factor, as the sound transmission cost solution that maximizes process operation, only requiring a plant’s stan- and radiation from the bell section of Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 5119_CHE_010110_SP.indd 51 12/22/09 11:33:36 AM
    • Solids Processing Figure 3. For a given length Figure 4. AACs are non-intrusive, and can be employed wherever dry materials and end area of a bell section, an are processed, generated, stored or transported. A periodic “sounding” (typically exponential shape (left) will always 5–10 s every 10–60 min) is all that is required to achieve the desired goal transmit greater acoustic power at all frequencies above the critical value from the exit of the bell section will air cannons within the general prob- than a conical shape (right) experience similar sound energy lem area. It is generally true to say levels. This is why models that oper- that one very rarely finds a single air changing cross-section is greatly influ- ate at the lower end of the frequency cannon in effective operation. enced by the manner in which the sec- range are most effective at prevent- AACs, in contrast, prevent the tions change, plus the physical length ing material blockage in large ves- buildup and blockages from occurring of the bell section itself. For a given sels such as silos in the first place by constantly debond- length and end area, an exponential ing the material from the vessel or bell shape (Figure 3, left), for instance, AACs versus alternatives structure surface. Secondly, unlike will always transmit greater acoustic It is important to note and understand air cannons, which are unidirectional, power at all frequencies above the several main advantages that AACs sound waves travel at an exception- critical value than a linear conical bell have over alternative methods that ally fast speed (344 m/s at normal shape (Figure 3, right). have been employed within various temperature and pressure) in a wide Specifying frequency. Sound waves dry materials applications. radius. Furthermore they bounce off with differing fundamental frequen- AACs don’t damage equipment. all surfaces and rebound back onto cies have significantly different power AACs operate at frequencies very other surfaces. ranges and cleaning effects. Due to the much higher than the resonance fre- velocity or speed of sound in AACs, the quency of typical materials of con- Typical applications following relationships apply: struction such as steel, ceramic lining AACs find use in a wide variety of ap- •  he higher the frequency, the T and concrete. Therefore they do not plications. Below is a list of them, fol- shorter the wavelength path. This cause any vibrational damage to ves- lowed by descriptions of some of the translates into high-intensity, local- sels or structures because their sonic most common: ized cleaning power (1–10 m) debonding power is directly absorbed • Silos and hoppers •  t very short wave lengths (high fre- A into the process material and is not •  lectrostatic precipitators (ESPs) E quency, say 420 Hz) interference oc- absorbed into the structure in any and filters curs, and the sound distribution be- damaging manner. The results of nu- • Boilers comes beam like so that only points merous trials using AACs within silos • Air heaters that lie in the region of a line coaxial and metal structures are available to • Superheaters with the centerline of the bell sec- prove this. • Economizers tion will experience high power ef- AACs versus vibrators. Vibrators, on • Cyclones fective cleaning. This is why models the other hand, by their very nature • Dryers that operate at the higher end of the and method of installation cause vi- • Coolers frequency range are most effective bration and stress weaknesses within • Mixers at aiding material flow at the dis- the vessel or structure to which they • Reactor vessels charge point of silos and hoppers are attached. The vibration resonances • Calciners •  he lower the frequency, the longer T first have to pass through the vessel • Induced draft fans the wavelength path. This trans- wall before reaching the material. • Air classifiers lates into powerful long-distance, AACs versus air cannons. Air can- • Mills deep-penetrating