Chapter 1- People in Motion: The Atlantic World to 1950

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People in Motion: The Atlantic World to 1950
-The First Americans
-European Civilization
-Columbus and the Columbian Exchange
-West African Worlds
-European Colonization of the Atlantic World

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Chapter 1- People in Motion: The Atlantic World to 1950

  1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER People in Motion The Atlantic World to 1590 1 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  3. 3. People in Motion I. The First Americans II. European Civilization in Turmoil III. Columbus and the Columbian Exchange IV. West African Worlds V. European Colonization of the Atlantic World THE ATLANTIC WORLD TO 1590 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  4. 4. The First Americans A. Migration, Settlement, and the Rise of Agriculture B. The Aztec C. Mound Builders and Pueblo Dwellers D. Eastern Woodlands Indian Societies E. American Societies on the Eve of European Contact 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  5. 5. The First Americans Paleo-Indians − The name given by scientists to the first inhabitants of the Americas, an Ice Age people who survived largely by hunting big game and to a lesser extent by collecting edible plants and fishing 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  6. 6. Migration, Settlement, and the Rise of Agriculture What theories account for the mass extinction of large mammals in the Americas? Why did Paleo-Indians migrate to the Americas? 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  7. 7. Migration, Settlement, and the Rise of Agriculture What were the chief advantages of fixed agriculture, and how did fixed agriculture contribute to the rise of more complex civilizations? What impact did agriculture have on the evolution of the societies of the Americas? 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  8. 8. Migration, Settlement, and the Rise of Agriculture Archaic Era − Period beginning approximately nine thousand years ago lasting an estimated six thousand years; marked by more intensive efforts on the part of ancient societies to shape the environment to enhance food production 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  12. 12. The Aztec What role did commerce play in Aztec culture? 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  13. 13. The Aztecs Aztec Empire − Led by the Mexica tribe, the Aztecs created a powerful empire. Its capital, Tenochtitlán, was created on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1325 CE. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  14. 14. Mound Builders and Pueblo Dwellers What role did trade play in ancient American societies? 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  15. 15. Eastern Woodlands Indian Societies How did Eastern Woodlands Indian and Mesoamerican societies differ? 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  17. 17. American Societies on the Eve of European Contact What were some of the distinctive characteristics shared by all of the societies of the Americas? What were the chief similarities between the civilizations of Africa and Asia and those of the Americas? What were the differences? 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  18. 18. European Civilization in Turmoil A. The Allure of the East and the Challenge of Islam B. Trade, Commerce, and Urbanization C. Renaissance and Reformation D. New Monarchs and the Rise of the Nation-State 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  19. 19. The Allure of the East and the Challenge of Islam What trade goods from Asia were most sought after by Europeans? 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  20. 20. The Allure of the East and the Challenge of Islam Islam − Monotheistic faith whose teachings followed the word of the prophet Muhammad and whose followers controlled most of the overland trade routes to the Far East 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  21. 21. Trade, Commerce, and Urbanization How did printing affect European society? What impact did new technology have on the course of European expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  22. 22. Trade, Commerce, and Urbanization Capitalism − An economic system in which the market economy determines the prices of goods and services 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  23. 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  24. 24. Competing Visions EUROPEAN AND HURON VIEWS OF NATURE 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States Huron believed that animals had spirits and should be respected. Europeans believed they had a God- given right to rule over nature. What are the possible ecological consequences of each of these views?
  25. 25. Competing Visions How does this painting by John White demonstrate the Huron’s attitude toward nature? EUROPEAN AND HURON VIEWS OF NATURE 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  26. 26. Competing Visions How does this painting of Adam and Eve reflect European views of nature? EUROPEAN AND HURON VIEWS OF NATURE 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  27. 27. Renaissance and Reformation What were the most important ideas associated with the Renaissance? What were the essential teachings of Calvinism? Why did Calvinists wish to remove all icons from their churches? 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  28. 28. Renaissance and Reformation Humanists – Emphasized the human capacity for self-improvement Reformation – The movement for religious reform started by Martin Luther 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  29. 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  30. 30. New Monarchs and the Rise of the Nation-State How was the English Reformation different than the Continental Reformation? 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  31. 31. New Monarchs and the Rise of the Nation-State • Spanish Inquisition – A Spanish tribunal devoted to finding and punishing heresy and rooting out Spain’s Jews and Muslims 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  33. 33. Columbus Encounters the “Indians” What was the Columbian Exchange? What role did disease play in the Columbian Exchange? 