A Proactive Generation Reacts: Privacy, Disclosure and Strategic Action on Facebook By Zeynep Tufekci Assistant Professor University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Twitter: @techsoc [email_address] n c.edu
Reality versus Perception <ul><li>A loony, narcissistic generation inexplicably oversharing just because they’re different </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook merely reflecting those changes </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous assertions by Facebook executives that “one identity, one social graph” is better, moral, normal </li></ul>
Privacy and Disclosure are: <ul><li>Historically-situated </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded by personal circumstances, identit(ies), context </li></ul><ul><li>Structured and played out through architecture, norms and affordances </li></ul><ul><li>Always include strategic action considerations </li></ul>
Background <ul><li>Facebook is a de facto norm among college students </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook architecturally leans towards disclosure and a united social graph </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook has made multiple privacy changes, often controversial </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure levels tend to be high </li></ul>
What We Know <ul><li>Contrary to media perceptions, are struggling to adapt and figure out </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting struggle, strategy and change: Boyd & Hargittai (2010), Stutzman (2011), Raynes–Goldie, Kate (2010), Pew (2010) </li></ul>
Strategies & Experiences: Questions <ul><li>How have young adult behaviors have changed over time? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their experiences with privacy and disclosure? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their strategies? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we untangle experience (i.e. Bandura’s social learning theory) and anticipatory behaviors? </li></ul>
This Study <ul><li>College student sample </li></ul><ul><li>Latest survey December 2010 (n=403) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical surveys on comparable (but not longitudinal) groups since 2006 (n>1000) </li></ul><ul><li>m </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse, mid-sized school, socio-economic range, sample generally representative of school </li></ul>
Sample Characteristics 3.58 Years on FB MEAN 4.06 General Privacy Concern (1-5) MEAN 26.5 Asian-Ame. 13.0 Hisp./Other 17.5 Black 43.0 White 45.6 Female 53.3 Male N (%)
Sample Descriptives 3.3 How concerned are you that people you do not want to see your profile would see your profile (1-5) 1.8 To find potential friends 1.5 To find people with similar interests 3.4 Keep in touch with friends elsewhere 3.1 Keep in touch with friends in same school EVER USE FACEBOOK FOR: (1-4)
90.3 Those whose last change was to make their profile LESS visible Of those who changed ever privacy settings (n=363): 82.9 Changed their privacy settings in the last year 36.7 Changed their privacy settings last month 9.4 Never changed privacy settings % Those who have: 19.6 Deactivate their profile 68.3 Unfriend someone 81.3 Deleted info from profile 73.9 Untagged themselves from a photo % EVER DONE THE FOLLOWING BECAUSE OF A PRIVACY OR VISIBILITY CONCERN?
Sample Descriptives 0.8% Had a legal problem 17.2% Had a fight with a parent 25.7% Had a fight with a friend 8.0% Broke up with a girlfriend/boyfriend 28.7% Had a fight with a girlfriend/boyfriend 2.5% Had issues at work 0.5% Did not get hired 0.8% Lost a job AT LEAST ONCE Did the Following Happen to YOU?
21.9% Had a legal problem 53.2% Had a fight with a parent 66.2% Had a fight with a friend 51.2% Broke up with a girlfriend/boyfriend 70.9% Had a fight with a girlfriend/boyfriend 30.8% Had issues at work 19.4% Did not get hired 19.7% Lost a job AT LEAST ONCE Did the Following Happen to SOMEONE YOU KNOW?
32.5% You got caught in a lie by someone else through your profile 59.6% You found that someone else had been lying to you by looking at their profile 77.8% You found out something very important about a friend 54.6% Someone much older contacted you 33.6% Someone harassed/stalked you online 39.8% You got upset with someone after seeing a picture of theirs with someone else 25.7% Someone else got upset with you seeing a picture of you with someone else 70.0% Other people posted pictures of you that you wish they had not 73.9% Someone you did not want found your profile AT LEAST ONCE Did Any of the Following Happen to You? (%)
Changes in Profile Visibility in Facebook 2006-2010 (December)
Privacy Concerns and Profile Visibility in Facebook 2006-2010 (December)
exp(b) exp(b) exp(b) exp(b) Female 1.583 1.732* 0.611 0.255** Black 1.032 0.684 0.428 1.232 Hisp/Other 0.693 0.929 1.828 1.192 Asian 0.676 0.934 0.680 1.861 Happened to me 0.988 0.980 1.044 1.016 I observed 1.099 1.023 1.079 1.085 Surveillance 1.049 1.004 0.754*** 0.937 Far friends 1.181 1.165 0.824 0.925 Near friends 0.892 1.538* 1.186 0.907 Find potential 1.002 1.283 0.740 1.031 Find similar 0.679 0.761 1.801* 1.337 Audience Concern 1.671*** 1.791*** 0.624* 0.375*** Years on FB 1.364** 1.047 0.803 0.773* _cons 0.097 0.008*** 22.286 8.462 N 383 383 383 383 ll -162.272 223.213 -97.021 -104.967 * * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 Logistic Regression Modeling Odds of Privacy Related Behaviors Less Visible Last Month Never Changed Public Profile
The Previous Table Says: <ul><li>Respondent’s concern over unwanted audiences IS significantly associated with privacy-preserving actions </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent’s experience with *or* observations of negative consequences is NOT strongly associated with privacy related actions </li></ul>
Know Don’t Know exp(b) exp(b) Female -0.098 -0.141 Black 0.100 0.129 Hisp/Other 0.209 -0.021 Asian 0.243** 0.145 Someone else -0.007 -0.003 Me 0.015 -0.032 Surveillance 0.010 0.036*** Far friends -0.023 0.104 Near friends 0.017 -0.026 Find potential 0.039 0.156** Find similar 0.029 0.138* Profile concern -0.033 - 0.164*** Years on FB 0.005 -0.015 _cons 3.219*** 1.494*** N 381 381 ll -365.679 -420.871 * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 Logistic Regression Modeling Odds of Accepting Friend Request from Person already known / not known
The Previous Table Says: When it Comes to Accepting Friend Request from Unknown Person: <ul><li>Respondent’s who are interested in finding similar people and expanding their networks more likely </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents concerned about unwanted audiences less likely </li></ul>
Nickname exp(b) Female 0.527 Black 2.810* Hisp/Other 0.951 Asian 1.194 Someone else 0.929 Me 1.081 Surveillance 1.021 Far friends 0.920 Near friends 1.020 Find potential 1.386 Find similar 0.798 Profile concern 1.196 Years on FB 1.101 _cons 0.031* N 383 ll -103.802 * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 Logistic Regression Modeling Odds of Using a Nickname of Facebook
The Previous Table Says: For Nicknames <ul><li>African-Americans almost three times the odds of using a nickname on Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive: in 2006-7, about 94% used nicknames, in 2010 December about 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Also, only 3.5% use multiple profiles on Facebook </li></ul>
Not Shown: <ul><li>Interaction with “near friends” has higher association with untagging and deleting information (suggests strategic action) </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure levels have gone down from 06-07 but are still relatively high </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic status disclosure also linked to privacy related issues (esp. unwanted audiences) </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>Facebook remains a dominant platform and a strong social norm in College </li></ul><ul><li>Young adults in college are adapting and changing their behaviors on Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy related behaviors are associated with pro-active (concerns) rather than re-active (personal incidents or observations) considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy/disclosure actions have a strong strategic component. </li></ul>