cleaning power nons and blasters seek to affect a very • Ductwork (20–50 m) localized cure for a blockage problem Silos and hoppers. Material bridg- •  t large wavelengths (low frequency, A that has already occurred. In many ing across silo or hopper outlets causes say 60 or 75 Hz) the sound will be cases the air cannon simply blows a restricted flow or no flow, leading to transmitted in the form of a spheri- localized hole through the blockage, so-called hammer rash, a result of cal wave, and points equidistant necessitating the installation of many manual efforts to dislodge blockages 52 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201019_CHE_010110_SP.indd 52 12/22/09 11:34:17 AM
    • How audiosonics compare with other acoustic technologies I n ultrasonics, the sound extends beyond human hearing at the higher 20-kHz end of the frequency range. Ultrasonic cleaners, for instance, operate at frequencies be- tween 25 and 80 kHz. Their application typically involves a liquid media for total cleaning of components and other liquid environment buildups. thereby eliminating harsh or manual In infrasonics, the sound waves are very powerful. Infrasonic acoustic cleaners are cleaning regimes and improving ther- inaudible and operate between 11 and 22 kHz. They are mainly employed in the fol- mal efficiency. lowing situations: Air heaters. AACs even find applica- • Where there is limited access into an industrial boiler, for example tion in air heaters, such as in ethylene • Where the area to be cleaned has a very large volume cracking towers, where AACs prevent • Where there is high restriction on noise level the build up of fine ash. ■ Great care must be taken with these applications so as not to set up damaging reso- Edited by Rebekkah Marshall nance within the structure itself. Audiosonics, in contrast, operate generally within the 60–420 Hz frequency range.❏ Author Donald F. Cameron is man- aging director of Primasonics by hitting the side of the unit. In such with both bag blockage and hopper International Ltd. (Technol- cases, maximum, continuous flow can pluggage. AACs can deal effectively ogy Centre, Gilwilly Estate, Penrith, Cumbria, CA11 9BD, be achieved by the introduction of a with very large filter or ESP applica- U.K.;Phone:+44-1768-866648; high frequency acoustic cleaner. tions. On a large reverse-jet filter, for Email: don@primasonics.com; Website: www.primasonics. Another typical problem in silos and instance, AACs were installed on each com). He has over 35 years hoppers is ratholing, whereby mate- of 12 hoppers to prevent bridging and experience in a wide range of process industries with par- rial buildup on the side walls of a silo ash flow and eliminate opacity spik- ticular disciplines in chemical engineering and food science. During his career results from funnel flow and greatly ing at a smelting plant. Meanwhile, on Cameron has designed and built factories in reduces silo capacity. While ratholing an ESP application, the installation of Canada, China, Iceland, Spain and Africa as well as within the U.K. Faced with a range of mate- is a very common problem, it is also an AAC enabled the end user to cease rial flow problems throughout his career, his am- one of the easiest to solve with the in- operating the mechanical rapping sys- bition was to find an affordable innovative and simple solution to prevent material blockages troduction of an AAC. tem completely. and build up and improve material flow. In the Baghouse filters and ESPs. AACs Boilers. AACs prevent ash from build- last twelve years he has developed Primasonics International into being the leading specialist can be implemented to help filters ing up and baking onto boiler tubes, designer and manufacturer of acoustic cleaners. NEXT GENERATION LENTICULAR FILTER CARTRIDGE Pleated Electropositive Filter Replaces Stacked Disc Filters NanoCeram-LR™ (NCLR) pleated cartridges use Argonide’s patented electropositive non-woven filter media. NCLR’s are engineered and designed as drop-in replacements to fit into most commercially available lenticular housings. Results have shown a greater dirt-holding capacity, higher efficiency (> 6LRV for virus, > 7LRV for bacteria), and wider operating pH range versus other charged lenticular filters. NCLR has a lower shipping weight to help reduce shipping costs. And, since each NCLR holds less water, it eases the process of filter replacement for the operator. In addition to NanoCeram-LR™, Argonide manufactures a full line of conventionally-sized pleated filter cartridges...all from our NanoCeram® electropositive filter media. Give us a call for your filtration needs. 