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  34. 34. Columbus Encounters the “Indians” Columbian Exchange – The term used by modern scholars to describe the biological encounter between the two sides of the Atlantic, including the movement of plants, animals, and diseases 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  35. 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  36. 36. European Technology in the Era of the Columbian Exchange What impact did new technology have on the course of European overseas expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? What technological advances facilitated European expansionism? 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  38. 38. The Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires What role did disease play in the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs? 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  39. 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  40. 40. West African Worlds A. West African Societies, Islam, and Trade B. The Portuguese-African Connection C. African Slavery 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  41. 41. West African Societies, Islam, and Trade What were the major religious traditions of Africa? 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  42. 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  43. 43. The Portuguese-African Connection What arguments were used to justify the enslavement of the Guanche? 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  44. 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  45. 45. African Slavery What role did slaves play in African societies? 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  46. 46. Choices and Consequences • Taking captured opponents as slaves was traditional African practice • Portuguese wanted to trade goods for these slaves • Oba (King) of Benin faced with choice of whether to continue this trade BENIN, PORTUGAL, AND THE INTERNATIONAL SLAVE TRADE 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  47. 47. Choices and Consequences Choices regarding slave trade BENIN, PORTUGAL, AND THE INTERNATIONAL SLAVE TRADE 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States Cut off all trade with the Portuguese Continue to trade with the Portuguese, including the slave trade Continue to trade with the Portuguese, but refuse to engage in slave trade
  48. 48. Choices and Consequences Decision and Consequences • Continued to trade with Portuguese • Restricted trade in male slaves • Allowed Benin to prosper and maintain autonomy BENIN, PORTUGAL, AND THE INTERNATIONAL SLAVE TRADE 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States What theories account for Benin’s ability to resist involvement in the international slave trade?
  49. 49. Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •What does the kingdom of Benin’s experiences with the slave trade reveal about the nature of African slavery? BENIN, PORTUGAL, AND THE INTERNATIONAL SLAVE TRADE 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  50. 50. European Colonization of the Atlantic World A. The Black Legend and the Creation of New Spain B. Fishing and Furs: France’s North Atlantic Empire C. English Expansion: Ireland and Virginia 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  51. 51. 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  52. 52. The Black Legend and the Creation of New Spain What was the Black Legend? What does the architecture of the central plaza of Mexico City tell us about Spain’s approach to colonization? 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  53. 53. The Black Legend and the Creation of New Spain How did Spanish city planning and architecture help reinforce the power of the state and the church in the Americas? What types of labor systems were employed in the Spanish colonies? 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  54. 54. 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  55. 55. 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  56. 56. Fishing and Furs: France’s North Atlantic Empire What were the most important differences between New France and New Spain? Compare the impact of Spanish, French, and English approaches to colonization on the indigenous populations of the Americas. 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  57. 57. 57 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  58. 58. English Expansion: Ireland and Virginia Why did England enter the race for colonies in the Atlantic world so late? What lessons did the English learn from their experiences in Ireland? 58 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  59. 59. English Expansion: Ireland and Virginia What is the symbolic importance of the position of Queen Elizabeth’s hand in the Armada portrait? 59 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  60. 60. English Expansion: Ireland and Virginia Plantation − An English settlement or fortified outpost in a foreign land dedicated to producing agricultural products for exports •Later the term would become synonymous with a distinctive slave-based labor system used in much of the Atlantic world. 60 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  61. 61. English Expansion: Ireland and Virginia Privateers − Englishmen engaged in a form of state-sponsored piracy, usually directed against Spanish treasure fleets returning from the Americas 61 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  62. 62. 62 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  63. 63. Images as History • Why did de Bry want to appeal to both Catholics and Protestants? • What did de Bry leave out of his images to give them broader appeal? • How do de Bry’s images differ from John White’s paintings? MARKETING THE NEW WORLD: THEODORE DE BRY’S ENGRAVINGS OF THE AMERICAS 63 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  64. 64. Images as History The Latin text describes the idol as “a horrible effigy made in the form of a misshapen evil-demon” A monstrous pagan sculpture dominates the image The natives’ lack of clothing demonstrates that they are uncivilized and primitive MARKETING THE NEW WORLD: THEODORE DE BRY’S ENGRAVINGS OF THE AMERICAS 64 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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