Social Protection and Social
Exclusion in the context of
“Equality of treatment
women and men”
Freedom to Vote
Freedom of Speech
Freedom from Fear
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of Choice
Freedom from Torture
Freedom from enslavement
- All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights
- Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to
marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its
dissolution. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
- Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
- Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of
work and to protection against unemployment.
- Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
- Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family
an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
- Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free; at least in the elementary and
fundamental stages Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education
shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of
- Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and
to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
What is Gender?
What is Social Protection?
What is Social Exclusion?
Why Gender equilibrium is so important?
What is Gender Mainstreaming?
Social Protection and Social Exclusion
The set of policies and programs that protect people against
risk and vulnerability is usually referred to as social
ILO: LO has placed Labour Market Policies (LMPs) at the core
of their social protection strategies.
ADB: ADB has expanded its scope of social protection
intervention and LMPs to areas such as child labour,
strengthening employment statistics, labour retrenchments
World Bank: World Bank strategy for social protection
revolves around its concept of Social Risk Management.
The global objective of the social protection sector is to:
build a social protection system that tackles poverty and
inequality, enables the poor to move out of poverty, helps
reduce vulnerability and protect people from shocks, helps
improve health and education among the community and
contributes to economic growth.
National Social Protection Strategy
Pakistan National Social Protection Strategy aims to develop an
integrated and comprehensive social protection system, covering all
the population, especially the poorest and the most vulnerable.
The goals of the Strategy are:
To support chronically poor households and protect them
against destitution, food insecurity, exploitation, and social
To protect poor and vulnerable households from the impact
of adverse shocks to their consumption and wellbeing that, if not
mitigated, would push non-poor households into poverty, and poor
households into deeper poverty; and
To promote investment in human and physical assets,
including health, nutrition, and education, by poor households
capable of ensuring their resilience in the medium run and of
interrupting the intergenerational cycle of poverty.
Steps in the Right Direction
Equity on the basis of gender representation and
participation in various governance institutions at all
levels have received global attention:
- CEDAW, 1979
- UN Decade for Women, 1976-1985
- DEVAW, 1993
- Vienna Declaration, 1993
- Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 1995
- Millennium Development Declaration, 2000
- UN Gender Mainstreaming Policy & Strategy, 2006
Reform Initiatives, Really?
Reform initiatives the world over call for greater citizen
participation, involvement and inclusion.
But is this possible without including half the world’s
Despite all Efforts…
- Women hold only 17% of the world’s parliament seats
- Only 12/180 heads of states are women
- Merely 9% of top management jobs held by women
- Pakistan ranked 132/134 countries (2009) on gender
- Pakistani women bear 70% of poverty burden
What is Pakistan Doing?
- Ministry of Women Development
- National Commission on Status of Women
- Gender Reform Action Plans (GRAPS)
- Constitution of Pakistan
- Ten Year Perspective Plan 2000-11
- National Protection Policy
- National Policy for Development and Empowerment of
- National Plan of Action
- Affirmative Actions through reservation of seats and
The Figures Speak!
LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION
INCOME (PPP US$)
LEGISLATORS, SENIOR OFFICIALS, MANAGERS
PROFESSIONAL & TECHNICAL WORKERS
The Figures Speak!
ENROLMENT IN PRIMARY EDUCATION
ENROLMENT IN SECONDARY EDUCATION
SEX RATIO AT BIRTH
WOMEN IN MINISTERIAL POSITIONS
Prof. Dr. Nasira Jabeen, Director Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of
We can not have gender equity and governance purely
on the basis of borrowed models and ideas.
Progress is possible with a two pronged strategy:
1. Developing both men and women
2. Creating an enabling environment at institutional &