407-322-2500 www.argonide.com ARGONIDE CORPORATION 291 Power Court • Sanford, FL 32771 NanoCeram® is a Registered Trademark of the Argonide Corporation 2005. All right reserved. Circle 15 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-15 Circle 16 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-16 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 Argonide_ChemicalEngineering_0110Rev2b.indd 1 53 12/17/09 9:24 PM19_CHE_010110_SP.indd 53 12/22/09 11:36:32 AM
    • Flexicon Focus on Weighing This weigh belt helps minimize material build up The Model SI Ultra-Sanitary Insertion weigh belt (photo) is designed to enable effective and efficient cleaning for sanitary appli- cations in food processing. The weigh belt features a trough shape to help keep product away from the belt edges. The trough shape eliminates the need for side skirts, which can be an area prone to Thayer Scale- Hyer Industries material build-up. The entire conveyor as- sembly of the insertion weigh belt is coupled to a patented, mass counter-balanced force-measurement suspension system (FMSS) that allows load-cell selection Mettler Toledo International based on net-, rather than gross-weighing requirements. The Model SI is built to exceed U.S. Department of Agri- connected using either a copper-wire- culture standards for cheese, dairy, meat, poultry, confec- carried current loop signal or a fiber tionary, baked goods, prepared foods and more. — Thayer optic connection. The ACM500 allows Scale-Hyer Industries Inc., Pembroke, Mass. the IND560x to communicate with www.thayerscale.com several devices using multiple proto- cols simultaneously. — Mettler Toledo Measure bulk material flows International Inc., Solon, Ohio with no moving parts K-Tron www.mt.com The Smart FlowMeter (photo) is used for in line weigh- ing applications in processes requiring reliable metering This weigh batch system and registering of bulk material flows. Based on Newto- can loosen bulk material before blending nian physics principles, the Smart FlowMeter is capable A new bag-weigh-batch system can loosen bulk solid mate- of measuring granules, chips and fibers. As the bulk solid rial that has solidified during storage and shipment before flows through two force-sensor stations with no moving discharging the material by weight and blending it into a parts, the mass is measured as the bulk material acts liquid stream. The skid-mounted system (photo) incorpo- perpendicularly on an inclined chute that is mounted rates two bulk-bag unloading frames, each with an integral on a force transducer. The bulk material then flows into bulk bag conditioner comprised of a hydraulic pump and two a lower, vertically oriented channel where the accelera- rams with contoured end plates that press opposing sides of tion rate is determined. The signals from the two sensors bulk bags. The unloaders’ cantilevered hoists and motorized are used to calculate material flowrate per unit time. — trolleys allow conditioning of bulk bags at various heights, K-Tron Ltd., Niederlenz, Switzerland as well as loading and unloading of bags without the need www.ktron.com for a forklift. Safety interlocks prevent operation of the con- ditioner when the unloaders’ doors are open. The unloaders This scale is suitable also feature a Spout-Lock clamp ring that forms a high-in- for potentially hazardous areas tegrity seal between the clean side of the bag spout and the The IND560x (photo) is specifically designed for process clean side of the equipment, while a Tele-Tube telescoping control and manual weighing operations in Division 1 or tube maintains constant downward pressure on the clamp Zone 1/21 hazardous areas. It contains analog or electro- ring and bag spout, elongating the bag as it empties to pro- magnetic force restoration (EMFR) weighing