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  • Farmers – taken to be male generally
  • CEDAW – adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979 and is often described as an international bill for rights of women. CEDAW is legally binding instrument and part of the human rights framework. CEDAW defines what constitutes discrimination against women and therefore is a strong instrument for advocacy organizations and other who argue against discrimination. MDGs – established after the UN Millennium Summit in 2000 where 189 world leaders Millennium Declaration that has 8 different chapters. The UN Millennium Declaration and the eight international Millennium Development Goals also focus on gender equality. This applies to gender equality and empowerment of women as a goal in itself (MDG3) and gender equality as a necessary precondition for combating poverty, hunger and disease and for promoting sustainable development and is thereby a precondition for achieving the remaining MDGs. The MDGs are politically binding for all countries that have adopted the Declaration. Nepal is a member state of UN since December 1955. UN Programme of Action from the population conference in Cairo – A major step was taken towards the recognition of the right to control your own body as a human right. A main achievement was thus the recognition of women’s and girls’ sexual and reproductive rights, including family planning, reduction of infants, child and maternal mortality, elimination of gender-based violence and harmful traditional practices. Beijing Platform for Action – The fourth UN world conference on women adopted the Beijing Platform for Action in 1995. This platform is a politically binding instrument. It embodies the committment of the international community to the advancement of women and to the implementation of the platform, ensuring a gender perspective is reflected in all policies and programmes at the national, regional and international levels in developing work, Beijing can be used in political dialogue and at practical level to ensure that the countries live up to their obligations. The gender mainstreaming approach originated in Beijing.
  • Gender mainstreaming - A major shift - considering on gender than concentrating on women which gives a more balanced development.
  • Private Sector – Experience while executing B2B programme of Danish Embassy – Danish trying to promote Gender Equality – business is male dominated sector – women have many challenges eg to access to financial resources, skills, training, opportunities, exposure etc. – moral and social support – Women Enterpreneurs’ Association of Nepal (WEAN) – Business started with just Rs. 8,000 – traditional business concepts like pickle making, knitting etc. - they don’t think out of the box……. 1325 - SC Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security, with an emphasis on sexual violence in situations of armed conflict 1820 - Security Council of UNSCR 1820 which confronts sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict situations - considering appropriate steps to end such atrocities and to punish their perpetrators; and request a report from the Secretary General on situations in which sexual violence is being widely or systematically employed against civilians and on strategies for ending the practice.
  • Gender

    1. 1. <ul><li>Session on Gender Equality </li></ul><ul><li>For K&K College </li></ul><ul><li>16 January 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Banepa </li></ul><ul><li>By: Ms. Bandana Sharm a </li></ul>Gender Equality
    2. 2. Gender Equality A generic symbol for gender equality
    3. 3. Gender Equality <ul><li>Basic concept </li></ul><ul><li>Sex - refers to the biological aspects of an individual – being a man or a woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender – refers to social differences between men and women. These differences have been acquired and are changeable over time. There are also wide variations of ascribed gender roles and characteristics both within and between cultures. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Small quiz to clarify the concept of Sex and Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Tree felling to clear land – is it a task related to sex or gender? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding – is it related to sex or gender? </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Childcare skills – is it related to sex or gender? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment – is it related to sex or gender? </li></ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the military – is it related to sex or gender? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul>Gender Equality
    5. 5. <ul><li>Agricultural Sector – an example (Global Scenario) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural women are responsible for 60 – 80% of food production in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous governments still deny a woman the right to acquire or dispose of land without her husband’s permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Women own 1 % of the land in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>In much of sub-Saharan Africa widows heave virtually no land or inheritance rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Women receive less than 10% of all loans earmarked for small farmers and only 1% of total agricultural sector credit. </li></ul>Gender Equality
    6. 6. <ul><li>International Context – a few examples </li></ul><ul><li>UN Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Development Goals – 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>UN Programme of Action from the population conference in Cairo – 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing Platform for Action - 1995 </li></ul>Gender Equality
    7. 7. <ul><li>How do we promote Gender Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Mainstreaming – means the integration of gender equality concerns into analysis and formulation of all policies and programmes. Gender mainstreaming focuses on initiatives that enable women as well as men to formulate and express their views and participate in decision-making across all development issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Intervention - Efforts aimed at creating fundamental structural changes in institutions, policies, legislation and allocation of resources to promote gender equality between men and women, based on the specific needs in the individual country, policy area or organization. </li></ul>Gender Equality
    8. 8. <ul><li>How do we promote Gender Equality.......contd. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action - Measures targeted at a particular group and intended to eliminate and prevent discrimination, or to ameliorate existing disadvantages. For example – the introduction of quota systems – vacancy announcement that states that a seat is reserved for a woman and disadvantaged group……. </li></ul>Gender Equality
    9. 9. <ul><li>National Context – an example of private sector and a few examples of efforts in promoting Gender Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation and amendment of policies - Discriminatory laws and policies – property rights and citizenship etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare – focal ministry - has a separate section called ‘Women’s Section’ – appoints Gender Focal Points in various ministries and government institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Year 2010 – Gender Based Violence against year – National Plan of Action endorsed by the Office of the PM and Council of Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction – focal ministry for UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820 </li></ul>Gender Equality
    10. 10. <ul><li>Efforts to promote Gender Equality </li></ul><ul><li>National Plan of Action on Gender Equality and Women Empowerment 2004 – Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Government Organizations – Women for Human Rights (Widows issues), Advocacy Forum (Legal aspects) etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Various actors - Multi-laterals, Bi-laterals and UN Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Support Working Group – Various stakeholders – UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820 </li></ul>Gender Equality
    11. 11. Gender Equality Former Danish Ambassador handing over MDG3 Torch to the Team Leader
    12. 12. <ul><li>A way forward </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated and collaborative approach </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Your opinion </li></ul><ul><li>My own experience – visit to a center in Cph </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you very much! </li></ul>Gender Equality