Gender Equality A generic symbol for gender equality
Sex - refers to the biological aspects of an individual – being a man or a woman.
Gender – refers to social differences between men and women. These differences have been acquired and are changeable over time. There are also wide variations of ascribed gender roles and characteristics both within and between cultures.
Small quiz to clarify the concept of Sex and Gender
Tree felling to clear land – is it a task related to sex or gender?
Breastfeeding – is it related to sex or gender?
Childcare skills – is it related to sex or gender?
Sexual harassment – is it related to sex or gender?
Women in the military – is it related to sex or gender?
Agricultural Sector – an example (Global Scenario)
Rural women are responsible for 60 – 80% of food production in developing countries.
Numerous governments still deny a woman the right to acquire or dispose of land without her husband’s permission.
Women own 1 % of the land in the world.
In much of sub-Saharan Africa widows heave virtually no land or inheritance rights.
Women receive less than 10% of all loans earmarked for small farmers and only 1% of total agricultural sector credit.
International Context – a few examples
UN Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979
Millennium Development Goals – 2000
UN Programme of Action from the population conference in Cairo – 1994
Beijing Platform for Action - 1995
How do we promote Gender Equality
Gender Mainstreaming – means the integration of gender equality concerns into analysis and formulation of all policies and programmes. Gender mainstreaming focuses on initiatives that enable women as well as men to formulate and express their views and participate in decision-making across all development issues.
Special Intervention - Efforts aimed at creating fundamental structural changes in institutions, policies, legislation and allocation of resources to promote gender equality between men and women, based on the specific needs in the individual country, policy area or organization.
How do we promote Gender Equality.......contd.
Affirmative Action - Measures targeted at a particular group and intended to eliminate and prevent discrimination, or to ameliorate existing disadvantages. For example – the introduction of quota systems – vacancy announcement that states that a seat is reserved for a woman and disadvantaged group…….
National Context – an example of private sector and a few examples of efforts in promoting Gender Equality
Formulation and amendment of policies - Discriminatory laws and policies – property rights and citizenship etc.
Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare – focal ministry - has a separate section called ‘Women’s Section’ – appoints Gender Focal Points in various ministries and government institutions
Year 2010 – Gender Based Violence against year – National Plan of Action endorsed by the Office of the PM and Council of Ministers
Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction – focal ministry for UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820
Efforts to promote Gender Equality
National Plan of Action on Gender Equality and Women Empowerment 2004 – Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare
Non-Government Organizations – Women for Human Rights (Widows issues), Advocacy Forum (Legal aspects) etc.
Various actors - Multi-laterals, Bi-laterals and UN Agencies
Peace Support Working Group – Various stakeholders – UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820
Gender Equality Former Danish Ambassador handing over MDG3 Torch to the Team Leader