technologies, mote complete discharge. — Flexicon Corp., Bethlehem, Pa. and features a highly configurable operator interface with www.flexicon.com numerous programmable, on-screen prompts. The graphic display shows weighing transaction status clearly, helping Handle eight load cells to reduce errors. In filling and dosing applications, the in- with this crane-weighing system strument’s target update rate of 50 Hz allows process con- Applicable to new and existing cranes, this crane-weighing trols to be triggered in 20 ms. The scale instrument is cou- system features G4 advanced process-control software that pled with the ACM500, a communications accessory module can connect up to eight load cells, each with a separate chan- that provides bidirectional communication between the nel, while performing standard weighing functions and con- weighing terminal and a larger automation system, such trolling and logging overload. The weighing solution includes as a programmable logic controller (PLC) or a distributed double-ended, shear-beam load cells with I-beam cross sec- control system (DCS). The ACM500 and IND560x can be tions, and collects data on weight, time and engine running 54 Chemical Engineering www.che.com JANUARY 2010 Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation.20_CHE_010110_CUS.indd 54 12/22/09 11:26:17 AM
    • Hardy Instruments hours, which enables better crane security and safety. The software optimizes service and maintenance intervals to help reduce costs. It also sets values for up to 32 load lev- els, logs up to three different operation times, compensates for faulty load cells, enables data downloading onto memory sticks, and enables communication via field bus or analog output. — Vishay Intertechnology, Inc., Malvern, Pa. www.vishay.com Use this network interface for fast transfer of time-critical information The HI 4050 (photo), a general-purpose weight controller used in vessel-weighing, force-measurement, filling, level- ay by-weight, and batching/blending applications, is now available with a ControlNet network interface. The new ies ew str interface allows rapid transfer of time-critical information u at at rates of 5 Mb/sec in a redundant, deterministic and pre- ind ess dictable manner. Also, information can be transmitted to g oc up to 98 additional nodes at distances of 250 m to 5 km. The r ’s p interface comes with two BNC (Bayonet Neill Concelman) he ina connectors for cable redundancy, but can operate with a t single or dual RG-6 coaxial cable bus. The HI 4050 is avail- ch able with a.c. or d.c. power, as well as in-panel, wall, remote to or blind-DIN rail-mounting packaging configurations. — Hardy Instruments, San Diego, Calif. a www.hardyinstruments.com hin R C 2 010 , P ne ing Handle a wide range of feed rates eij -4 Ju B 1 with this weigh feeder This continuous loss-in-weight feeder is capable of han- dling feedrates between 20 and 24,000 lb/h with accuracies of 0.25 to 1.0% on a minute-to-minute basis to two standard Chinas most international event for the chemical process deviations. The weigh feeder is controlled by a micropro- industries welcomes YOU! cessor-based system equipped with one million counts of resolution and exclusive disturbance elimination technol- • Chemical Apparatus and ogy. The continuous weighing feeding devices can include Plant Construction pan or tube feeders, screw feeders and belt feeders. The • Process Technology weigh feeder system electronically balances tare weight so • Petrochemistry the controller senses only the weight of the material in the • Maintenance and Quality Assurance supply hoppers. — VibraScrew Inc., Totowa, N.J. • Environmental Protection www.vibrascrew.com • Water Treatment • Pharmaceutical Industry Use this batching feeder for food flavorings • Biotechnology The FlexWall loss-in-weight batching feeder (photo) is de- • Food Industry signed for use in applying snack food flavorings, including • Agrochemistry onsite movie-theater popcorn. After mixing, the flavorings • Laboratory and Analytical Techniques are transferred, either manually or in an automated pro- • Packaging and Storage Techniques cess, into a bulk bag that is emptied into the weigh hop- • Resources Development per. The system can handle poor-flowing ingredients such as butter. — Brabender Technologie Inc., Mississauga, Ont. www.achemasia.de www.achema.cn www.brabenderti.com ■ Scott Jenkins Circle 17 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-17 Chemical Engineering www.che.com JANUARY 2010 5520_CHE_010110_CUS.indd 55 12/22/09 11:26:51 AM
