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Running Water

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  • 1. RUNNING WATER Physical Geology The Walker School
  • 2. Distribution of Earth’s Water  1.36 billion km3 of water on Earth
  • 3. Hydrologic Cycle Water Characteristics •Flow •Viscosity •Infiltration Capacity •Gradiant Fig. 15-3, p. 460
  • 4. Water Cycle Statistics  85% of water enters the atmosphere each year from the upper 1 m layer of the ocean through evaporation.  80% of the Earth’s precipitation falls back into the oceans.  36,000 km3 falls on land each year and eventually returns to the oceans.
  • 5. Laminar Flow Fig. 15-4a, p. 461
  • 6. Turbulent Flow Streamlines are the paths taken by water molecules. Fig. 15-4b, p. 461
  • 7. Stream Gradient Water moves more slowly with greater turbulence near a channel’s bed and banks because of friction. Fig. 15-5, p. 462
  • 8. Running Water, Erosion and Sediment Transport Sediment from talus cones. Sediment loading from a river’s banks. Fig. 15-7b, p. 464
  • 9. Sediment Transport and Deposition Note: 1. Bed Load 2. Suspended Load 3. Dissolved Load Fig. 15-9a, p. 466
  • 10. Relation to Particle Size and Density Fig. 15-9b, p. 466
  • 11. Fig. 15-9, p. 466
  • 12. Braided Stream Grinelwald, Switzerland Develop when sediments exceed transport capacity. Characterized by broad, shallow channels and bed- load transport. Fig. 15-10b, p. 467
  • 13. Meandering Streams Deposits are mostly mud deposits on flood plains. Fig. 15-11, p. 468
  • 14. Flood Plain Deposits Natural levees build up by repeated deposition of sediments during numerous floods. Fig. 15-14, p. 471
  • 15. Marine Delta – Stream Dominated Mississippi River delta on the U.S. Gulf Coast is stream dominated. Fig. 15-16a, p. 472
  • 16. Mississippi Delta Formation Erosion over millions of years produced 7 different alluvial fans which add land mass to the continent. p. 495
  • 17. Marine Delta – Wave Dominated Nile delta is wave dominated.
  • 18. Marine Delta – Tide Dominated Ganges delta is tide dominated.
  • 19. Alluvial Fans and their Deposits  Formed during periodic rain storms.  Surface run-off is typically funneled into mountain canyons.  The run off is confined so it can’t spread latterly.  Repeated deposits create alluvial fans.
  • 20. Types of Floods Flash flood in West, VA. Table 15-1, p. 474
  • 21. Why do people build in flood zones?  Fertile soils  Level surfaces  Proximity to water for agriculture and industry. Fig. 15-18, p. 474
  • 22. WHAT TECHNOLOGY IS USED TO MONITOR WATER LEVELS?
  • 23. USGS Water Monitoring http://water.usgs.gov/
  • 24. Real Time Water Data http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/rt
  • 25. Samples Hydrograph Fig. 15-19, p. 475
  • 26. Flood Frequency Curve Note: Meteorologists typically watch for 2, 5, 10, 20 and 100 years floods. Fig. 15-20b, p. 475
  • 27. Flood of 1993  Caused by intersection of the jet stream and air masses over the Midwest.  Responsible for 50 death and displaced 70,000 people. Concept Art, p. 476
  • 28. World’s Largest Floods http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1254/
  • 29. HOW CAN TECHNOLOGY BE USED TO CONTROL FLOODING?
  • 30. Flood Control Methods  Dams and Reservoirs  Levees  Floodways  Floodwalls Fig. 15-21a, p. 478
  • 31. World Drainage Basin  An area which a stream or river and its tributaries carry all surface runoff.
  • 32. Ocean Drainage Basins  The Atlantic Ocean drains approximately 47% of all land in the world.  The Pacific Ocean drains just over 13% of the land in the world.  The Arctic Ocean basin drains most of Western and Northern Canada east of the Continental Divide.  The Indian Ocean drains around 13% of the Earth's land.  The Southern Ocean drains Antarctica.
  • 33. River Basins  The three largest river basins (by area), in order of largest to smallest, include the Amazon basin, the Congo basin, and the Mississippi basin.  The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, Congo , and Ganges Rivers.
  • 34. Mississippian Drainage Basin Fig. 15-22b, p. 480
  • 35. Endorheic Drainage Basins  Inland basins that do not drain into an ocean;  18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas.  The largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, and drains into the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea.  Evaporation is the primary means of water loss  Water is typically more Aral Sea Drainage Basin saline than the oceans.
  • 36. Types of Drainage Systems 1. Dendritic Drainage 2. Rectangular Drainage 3. Trellis Drainage 4. Radial Drainage 5. Deranged Drainage Fig. 15-23, p. 481
  • 37. WITH WHAT GEOLOGICAL FEATURES ARE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS ASSOCIATED?
  • 38. Drainage Patterns and Geology Dentritic Drainage Erosion Deposits Rectangular Drainage Regional Joint Systems Trellis Drainage Folded Sedimentary Rock Radial Drainage Volcanoes Swamps and Lakes Deranged Drainage
  • 39. Canyons and Gorges  Most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from a plateau level.  The cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion and weathering remain exposed on the valley walls.  Canyons are much more common in arid areas than in wetter areas because weathering has a greater effect in arid zones.  A canyon may also refer to a rift between two mountain peaks such as those in ranges such as the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Himalayas or the Andes Grand Canyon, AZ.
  • 40. Largest Canyons  Grand Canyon in Arizona, USA  Copper Canyon in Chihuahua, Mexico Copper Canyon, Mexico
  • 41. Deepest Canyons on Earth  The Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, China  Kali Gandaki Gorge in Nepal  Polung Tsangpo Canyon in Tibet  Cotahuasi Canyon (3,535 m deep and the deepest in the Americas)  Hell’s Canyon on the Snake River in Idaho, which is 2400 meters deep  The Tekezé gorge (2000m+ deep and deepest in Africa)  Grand Canyon while the largest canyon in area is only 900 meters deep. Hell’s Canyon, ID
  • 42. HOW DO VALLEYS EVOLVE?
  • 43. Processes Involved in Valley Formation  Downcutting  Lateral Erosion  Sheet Wash  Headward Erosion  Mass Wasting Downcutting off the San Juan River
  • 44. Evolution of a Valley – Part I The stream widens its valley by lateral erosion and mass wasting, while simultaneously extending its valley by headward erosion. Fig. 15-28a, p. 486
  • 45. Evolution of a Valley – Part II As the larger stream continues to erode headward, stream piracy takes place when it captures some of the drainage of the smaller stream. Fig. 15-28b, p. 486
  • 46. Stream Piracy  Occurs when headward erosion breaches a divide and diverts some or all of the drainage of another stream system. The Hadhramawt Plateau of South Yemen exhibits a complex dendritic drainage pattern and excellent examples of quot;stream piracy”. B A. - Wadi Hadhramawt opens into the sand-filled Ramlat Sabatayn in the southwest corner of the Rub-al-Khali (The A Empty Quarter), B - yet drainage is toward the sea.