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    • New Product Information January 2010 JustFAXit! or go to www.che.com/adlinks Fill out the form and circle or write in the number(s) Go on the Web and fill out the ✁ below, cut it out, and fax it to 800-571-7730. online reader service card. Name Title Company Address City State/Province Zip/Postal Code Country Telephone Fax Email | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | FREE PRODUCT INFO 14 Engineering, Design & Construc- 29 10 to 49 Employees 47 Pollution Control Equipment (please answer all the questions) tion Firms 30 50 to 99 Employees & Systems 15 Engineering/Environmental Ser- 31 100 to 249 Employees 48 Pumps YOUR INDUSTRY vices 32 250 to 499 Employees 49 Safety Equipment & Services 01 Food & Beverages 16 Equipment Manufacturer 33 500 to 999 Employees 50 Size Reduction & Agglomeration 02 Wood, Pulp & Paper 17 Energy incl. 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    • Economic Indicators Business News production of aliphatic polyisocyanates Plant Watch Mergers and acquisitions in response to growing market demand in Borealis invests in semi- Asia and China in particular.The increased Dow forms a new company commercial catalyst plant production capacity will reach 12,000 m.t./ called Pfenex Inc. December 14, 2009 — Borealis (Vienna, yr and is expected to commence in 2012. In December 7, 2009 — The Dow Chemical Austria; www.borealisgroup.com) has an- parallel, Perstorp plans to debottleneck ex- Company (Dow; Midland, Mich.; www. nounced plans for a €75-million investment isting plants to support growth outside Asia. dow.com) has formed a new independent in Linz, Austria for a new semi-commercial company that will be known as Pfenex Inc. catalyst plant to develop and scale up new CB&I wins a petroleum refinery through its Dow Venture Capital group. catalysts for the production of innovative project in Colombia The new company, headquartered in San new polymers. Borealis has developed a November 18, 2009 — CB&I (Houston; www. Diego, Calif., is based on human-health revolutionary, new production technology cbi.com) has been awarded a project val- applications of a Dow-developed technol- for catalysts that is protected by 47 inter- ued in excess of $1.4 billion by Refinería de ogy called Pfenex Expression Technology, a national patents. Based on this production Cartagena S.A. (Reficar) for the engineer- Pseudomonas fluorescens-based platform technology, the new catalyst plant will sup- ing, procurement services and construction that uses high throughput, parallel process- port research in the areas of catalyst devel- of a new petroleum refinery, with processing ing methodologies for optimized protein opment and will further improve processes capacity of 165,000 bbl/d, adjacent to production. Dow will hold a significant for catalyst production.The investment in a Reficar’s refinery in Cartagena, Colombia. minority stake in Pfenex along with Signet semi-commercial plant for catalysts in Linz CB&I’s scope also includes revamping the Healthcare Partners, an experienced allows Borealis to undertake the necessary existing 80,000-bbl/d refinery.The overall venture-capital investor focused on the development work as well as produce semi- project will enable Reficar to produce clean, healthcare sector. Financial terms are not commercial batches for the first phase in ultra-low sulfur gasoline and diesel from being disclosed. the development process.This requires a heavy crude.The project is scheduled for close alignment with the new, recently com- completion in 2012. AkzoNobel acquires Australian missioned Borstar pilot plant in Schwechat, specialty starch activities which involved an investment of € 30 million. SABIC and Danieli plan November 23, 2009 — AkzoNobel’s (Amster- construction of new steel plant dam; www.akzonobel.com) National Starch Toyo is awarded a methionine November 16, 2009 — Saudi Basic Indus- has agreed to acquire Penford Australia project in China tries Corp. (SABIC; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Ltd.’s specialty grain wet-milling and manu- December 14, 2009 — Toyo Engineering www.sabic.com) has announced that facturing facility in Lane Cove.The deal also Corp. (Tokyo; www.toyo-eng.co.jp) has its manufacturing affiliate, Saudi Iron and includes certain other intellectual property been awarded a project for methionine Steel Co. (HADEED), signed an agree- and assets of Penford’s Australian specialty production facilities that will be constructed ment with the Italian company, Danieli, starch business. Financial details were not by Sumitomo Chemical Co. and Dalian for the construction of a steel plant and disclosed. Final closure of the deal was ex- Jingang Group Co. in the Dalian Economic a production line for galvanizing long pected by the end of 2009. and Technological Development Zone in products in Jubail, Saudi Arabia. The new China.The facilities will produce 20,000 ton/ plant, which is scheduled to start up in the AkzoNobel to acquire Dow yr of methionine, a nutritive feed additive. second half of 2012, will have a produc- powder coatings activities Construction of the plant is scheduled to tion capacity of 1-million ton/yr of steel November 12, 2009 — AkzoNobel has commence in the spring of 2010. billets. It will increase the total production signed an agreement with The Dow Chemi- capacity of HADEED to 6-million ton/yr, of cal Company (Dow) to acquire its powder GEA lands an order for which long products will account for 4-mil- coatings activities.The powder coatings a milk plant in Australia lion ton/yr. activities were purchased by Dow earlier December 10, 2009 — The Process Technol- in 2009 as part of its acquisition of Rohm & ogy Segment of GEA Group AG (Bochum, Pörner Group to build a new Haas.This business achieves global sales of Germany; www.geagroup.com) has re- Biturox plant in Morocco several hundred million dollars.The transac- ceived an order for a complete milk-powder November 12, 2009 — A contract between tion is expected to close during the second factory.The customer is the Australian Dairy the Moroccan refining company, Samir, quarter of 2010, subject to customary clos- Group, Burra Foods.The total order is in ex- and the Austrian engineering company, ing conditions, including regulatory approv- cess of €23 million and includes engineer- Pörner Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Vienna, als. Financial details were not disclosed. ■ ing, manufacturing, supply, installation and Austria; www.poerner.at) for the planning  Dorothy Lozowski commissioning of the plant.The plant is ex- and construction of a new Biturox plant pected to be completed in August 2010. for the production of bitumen, has been finalized and signed.The plant will have a For consideration in this section, Perstorp to increase isocyanates production capacity in China production capacity of 270,000 ton/yr of road-making bitumen. Following the proj- please send press releases to November 18, 2009 — Specialty chemicals company Perstorp (Perstorp, Sweden; ect start in January 2010, the plant will be biznews@che.com completed and handed over to Samir by www.perstorp.com) plans to increase its summer 2011. For additional news as it develops, please visit www.che.com January 2010; VOL. 117; NO. 1 Chemical Engineering copyright @ 2010 (ISSN 0009-2460) is published monthly, with an additional issue in October, by Access Intelligence, LLC, 4 Choke Cherry Road, 2nd Floor, Rockville, MD, 20850. Chemical Engineering Executive, Editorial, Advertising and Publication Offices: 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038; Phone: 212-621-4674, Fax: 212-621-4694. Subscription rates: $59.00 U.S. and U.S. possessions, Canada, Mexico; $179 International. $20.00 Back issue & Single copy sales. Periodicals postage paid at Rockville, MD and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering, Fulfillment Manager, P.O. Box 3588, Northbrook, IL 60065-3588. Phone: 847-564-9290, Fax: 847-564-9453, email: clientservices@che.com. Change of address, two to eight week notice requested. 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    • Economic Indicators 2009 2008 download the cepci two weeks sooner at www.che.com/pci CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI) 650 (1957-59 = 100) Oct. 09 Sep. 09 Oct. 08 Prelim. Final Final Annual Index: CE Index 527.9 525.7 592.2 2001 = 394.3 600 Equipment 623.6 621.5 720.0 Heat exchangers & tanks 567.0 563.4 711.7 2002 = 395.6 Process machinery 605.7 604.0 664.7 2003 = 402.0 550 Pipe, valves & fittings 768.9 768.3 864.0 2004 = 444.2 Process instruments 409.8 409.7 439.0 Pumps & compressors 896.3 895.9 893.0 2005 = 468.2 500 Electrical equipment 464.2 464.7 471.9 2006 = 499.6 Structural supports & misc 636.5 632.5 771.8 450 Construction labor 331.4 327.5 326.2 2007 = 525.4 Buildings 495.4 493.2 522.8 2008 = 575.4 Engineering & supervision 344.6 345.4 351.3 400 J F M A M J J A S O N D Starting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have been converted to accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO CPI output index (2000 = 100) Nov. 09 = 96.1 Oct. 09 = 93.9 Sep. 09 = 94.3 Nov. 08 = 96.8 CPI value of output, $ billions Oct. 09 = 1,530.5 Sep. 09 = 1,499.6 Aug. 09 = 1,481.5 Oct. 08 = 1,744.1 CPI operating rate, % Nov. 09 = 71.0 Oct. 09 = 69.3 Sep. 09 = 69.5 Nov. 08 = 70.5 Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) Nov. 09 = 251.3 Oct. 09 = 243.3 Sep. 09 = 248.4 Nov. 08 = 246.2 Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2002=100)* Nov. 09 = 98.6 Oct. 09 = 97.5 Sep. 09 = 97.7 Nov. 08 = 103.6 Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) Nov. 09 = 151.8 Oct. 09 = 150.1 Sep. 09 = 150.2 Nov. 08 = 144.3 Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) Nov. 09 = 138.6 Oct. 09 = 136.7 Sep. 09 = 136.8 Nov. 08 = 125.5 CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ Billions) CPI OPERATING RATE (%) 120 2500 85 110 2200 80 100 1900 75 90 1600 70 80 1300 65 70 1000 60 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D *Due to discontinuance, the Index of Industrial Activity has been replaced by the Industrial Production in Manufacturing index from the U.S. Federal Reserve Board. Current business indicators provided by Global insight, Inc., Lexington, Mass. MARSHALL & SWIFT EQUIPMENT COST INDEX Current trends 1500 F (1926 = 100) 4th Q 3rd Q 2nd Q 1st Q 4th Q or the first time since the 2009 2009 2009 2009 2008 1485 M & S Index 1,446.5 1,446.4 1,462.9 1,477.7 1,487.2 global recession hit the Process industries, average 1,511.9 1,515.1 1,534.2 1,553.2 1,561.2 1470 CPI in late 2008, operating Cement 1,508.2 1,509.7 1,532.5 1,551.1 1,553.4 rates have finally surpassed 1455 Chemicals 1,483.1 1,485.8 1,504.8 1,523.8 1,533.7 the year-over-year deficit, Clay products 1,494.3 1,495.8 1,512.9 1,526.4 1,524.4 1440 and CPI output is nearing the Glass 1,400.1 1,400.4 1,420.1 1,439.8 1,448.1 1425 same turning point. Paint 1,514.1 1,515.1 1,535.9 1,554.1 1,564.2 Meanwhile, capital equip- Paper 1,415.8 1,416.3 1,435.6 1,453.3 1,462.9 Petroleum products 1,617.6 1,625.2 1,643.5 1,663.6 1,668.9 1410 ment prices (as reflected in Rubber 1,560.5 1,560.7 1,581.1 1,600.3 1,604.6 1395 the Chemical Engineering Related industries Plant Cost Index) continue to Electrical power 1,377.3 1,370.8 1,394.7 1,425.0 1,454.2 1380 climb. This trend is atypical Mining, milling 1,548.1 1,547.6 1,562.9 1,573.0 1,567.5 1365 for the end of a year — since Refrigeration 1,769.5 1,767.3 1,789.0 1,807.3 1,818.1 equipment prices usually Steam power 1350 1,470.8 1,471.4 1,490.8 1,509.3 1,521.9 peak in the summer — but Annual Index: 1335 is an effect of demand re- 2002 = 1,104.2 2004 = 1,178.5 2006 = 1,302.3 2008 = 1,449.3 covery. 1320 2003 = 1,123.6 2005 = 1,244.5 2007 = 1,373.3 2009 = 1,468.6 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Visit www.che.com/pci for Quarter more on capital cost trends Source: Marshall & Swift‘s Marshall Valuation Service manual. Reprinted and published with permission of Marshall & and methodology.  ■ Swift/Boeckh, LLC and its licensors, copyright 2010. May not be reprinted, copied or automated without permission. 64 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201023_CHE_010110_EI.indd 64 12/22/09 11:24:03 AM
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